instructional objectives - PowerPoint Presentation by Levone

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 Rishi Hansrajh
     INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
       Overview of the Presentation
1.   Information Vs Instruction
2.   Learning
3.   Instruction and Teaching
4.   Definition of Instructional Objectives
5.   Need for Instructional Objectives
          Basic Teaching Model
6.   General Objectives and Specific Objectives
7.   Methods of Stating Objectives
8.   General rules for Stating Specific Objectives
9.   Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
10. Examples of Objectives
                                                     2
   INSTRUCTION AND TEACHING

        INFORMATION Vs. INSTRUCTION

Information   :   The aim of information is to officially
                  tell someone something

Instruction   :   The aim of instruction is to change
                  the behaviour of a person

      Behaviour refers to any observable
      activity performed by a person


                                                            3
              LEARNING

Learning is a process through which a
person acquires new Knowledge, Skill or
Attitude.

The result of learning    is   “Change   in
Behaviour” of a person.




                                              4
    INSTRUCTION AND TEACHING

INSTRUCTION FACILITATES LEARNING

VARIOUS MODES OF INSTRUCTION:
            Audio tutorial instruction
            Instructional Television
            Computer Assisted Instruction
            Teaching

Teaching involves live human interaction between a
teacher and one or more learners.


                                                     5
INSTRUCTION AND TEACHING


 Teacher
    or                            Student
  Media


Interaction emphasizes the following aspects:

      1. Active responding / practicing
      2. Confirmation and Feedback



                                                6
             FEEDBACK

Feedback is the information about the
effect of an action. The effect may relate
to the following:
         Appropriateness
         Adequacy
         Quality
         Usefulness


                                             7
         DEFINITION OF
   INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES


Instructional objectives are statements,
which communicate in behavioural terms
the expected performance of the students
at the end of instruction.




                                           8
                 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
               INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM

                    Objectives




                                 Instructional
                                   Process
                                                 Student output
  Student input
                                                   (Terminal
(Entry Behaviour)
                                                   Behaviour)


                                 Evaluation




                                                             9
                   BASIC TEACHING MODEL



       Instructional        Entering     Instructional   Performance
         Objectives        Behaviour      Procedures     Assessment




                       Figure 1: Basic Teaching Model




Slide # 10
NEED FOR INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Objectives should be written for each subject of the
curriculum because they

   (i) Specify what the students should learn to do. Thus
       objectives serve as sign posts to the student.

   (ii) Provide direction to the teacher in the selection of
        the most effective instructional methods, and media
        and resource materials to be used during
        instruction in order to attain the stated objectives.

   (iii) Provide guidance to the question paper setter for
         evaluating students’ achievement.

                                                                11
                        STUDENT




                       OBJECTIVES



             TEACHER                  QUESTION
                                    PAPER SETTER

Slide # 12
        GENERAL OBJECTIVES AND
          SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

There are two types of objectives:
      (i) General Objectives (G.O.)
      (ii) Specific Objectives (S.O.)




                                        13
              GENERAL OBJECTIVES

General Objectives
  These are very general statements which describe in implicit
  terms the overall aims of the total educational process.

Examples:
   On completion of the study the student will be able:
       1. To understand the concept of Data Flow Diagram
       2. To appreciate the difference between System
          flow chart and Program flow chart
       3. To comprehend the use of a scanner


                                                                 14
                SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
Specific Objectives

Specific objectives are expressed in behavioural terms and
Identify the end product of instruction in terms of observable
performance of students.

Examples:
  On completion of the study the student will be able:
     (i)   To list the six levels of a Data Flow Diagram
           used in an application system

     (ii) To draw a system flow chart for a given
          application system

     (iii) To scan a given picture and transfer it to the
           appropriate module of application

                                                                 15
METHODS OF STATING OBJECTIVES


   (i) Mager’s method

   (ii) Gronlund’s method




                                16
                  MAGER’S METHOD

In this method, the list of specific behaviours which the
students are to exhibit at the end of instruction is
prepared. Mager has specified three criteria which
every specific objective must satisfy:
  (i) Specific terminal performance of the student.

  (ii) Conditions under which the performance is expected to occur.

  (iii) Standards of minimum acceptable performance.




                                                                      17
               MAGER’S METHOD

Example:
  The student will be able to determine the diameter of a
  copper wire, given a suitable screw gauge, to an accuracy of
  0.05 mm within 15 minutes.




                                                                 18
         GRONLUND’S METHOD

In this method, the General Objectives are first
stated. Then each General Objective is clarified
by listing a sample of the specific behaviours
which are accepted as evidence of attainment of
the General Objective.


                                          Contd.


                                                   19
             GRONLUND’S METHOD
Example:
General Objectives:
    To understand the working of medium access sub layer in OSI
    Network Model.

Specific Objectives:
    1.   To list the two protocols that are used in Medium Access
         Sub layer with respect to channel allocation.

    2.   To define collision with respect to channel allocation in
         medium access sub-layer.

    3.   To calculate frame time T, for a given frame length and bit
         rate in a channel.

                                                                       20
         DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
MAGER’S METHOD AND GRONLUND’S METHOD

                                                                   Type of
                           Scope of
               No.of                                 Nature     relationship
                          enlarging    Nature of
 Method       specific                                 of         between      Remarks
                           specific    teaching
             objectives                             learning    objective &
                          objectives
                                                                   testing
Mager’s      n1 Say       Nil          Directed     Recall      One to one     Useful
method                                 to listed                               for
                                       specific                                teaching
                                       objectives                              simple
                                                                               skills

Gronlund’s   n1 Say       Possible     Directed     Higher      Multiple and   Caters
method       (a sample                 towards      level as    covers a       to higher
             only)                     the G.O.     stated in   sample of      level
                                                    the G.O.    behaviour      learning



                                                                                     21
              MAGER’S MODEL


    TEACHING AND TESTING AT THE MINIMUM LEVEL


 STATE THE           TEACH THE           TEST THE
  SPECIFIC            SPECIFIC           SPECIFIC
 BEHAVIOUR           BEHAVIOUR          BEHAVIOUR



This model is used in TEACHING AT THE TRAINING LEVEL




                                                       22
                 GRONLUND’S MODEL

 TEACHING AND TESTING AT THE DEVELOPMENT LEVEL



STATE THE GENERAL        DIRECT TEACHING               BASE TEST
 OBJECTIVE AND A       TOWARD THE GENERAL           QUESTIONS ON THE
SAMPLE OF SPECIFIC     OBJECTIVE (i.e. the total   SAMPLE OF SPECIFIC
    BEHAVIOUR            class of behaviour)           BEHAVIOUR




           The objectives are not overly restrictive



                                                                   23
        GENERAL RULES FOR STATING
           SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

Rule 1: Instructional Objectives should be stated in terms of
        learner’s performance and not teacher’s performance

           The Objective should specify what the learner will be
           able to do at the end of the lesson and not what the
           teacher had intended to do.

Non-example:
To teach Java Remote Method Invocation

Example:
The student will be able to distinguish between “Remote
Method Invocation and “Remote Procedure calls”

                                                                   24
          GENERAL RULES FOR STATING
             SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

Rule 2:   The mere description of subject matter should be avoided

          An objective should specify both the kind of behaviour
          expected and the subject or context to which that
          behaviour applies.

Non-example:
Multithreading technique

Example:
The student will be able to write a Java program to show Indian
Standard Time using Indian thread by applying multithreading
technique

                                                                   25
           GENERAL RULES FOR STATING
              SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

    Rule 3:    Use Action Verbs

               Use verbs that refer to any observable activity
               displayed by a learner
.

    Non-example:

    The student will be able to know the network hardware

    Example:

    The student will be able to state the functions of the four
    types of connectivity hardware


                                                                  26
       GENERAL RULES FOR STATING
          SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
Rule 4: State in terms of learning outcome instead of the
        learning process

        Describe in detail the final outcome of learning
        (end product) and not the process of learning itself.

Non-example:

The student gains knowledge of Compiler

Example:

The student will be able to draw the structure of seven
phases of a compiler

                                                                27
          GENERAL RULES FOR STATING
             SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
Rule 5: Specify the standards of minimum acceptable performance
The standards of minimum acceptable performance must be specified
in terms of (a) the number of points / examples / differences etc. in case
of theory subjects (b) the accuracy of results and speed of performance
in the case of practical / laboratory work.

Non Examples:
1. The student will be able to distinguish between metals and non-metals

2. The student will be able to determine the diameter of a given rod

Examples:
The student will be able:
1. To list any six differences between metals and non-metals
2. To determine the diameter of a given rod using a suitable screw
   gauge to an accuracy of 0.05 m.m within 10 minutes
                                                                       28
      GENERAL RULES FOR STATING
         SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

Rule 6: An objective should not consist of more than one learning
        outcome

Non-example:
The student will be able to explain the need for networking
and list the types of networking.
Example:
The student will be able:

     1. To explain why networks are needed
     2. To list the two types of networking


                                                              29
          TAXONOMY OF
     EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES


  1. Cognitive Domain (Thinking)

  2. Affective Domain (Feeling and Attitudes)

  3. Psychomotor Domain (Acting or Doing)


The three domains are in a hierarchical order



                                                30
MAIN CATEGORIES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR


    Knowledge          Cognitive
     (HEAD)             Domain



    Attitudes          Affective
    (HEART)             domain



      Skills          Psychomotor
    (HANDS)             Domain


                                    31
    HIERARCHICAL ORDER OF THE
CATEGORIES IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN


                       Evaluation

                      Synthesis

                      Analysis

                   Application

                Comprehension

               Knowledge


                                     32
MAIN CATEGORIES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR


    Knowledge          Cognitive
     (HEAD)             Domain



    Attitudes          Affective
    (HEART)             domain



      Skills          Psychomotor
    (HANDS)             Domain


                                    33
 TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

  CATEGORIES IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN (B.S. BLOOM, 1956)

1. Knowledge: (Remembering previously learned material)
 (i)     Knowledge of specifics
 (ii)    Knowledge of specific facts
 (iii)   Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics
 (iv)    Knowledge of conventions
 (v)     Knowledge of trends and sequences
 (vi)    Knowledge of classifications and categories
 (vii)   Knowledge of criteria
 (viii) Knowledge of methodology
 (ix)    Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field
 (x)     Knowledge of principles and generalizations
 (xi)    Knowledge of theories and structures                      34
TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES


2. Comprehension (Grasping the meaning of material)

  (i) Translation (Converting from one form to another)

  (ii) Interpretation (Explaining or summarizing material)

  (iii) Extrapolation (Extending the meaning beyond data)




                                                             35
TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES


3. Application

    This refers to the ability to use learned material in
    new and concrete situations. This may include the
    application of such things as rules, methods,
    concepts, principles, laws and theories and solving
    of problems.




                                                            36
TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES


4. Analysis: (Breaking down material into its parts)

 (i)    Analysis of elements (Identifying the parts)

 (ii)   Analysis of relationships (Identifying the relationship)

 (iii) Analysis of organisational principles (Identifying the
       way the parts are organised)




                                                                   37
TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES


5. Synthesis: (Putting parts together into a whole)

  (i) Production of a unique communication
  (ii) Production of a plan or proposed set of operations
  (iii) Derivation of a set of abstract relations




                                                            38
TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES


6. Evaluation (Judging the value of a thing for a
   given purpose using definite criteria)

   (i)    Judgements in terms of internal evidence

   (ii)   Judgements in terms of external criteria




                                                     39
           EXAMPLES OF OBJECTIVES

Name of the Unit: Introduction to Network Architecture
On completion of the study of this Unit the learner will be able

Example 1:
      1.0 To understand the working of Open System Interconnection
          (OSI) Network Model & its services

      1.1 To draw the structure of OSI Network Model and name its
          seven layers (C)

      1.2 To list the two principles used to arrive at the seven layers
          of OSI network model (C)

      1.3 To list any three services provided by the application layer
          to the user in an OSI Network Model (K)

                                                                          40
           EXAMPLES OF OBJECTIVES

Example 2:

    1.0 To understand the working of medium access sub layer
        in OSI Network layer

    1.1 To list the two protocols that are used in Medium
        Access Sub layer with respect to channel allocation (K)

    1.2 To define collision with respect to channel allocation in
        medium access sub-layer (K)

    1.3 To calculate frame time T, for a given frame length and
        bit rate in a channel (C)




                                                                    41
            EXAMPLES OF OBJECTIVES

Example 3:

   1.0 To comprehend the structure, working and applications of
       TCP / IP model.

   1.1 To draw the structure and name the layers of TCP / IP model (C)

   1.2   To describe the three main features of Internet Protocol (C)

   1.3 To explain the four layers of TCP / IP model (C)

   1.4 To describe any three TCP / IP applications (C)




                                                                         42
              EXAMPLES OF OBJECTIVES
Example 4:
 On completion of the study of this Unit the learner will be able
     1.0   To comprehend the nature of Viral diseases and methods of preventing them

     1.1   To define Virus (K)

     1.2   To explain the origin of Viruses on the basis of “Regressive theory” (C)

     1.3   To list the four characteristic features of Viruses (K)

     1.4   To define virulent cycle (K)

     1.5   To give an example for (i) Spherical virus and (ii) Tadpole shaped Virus (C)

     1.6   To describe the shape and general structure of Viruses (C)

     1.7   To name three Viral diseases in plants (K)

     1.8   To describe the structure of HIV (C)

     1.9   To explain the multiplication of T4 bacteriophage with labeled sketches (C&Sk)

     1.10 To describe any three Viral diseases in Human beings and methods of
          preventing them (C)

                                                                                          43
              EXAMPLES OF OBJECTIVES
Example 5:

 On completion of the study of this Unit the learner will be able
     1.0   To comprehend the principles of Cytology

     1.1   To define Cytology (K)

     1.2   To describe the ultrastructure of a plant cell (C)

     1.3   To distinguish between plant and animal cell by stating the ten differences
           between them (C)

     1.4   To describe the structure & chemical composition of cell wall (C)

     1.5   To explain the ultrastrcture & chemical composition of chloroplast (C)

     1.6   To describe the five stages of Mitosis with labeled sketches (C & Sk)

     1.7   To state any three aspects that highlight the significance of Meosis (K)

     1.8   To distinguish between Mitosis & Meosis by stating the eight differences
           between them (C)

     1.9   To list any four significant features of Meosis (K)

                                                                                         44
Rishi Hansrajh
                 45

								
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