By MIKAEL INGO and KATJA RAJANIEMI
Electrical energy use will keep increasing; Smart grid has been
designed to integrate technology from generation to consumption
lectricity is the most versatile and widely networks with conventional distributed and, espe-
used form of energy and its global demand is cially, renewable generation units and storage con-
growing continuously. However, because most nected to the consumer point. The same customer
of today’s electrical energy generation capacity relies may act both as a power producer and a consumer.
on fossil fuels, it is currently the largest single source This requires bi-directional power flow capability in
of carbon dioxide emissions, making a significant the supply network connection point and in the other
contribution to climate change. To mitigate the con- parts of the supply network, too.
sequences of climate change, the current electrical With distributed intelligence and sophisticated
system needs to undergo significant adjustments. information and communication technology (ICT)
In the fight against climate change, clean renew- and with distributed intelligent devices (IED), more
able power generation by the pulp and paper indus- can be done locally at the switchgear or even at
try as well as intelligent transmission and distribution the device level, to allow operators and comput-
network – Smart grid – may have an important role ing resources in the control room to operate more
to play. effectively.
“Smart grid” cannot be strictly defined. It can The state of the system is known and monitored
be considered as a concept for modernizing power online constantly due to the increasing amount of
systems by integrating the electrical and information information from the system. The system is provided
technologies. The integration covers the whole sys- with controllable intelligent devices, which can
tem, from generation, transmission, and distribution automatically operate to sustain the balance between
to consumption. At the low voltage level the solution supply and consumption, to keep power quality on a
is usually called a Microgrid. high level and to improve reliability and availability.
When we speak about Smart grid, we have better ABB describes Smart grid by broad characteristics
to define it by its capabilities rather than specific functions. So the
and operational charac- Smart grid is:
teristics than by specific Adaptive:
technologies. As a rule it Automatically
means increasing responding
automation rapidly to