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									                                                                                                                          power &


Electrical energy use will keep increasing; Smart grid has been
designed to integrate technology from generation to consumption


                                    lectricity is the most versatile and widely         networks with conventional distributed and, espe-
                                    used form of energy and its global demand is        cially, renewable generation units and storage con-
                                    growing continuously. However, because most         nected to the consumer point. The same customer
                           of today’s electrical energy generation capacity relies      may act both as a power producer and a consumer.
                           on fossil fuels, it is currently the largest single source   This requires bi-directional power flow capability in
                           of carbon dioxide emissions, making a significant            the supply network connection point and in the other
                           contribution to climate change. To mitigate the con-         parts of the supply network, too.
                           sequences of climate change, the current electrical               With distributed intelligence and sophisticated
                           system needs to undergo significant adjustments.             information and communication technology (ICT)
                                In the fight against climate change, clean renew-       and with distributed intelligent devices (IED), more
                           able power generation by the pulp and paper indus-           can be done locally at the switchgear or even at
                           try as well as intelligent transmission and distribution     the device level, to allow operators and comput-
                           network – Smart grid – may have an important role            ing resources in the control room to operate more
                           to play.                                                     effectively.
                                “Smart grid” cannot be strictly defined. It can              The state of the system is known and monitored
                           be considered as a concept for modernizing power             online constantly due to the increasing amount of
                           systems by integrating the electrical and information        information from the system. The system is provided
                           technologies. The integration covers the whole sys-          with controllable intelligent devices, which can
                           tem, from generation, transmission, and distribution         automatically operate to sustain the balance between
                           to consumption. At the low voltage level the solution        supply and consumption, to keep power quality on a
                           is usually called a Microgrid.                               high level and to improve reliability and availability.
                                When we speak about Smart grid, we have better               ABB describes Smart grid by broad characteristics
                           to define it by its capabilities                                               rather than specific functions. So the
                           and operational charac-                                                                  Smart grid is:
                           teristics than by specific                                                                          Adaptive:
                           technologies. As a rule it                                                                          Automatically
                           means increasing                                                                                      responding
                           automation                                                                                             rapidly to
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