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									         HAZARD MITIGATION PLAN

                     WAVERLY, IOWA

                     THE CITY OF WAVERLY
                            & INRCOG

                 Adopted September 10th, 2001

                     Ivan Ackerman, Mayor

                        City Council Members

       Kathy Abend                           Gary Boorom
       Lynn Michl                            Elizabeth Hartman
       Mel Kramer                            Carol Waltmann
       Fred Ribich                           Patsy Reed

                          City Departments

Richard J. Crayne                            City Clerk/Administration
Michael Cherry                               City Engineer/Public Works
Arthur Simpson                               Police Chief
Dave Nelson                                  Volunteer Fire Chief
Brian Sullivan                               Public Services Superintendent
Glenn Cannon                                 Electric Utility General Manager
Tabor J. Ray                                 Parks and Recreation Director

              Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee

       Mike Cherry                           Brian Sullivan
       Art Simpson                           Dave Nelson
       Richard Crayne                        Mel Kramer

      Iowa Northland Regional Council of Governments Staff

       Sharon Juon                           Executive Director
       Fred Saul                             Director of Development
       Brian Schoon                          Director of Planning & RTC
       Kevin Blanshan                        Director of Trans.& Data Services
       Sheri Alderidge                       Director of Administrative Services
       Tracey Achenbach                      Director of Housing
       Jim Rodemeyer                         Human Resources Manager
       Jodi Jeanes                           Environmental Planner
       Chris Ward                            Economic Development Coordinator
       Brenda Ponto                          Accountant
       Andy Loonan                           Transportation Planner
       Clarissa Nicholson                    Housing Planner
       Jeff Schlee                           Safety Coordinator
       Dan Schlichtmann                      Data Services Coordinator
       Ken Swanson                           Operations Manager-RTC
       Suzanne Harle                         Housing Planner
       Erek Sittig                           Flood Buyout Coordinator
       *Brian Buethe                         Community Planner
       Cory Hines                            Data Services Intern
       Hayley Peek                           Administrative Assistant

       * Principal Planner on the Project

                Local Hazard Mitigation Plan (HMP)
                         Table of Contents

1. Purpose of Hazard Mitigation Plan…………………………………………        1

2. Community Profile………………………………………………………….                 2
     a. Location……………………………………………………………..                   2
     b. History………………………………………………………………                     2
     c. Transportation………………………………………………………                 3
     d. Climate………………………………………………………………                     3
     e. Topography…………………………………………………………                    3
     f. Surface Water Systems……………………………………………..            3
     g. Vegetation…………………………………………………………..                  4
     h. Population…………………………………………………………..                  4
     i. Population Projections……………………………………………...          5
     j. Age of Housing……………………………………………………..                6
     k. Value of Housing……………………………………………………                7
     l. Income………………………………………………………………                      8
     m. Employment by Industry…………………………………………...           9
     n. Employment by Occupation………………………………………..           10
     o. Zoning………………………………………………………………                      11
     p. Building Codes……………………………………………………...               11
     q. Municipal Water Systems…………………………………………..           11
     r. Waste Water Treatment Facility
        and Collection System………………………………………………             12
     s. Utilities……………………………………………………………...                 12
     t. Fire Insurance Rating……………………………………………….            12
     u. Major River/Watersheds…………………………………………….            12
     v. National Flood Insurance Program………………………………….      12
     w. NFIP Number……………………………………………………….                   12
     x. Previous Hazard Mitigation Plans…………………………………..     12
     y. Flood Insurance Information………………………………………..        13

3. Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment……………………………………..      14
      a. Hazard Identification………………………………………………..          14
      b. Vulnerability Assessment Criteria…………………………………..   15
      c. FLOOD……………………………………………………………..                     16
      d. TORNADO/HIGH WIND EVENT………………………………...             22
      e. EARTHQUAKE……………………………………………………                     25
      f. WINTER STORM………………………………………………….                   27
      g. DROUGHT…………………………………………………………                      29
      h. OTHER HAZARDS………………………………………………...                 31

4. Current Mitigation Activities……………………………………………….         33
      a. Emergency Services…………………………………………………              33
      b. Property Protection………………………………………………….            35
      c. Flood Research………………………………………………………                36
      d. Flood Plain Management……………………………………………            37
      e. Other Mitigation Activities…………………………………………        37
   5. Mitigation Goals and Alternatives………………………………………….                41

   6. Analysis of Mitigation Alternatives………………………………………...             42

   7. Funding of Alternatives……………………………………………………..                     48

   8. Mitigation Recommendations Summary…………………………………...                50

   9. Implementation……………………………………………………………..                           51

   10. Mitigation Evaluation Commentary………………………………………..                52

    1. Upper Cedar Watershed Area………………………………………………                     17
    2. Detailed Watershed Map…………………………………………………..                      18
    3. Iowa Tornadoes by County…………………………………………………                      21
    4. Earthquake Probability Chart……………………………………………….                  26

   1. Population Trends…………………………………………………………..                         4
   2. Historic Population Changes………………………………………………..                   5
   3. Population Projections……………………………………………………...                     5
   4. Age of Housing……………………………………………………………..                           6
   5. Median Value of Single Family Dwelling Units in Waverly..…………….   7
   6. Value of Owner Occupied Single Family Dwelling……………………….          7
   7. Income Distribution………………………………………………………...                       8
   8. Employment by Industry…………………………………………………...                      9
   9. Major Local Employers…………………………………………………….                        10
   10. Utility Providers……………………………………………………………                         12
   11. Gauge Information………………………………………………………….                         18
   12. Annual Recorded Peak Flows (Janesville, IA)……………………………..         19
   13. Top 10 Peak Flow Recordings……………………………………………….                   21
   14. Fujita Scale of Tornados……………………………………………………                     24
   15. Bremer County Tornado Events……………………………………………                    24
   16. Structures with Substantial Flood Risk……………………………………..           35

    1. Flood Plain Regulations
    2. Location Map
    3. Critical Sites Map
    4. USGS Topographic Map
    5. Flood Communication Protocol
    6. Resolution Setting Date for Public Hearing
    7. Public Hearing Notice
    8. Resolution Adopting Hazard Mitigation Plan

                                HAZARD MITIGATION PLAN

                                               For The

                                  CITY OF WAVERLY, IOWA


This Hazard Mitigation Plan is being developed to assess the ongoing mitigation goals in the
community, to evaluate mitigation alternatives that should be undertaken, and to outline a strategy
for implementation.

Building a disaster resistant community is an initiative that challenges the City of Waverly to
undertake actions that protect families, businesses, and public facilities by reducing the effects of
natural disasters. Reducing the effects of natural disasters makes economic sense and is good
public policy because it protects our citizens and our future.

The Plan was formulated from input by elected officials, public works, and other City personnel,
agency representatives, business people, and interested citizens.

Passed and Adopted by the Waverly City Council

Authority:                    ______________________

Public Meeting Date:          _______/______/_______
                               Month     Day     Year



      The City of Waverly is located in southwest Bremer County in the northeast quadrant of
      Iowa. The Cedar River divides the metropolitan area, which is served by two major
      highways, U.S. Highway 218 and State Highway 3.


      The Waverly area was originally given to the Winnebago Indians by a treaty that lasted from
      1833 to 1850. In 1859, the Winnebago traded their lands in Iowa for lands further to the

      The earliest non-American Indians to settle in the Waverly area arrived in 1852. Frederick
      Cretzmeyer, his brother Wendelin, and their families were the first to arrive. Soon
      thereafter, William P. Harmon arrived and promptly purchased ten acres of land from the
      Cretzmeyers. Mr. Harmon constructed a sawmill with the prerogative of building a town
      around it. His dream was soon realized and many of the first homes in the Waverly area
      were built using wood from the Harmon sawmill and bricks from a manufacturing plant
      (Waverly’s first industry) started by Wendelin Cretzmeyer.

      It wasn’t long before rapid development was occurring. In 1853 the first county elections
      were held and Waverly was named the county seat of Bremer County. Within the next ten
      years (1854 to 1864) the city witnessed publication of it’s first newspaper, the Republican;
      the first county fair; the construction of the Waverly House Hotel; and perhaps most
      important, the arrival of the railroad.

      Since Waverly’s early existence education has been a priority. The first schoolhouse, which
      was also used for public meetings, was built in 1855. Construction on the areas first high
      school began in 1872. Seven years later, German Lutheran College was founded in
      Waverly. In 1935, what was originally German Lutheran College became what is today
      Wartburg College. The college has remained an important contributor to the economic,
      social, and cultural structure of the community. Wartburg College is now a fully accredited,
      four-year liberal arts college with an estimated enrollment of approximately 1,546 students.
      The college is named after the Wartburg Castle in Eisenach, Germany.

      Originally, the community was to be called Harmon or Harmonville after the town's founder
      William P. Harmon. Yet, during the town's incorporation celebration in 1859, the speaker,
      an avid fan of Scott's “Waverly Novels”, made the mistake of calling the town Waverly. The
      name was recorded and the town became known as Waverly. It was not until March 2 nd of
      1859 that Waverly was officially named an incorporated municipality.

      Source: Bremer County Independent, Historical Issue


      Two major highways serve Waverly: Iowa State Highway 3, which is an east/west route,
      and U.S. Highway 218, which is a north/south route. U.S. Highway 218 within Waverly has
      now evolved into a secondary route due to the recently constructed U.S. Highway 218
      bypass that now runs to the west of the city limits. Other significant roadways entering
      Waverly include county roads V14, C38, C33, V21

      A railroad also serves Waverly. The Illinois Central Railroad line enters the city from the
      south and then exits the city to the west. The Chicago and Northwestern Railroad used to
      operate a line that passed through the community, but this line has been abandoned.

      Waverly is served by a small airport approximately 2.5 miles northwest of the city limits.
      The airport maintains a concrete runway, which is approximately 2800 feet long, but has no
      control tower. The nearest commercial airport is located in Waterloo, Iowa, which is
      approximately 24 miles to the south.


      The climate of Waverly is of the continental type, which is marked by a great variation in
      both temperature and precipitation. Temperatures average 70.2º F during the summer
      months and approximately 19.4º F during the winter months. The average annual rainfall
      for the City of Waverly is 32.9 inches. Average snowfall for the community is
      approximately 35.5 inches annually.


      The terrain, on which Waverly is built, is generally the undulating topography that
      characterizes the agricultural areas of northeast Iowa. There are a few areas of steeper than
      normal slope with these being dispersed throughout the community adjacent to
      watercourses. The highest point in the community lies at approximately 1,020 feet above
      sea level and is located near the water tower on the east side of town.

Surface Water Systems

      There are three primary surface water systems that affect the City of Waverly. The largest
      of these water systems is the Cedar River. The Cedar River at Waverly is part of a
      watershed that is responsible for the drainage of over 1,500 square miles of land and has
      been the cause of most of the major flooding in the city.

      The second primary surface water system is the stream referred to as Dry Run Creek. Dry
      Run Creek flows mainly in a southeasterly direction before it converges as a tributary to the
      Cedar River near the corner of Sixth Avenue SW and First Street SW.

      The third and final primary surface water system is relatively insignificant in nature when
      compared to the affect of the first two channels have on the city. In fact the FEMA Flood
      Insurance Study for the community identifies the stream as “Unnamed Creek”, sometimes
      referred to as “No Name Creek.” This creek converges with the Cedar River northwest of
      the intersection of Fifth Avenue SE and Eleventh Street Southeast.


      Originally the land surrounding and including Waverly was covered with deciduous forest;
      this vegetation is now predominant only along the banks and flood plains of watercourses.
      The original cover has been reduced to make room for additional cropland and construction
      of houses and businesses in suitable areas.


                                      Table 1: Population Trends

                                             %          Bremer
               Year         Waverly                                    % Change
                                           Change       County
                1900              3,177          --          16,305               --
                1910              3,207        0.9           15,843             -2.8
                1920              3,352        4.6           16,728              5.6
                1930              3,652        9.0           17,046              1.9
                1940              4,156       13.8           17,932              5.2
                1950              5,124       23.3           18,884              5.3
                1960              6,357       24.1           21,108             11.8
                1970              7,205       13.3           22,737              7.7
                1980              8,444       17.2           24,820              9.2
                1990              8,539        1.1           22,813             -8.1
                2000              8,968        5.0           23,325              2.2
             Source: U. S. Census Bureau

      The City of Waverly experienced growth in every decade of the 20 th century. The Farm
      Crisis that affected the majority of communities in the region also slowed the population
      growth in Waverly. Waverly, unlike some neighboring communities (i.e. Waterloo, IA) was
      able to maintain positive population growth, although somewhat decelerated, throughout the
      turbulent 1980’s. This is a trend that eluded Bremer County as a whole during the same
      period. According to the 2000 Census information Waverly maintained positive population
      growth during the 1990’s by posting a five percent increase. Please refer to Table 1, above,
      for population trends of Waverly and Bremer County.

Population Projections

      Projections are only estimates of future population, and many factors have an effect on the
      future population, such as employment, housing, and educational opportunities. While some
      projections use some of this data in order to estimate future population, they cannot plan for
      unknown events, such as drastic employment opportunities or natural disasters.

      The following projections are based on the linear and geometric methods, which assume that
      future population will continue to change based on past trends. The linear method adds or
      subtracts from the population the average number from each ten-year period since 1950, while
      the geometric method uses an average growth or decline rate. Table 2 shows the actual
      number change and the growth or decline rate for each decade and their averages.

                              Table 2: Historic Population Changes

             Year           Population         Number Change             Growth/Decline Rate
                                               (Linear Method)           (Geometric Method)
             1950                 5,124                 --                        --
             1960                 6,357             +1,233                     +24.1%
             1970                 7,205                +848                    +13.3%
             1980                 8,444             +1,239                     +17.2%
             1990                 8,539                +95                     +1.1%
             2000                 8,968                +429                    +5.0%
             Average (1950-2000)              +3,844 / 5 = +768.8        +60.7 / 5 = +12.14%
        Source: U. S. Census Bureau

      Using the numbers derived in Table 2, population projections can be estimated using the two
      methods (Linear and Geometric). These projections are listed in Table 3. It is important to
      note that these projections are just estimates based on past trends. Many variables can affect
      a cities growth and/or decline in population. Nevertheless, projecting population can give
      some idea as to how to plan for the future.

                                 Table 3: Population Projections

                    Year       Linear Projections             Geometric Projections

                    2010              9,737                          10,057
                    2020              10,506                         11,278
                Source: INRCOG

Age of Housing

                                         Table 4: Age of Housing

        Year Structure                 Waverly             Bremer County   State of Iowa
          was Built            Number         Percent         Percent         Percent

         1989 to March            21             0.6            0.6             1.0
           1985-1988              56             1.8            1.2             3.2
           1980-1984              165            5.2            4.8             5.8
           1970-1979              778          24.6            21.5            20.2
           1960-1969              553          17.5            13.9            14.0
           1950-1959              451          14.3            12.6            12.9
           1940-1949              171            5.4            5.8             7.9
         1939 or earlier          965          30.5            39.6            35.0
               Total             3,160         100.0           100.0          100.0
      Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990

      The above table (Table 4) shows the age of the housing units for Waverly, Bremer County,
      and Iowa in 1990. As a means of comparison, it also shows the age make-up, by percentage,
      of the total housing stock in Bremer County and the State of Iowa. In general, the Waverly
      percentages are similar to those given for the county and state.

      Census information in 1990 showed that 965 (30.5 percent) units were built prior to 1940,
      while only 242 (7.6 percent) were added during the 1980s. Coinciding with the large
      increase of population during the 1970s, 778 structures (24.6 percent) were built. As of
      December 1998 one hundred sixty three (163) new permits had been issued for the City of

      Census 2000 Census figures show that the total number of housing units in Waverly
      increased to 3,394 total households. This is an increase of 234 housing units during the

Value of Housing

                          Table 5: Median Value of a Single Family Dwelling

      Place                                    1980                     1990 Median       Percent Change
                                            Median Value                   Value
      Waverly                                     $50,800                 $53,100              4.5
      Bremer County                               $46,800                 $49,500              -1.9
      State of Iowa                               $40,600                 $45,900             13.1
     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1980 and 1990

          As of the 1990 Census, the City of Waverly holds a substantially higher median housing
          value when compared to either Bremer County or the State of Iowa. These figures are
          evident in the above Table 5. It is important to realize that the values expressed in the
          above table were derived in a period of severe financial stress in the region due primarily
          to a lagging agriculture economy. It is anticipated, today, that these figures would be
          substantially higher.

        Table 6: Value of Owner-Occupied Single Family Dwelling Units in Waverly

                                                   Waverly                           Bremer County
       Value of Homes ($)
                                         Number                  %            Number              %
        Less than $15,000                    19                  1.0            192               4.2

           15,000-19,999                     51                  2.8            279              6.0
           20,000-24,999                     71                  3.9            325              7.0
           25,000-29,999                     68                  3.7            320              6.9
           30,000-34,999                     113                 6.2            368              8.0
           35,000-39,999                     155                 8.5            385              8.3
           40,000-49,999                     326                17.9            741              16.0
           50,000-74,999                     663                36.3           1,328             28.7
           75,000-99,999                     216                11.8            455              9.8
         100,000-149,999                     116                 6.4            182              3.9
         150,000 or more                     28                  1.5                52           1.1
                 Total                     1,826                100.0          4,627            100.0
     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1980 and 1990

       Table 6, on the previous page, illustrates the proportion of housing units in each estimated
       value range. Please note that Waverly has a noticeably higher proportion of units in the higher
       value ranges, when compared to Bremer County as a whole. Again, these numbers are
       derived from the 1990 Census and therefore must be viewed as relative to the time period. To
       date, Census 2000 information on housing value has not been released.


       According to the 1990 Census, the median household income in Waverly was $28,312, while
       the county median income was $27,326, and the state median income was $26,229. Over 16
       percent of the households in Waverly earned less than $10,000 in 1989, and most of them
       were non-family households. The following table (Table 7) shows the number of households
       and the proportion of total households by income category. Table 7 also illustrates the number
       of households in each income category that were family and non-family households.

                                     Table 7: Income Distribution

  Income in Dollars         Number of            % of             Number of          Number of
        ($)                 Households         Households          Families         Non-families
  Less than $5,000                     125             4.08%                  38                87
  5,000 to 9,999                       376            12.27%                121                255
  10,000 to 14,999                     296             9.66%                121                175
  15,000 to 24,999                     520            16.97%                261                259
  25,000 to 34,999                     624            20.37%                512                112
  35,000 to 44,999                     445            14.52%                402                 43
  45,000 to 59,999                     389            12.70%                364                 25
  60,000 to 74,999                     135             4.41%                135                    0
  75,000 to 99,999                      95             3.10%                  89                   6
  100,000 or more                       59             1.93%                  52                   7

  Total                              3,064            100.00%             2,095                969
 Source: U. S. Census Bureau, 1990

Employment by Industry

      In 1990, the largest number of employed persons age 16 and over in Waverly worked in the
      Educational Services sector. By contrast, the largest number of employed persons in Bremer
      County was in the Manufacturing, durable goods sector. Table 8 shows the employment by
      industry type for persons age 16 and over in Waverly and Bremer County.

                               Table 8: Employment by Industry

                                                           Waverly        Bremer County
                    Industry Type
                                                    Number           %   Number      %
    Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries              67        1.60%     1070     9.90%
    Mining                                            5         0.12%      19      0.18%
    Construction                                     175        4.19%     470      4.35%
    Manufacturing, Non-durable goods                 284        6.80%     744      6.88%
    Manufacturing, Durable goods                     509        12.18%    1613    14.92%
    Transportation                                    81        1.94%     287      2.66%
    Communications and other Public Utilities         73        1.75%     134      1.24%
    Wholesale Trade                                  101        2.42%     396      3.66%
    Retail Trade                                     762        18.24%    1610    14.89%
    Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate              446        10.67%    865      8.00%
    Business and Repair Services                      76        1.82%     272      2.52%
    Personal Services                                116        2.78%     269      2.49%
    Entertainment and Recreational Services           24        0.57%      53      0.49%
    Health Services                                  279        6.68%     825      7.63%
    Educational Services                             820        19.63%    1383    12.79%
    Other Professional and Related Services          237        5.67%     507      4.69%
    Public Administration                            123        2.94%     292      2.70%
    Total Employed Persons 16 Years and
                                                     4178       100%     10809     100%
 Source: U. S. Census Bureau

Major Local Employers

      Listed below in Table 9 are the fourteen largest employers in the City of Waverly according
      to the Iowa Department of Economic Development.

                     Table 9: Top Employers by Number of Personnel

                              Employer                      Number of Employees
           CUNA Mutual Life Insurance Co.                             780
           Wartburg College                                           375
           GMT Corporation                                            350
           Nestle USA                                                 343
           Terex Cranes, Inc. Waverly Division                        315
           APAC Telemarketing                                         141
           Rada Manufacturing Company                                 120
           United Equipment Accessories                                60
           Waverly Plastics Company                                    50
           K & L Draperies                                             55
           G & R Publishing Company                                    54
           Waverly Plastics Co.                                        57
           Colorfx                                                     50
           Rubber Development, Inc.                                    30


      The Zoning Ordinance was last updated in 1990. The stated purpose of the ordinance is to
      promote the public health, safety, morals, order, convenience, prosperity and general
      welfare; to conserve and protect the value of property throughout the city and to encourage
      the most appropriate use of land; to lessen congestion in the streets; to population; and to
      facilitate the adequate services, including transportation, community protection and utility

      A critical portion of the Zoning Ordinance is the district defined as the “Environmentally
      Sensitive Protected District (U-1).” Essentially this district, it’s definition and the
      regulations on the classification translate into what is commonly referred as a Flood
      Ordinance. The zoning classifications identified in the Waverly Zoning Ordinance are as

                           Agricultural Districts
                           Single Family Residential Districts
                           One and Two Family Residential – Transitional Districts
                           Planned Factory Built Home Districts
                           Shopping Center Districts
                           Three Commercial Districts
                           Two Industrial Districts
                           Planned Development Districts
                           Environmentally Sensitive Protected Districts

Building Codes

      The City of Waverly has adopted the following codes:

                1997 Uniform Building Code
                2000 Uniform Mechanical Code
                2000 Uniform Plumbing Code
                1999 National Electric Code

      The City has a Building Official with an office in City Hall. Enforcement of the various
      codes can reduce the number of household fire calls due to improper electrical and heating
      installations. In addition, adhering to requirements outlined in building codes reduces the
      likelihood of damage occurring due to high winds or heavy snow events.

Municipal Water System

      The City of Waverly has a municipal water supply with an elevated storage capacity of
      1,750,000 gallons. The capacity of the water plant is approximately 6,000,000 gallons.
      Average daily consumption roughly 1,000,000 gallons. Peak recorded consumption is 1.8
      million gallons.

Waste Water Treatment Facility and Collection System

        The current Waste Water Treatment Facility consists of waste management treatment ponds
        located in the southeast corner of the city near the intersection of 8 th Street SE and 17th
        Avenue SE. The waste water is transported to the ponds with the assistance of nine (9)
        waste water lift stations. The city currently has what is commonly referred to as a tertiary
        sewage treatment system. Over 95 percent of the city is served by this sewer system. The
        average load in gallons per day is approximately 1,240,000 gallons. The system has a peak
        load of 2,951,000 gallons per day. The current design capacity is 2,330,000 gallons per day.


        The primary providers of utilities in Waverly are listed below, in Table 10.

                                     Table 10: Utility Providers

                   Utility                                Provider

              Electric                  Waverly Light and Power
              Natural Gas               MidAmerican Energy Company
              Telephone                 Qwest
              Water                     City of Waverly
              Cable                     Mediacom

Fire Insurance Rating

        The current rating for the City of Waverly is five (5).

Major River/Watersheds

        Information from the United States Environmental Protection Agency shows that the City of
        Waverly is located near the bottom of the Upper Cedar Watershed. The Upper Cedar, above
        the Janesville gage, has a drainage area of 1727.31 square miles and contains 14 rivers and
        streams for a total of 1929.5 river miles. There are also 31 lakes covering 3095.8 acres. For
        geography and peak flow data please refer to Illustration 1and 2, and Tables 10, 11, and 12.

National Flood Insurance Program

        The City of Waverly has been a participating member of the regular National Flood
        Insurance Program (NFIP) since March 2 nd, 1981.

NFIP Number: 190030

Previous Hazard Mitigation Plans

        This document is the first official Hazard Mitigation Plan prepared for the community.
Flood Insurance Information

      A Flood Insurance Study was completed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency in
      September of 1980. The study reflects 100 and 500-year flood levels for three streams in the
      community; the Cedar River, Dry Run Creek, and Unnamed Creek. The corresponding
      Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), originally prepared circa 1976, was updated in 1989 as
      part of the Bremer County Flood Insurance Study.

      At the time of this initial Flood Insurance study the city had not taken any action on flood
      protection projects. They had been proactive in securing studies for the various channels
      located within the city. Since the completion of that study, Waverly has continued a
      proactive approach, including joining the National Flood Insurance Program, initiating a
      flood control ordinance, and continuing to seek ways to reduce the effects of the flood
      problems they have so often experienced.


Hazard Identification

      The Hazard Identification portion of this plan consists simply of the recognition of potential
      hazards that could affect the City of Waverly. It is important to note that the hazards
      identified in this section could occur as a result of one or a number of other hazards. For
      example, loss of communications could occur as a result of a tornado. The vast array of
      potential hazards to a community is unpredictable and therefore impossible to identify prior
      to the actual occurrence of said event. Therefore, it should be stated that this list is not
      exhaustive, but rather an attempt at identification of hazards that can and should be
      identified for purposes of potential mitigation effort. The following is a list of those
      potential hazards.

          1.   Flooding
          2.   Tornado/High Wind Event
          3.   Earthquake
          4.   Winter Storm
          5.   Drought
          6.   Other Hazards

Vulnerability Assessment Criteria

      The Vulnerability Assessment will take an objective look at the hazards listed in the Hazard
      Identification portion of the plan. Each potential hazard will be evaluated using six criteria.
      Those criteria are:

              Definition of hazard
              Previous occurrence of the event(s)
              Probability of future occurrence
              People and property adversely affected
              Total area of community affected
              Severity of the resulting impacts
              Warning time allowed for the hazard


              a rising and overflowing of a body of water especially onto normally dry
              land; also : a condition of overflowing <rivers in flood> (Webster)


              Flash Flood:
              a local flood of great volume and short duration generally resulting from
              heavy rainfall in the immediate vicinity (Webster)

              Floods cause the most widespread and costly damage of any of the identified
              hazards in Waverly and in Iowa. In fact, Iowa is reported to Congress as
              experiencing the highest annual flood damage of any state in the nation, with
              annual damages exceeding $543 million.

              The primary flood hazard in the City of Waverly generally occurs as a result
              of overflow from one of two sources. The first source would include
              flooding from the Cedar River, which represents the largest single water-
              body in the city. The second source is Dry Run Creek, which is a tributary to
              the Cedar River. Another smaller stream referred to as “No Name Creek”
              can experience minor, rather insignificant flooding.

              An important note is the difference between a flash flood and other types of
              flooding. Flash flooding generally does not allow for the warning time that
              can be given in a regular flood. Therefore, the risks associated with flash
              flooding are substantially more severe.

Occurrence    Unfortunately, the City of Waverly has had to deal with several flood events
              in its history. According to the Flood Insurance Study for the City of
              Waverly, the greatest floods occurring on the Cedar River before the 1990s
              took place in the years 1945, 1961, and 1965. The flood of March 1961
              reached a peak discharge of 37,000 cfs. Therefore, this flood would be
              considered approximately a 25-year flood. Most damage from these floods
              effected residential properties, with less damage to commercial, industrial,
              and public property.

              Dry Run Creek extends west from the Cedar River and is the other stream in
              the community with a history of flooding. Again, according to the Waverly
              Flood Insurance Study, Dry Run Creek flooded in 1947, 1951, 1961, 1968,
              and 1979. The 1968 flood resulted in loss of life.

              With the 1990’s came the worst decade in terms of flooding that Waverly
              had ever experienced. The two greatest floods occurred in 1993 and 1999.

                In 1999 there were actually two separate floods that inundated the city. The
                first occurred in May and the next in July. The July event was estimated to
                be a 100-year flood event. FEMA flood insurance payments for that summer
                were in excess of 2.7 million dollars.

                Due to the location of Waverly on the banks of the Cedar River and Dry Run
                Creek the probability of flooding remains very high.


                Those who are directly vulnerable to future flooding in the city include all
                those residing in low-lying areas of the city. At greater risk are those with
                businesses or houses within the 100 and 500-year flood zones as indicated on
                the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM) created by the Federal Emergency
                Management Agency (FEMA).

                There are 51 streets that are either completely or partially in a flood hazard
                area as identified by the October 1998 FIRM map. Those streets are:

                    24th St. NW                    4th Ave. NW
                    20th St. NW                    5th Ave. NW
                    16th St. NW                    6th Ave. NW
                    13th St. NW                    7th Ave. NW
                    12th St. NW                    1st Ave. NE
                    9th St. NW                     2nd Ave. NE
                    8th St. NW                     2nd Ave. SW
                    7th St. NW                     3rd Ave. SW
                    6th St. NW                     4th Ave. SW
                    5th St. NW                     5th Ave. SW
                    4th St. NW                     6th Ave. SW
                    3rd St. NW                     7th Ave. SW
                    2nd St. NW                     8th Ave. SW
                    1st St. NW                     Crestwood Ave.
                    Adams Prkwy.                   10th Ave. SW
                    Horton Rd.                     2nd Ave. SE
                    1st St. NE                     3 Ave. SE
                    2nd St. NE                     4th Ave. SE
                    W Bremer Ave.                  6th Ave. SE
                    E Bremer Ave.                  7th Ave. SE
                    1st Ave. SW                    8th Prkwy. SE
                    1st Ave. SE                    Jahnke Dr.
                    1st Ave. NW                    Harl Pl.
                    2nd Ave. NW                    8th St. SE
                    3rd Ave. NW                    12th St. SE
                    River Park Dr.                 ----------------

Threat            Flooding would likely affect the entire city in some regard. Whether it is
                  closed roads resulting in limited access to business or residential areas or
                  simply the cost incurred by the community as a result to increased man-
                  hours, most of the city would be affected. The greatest threats of flooding
                  are that of the loss of life, limb, and loss of property.

                  As mentioned earlier, those who are at the greatest risk are those living in
                  identified flood zones. The Federal Emergency Management Agency has
                  delineated the probable extent of the 100-year flood hazard areas. These
                  Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) show properties affected by the floods
                  that have at least a 1% chance of occurring in any particular year.

Severity of
Impact            Flooding impacts include loss of life; property damage and destruction;
                  damage and disruption of communications, transportation, electric service,
                  and community services; crop and livestock damage and loss and
                  interruption of business. Hazards of fire, health and transportation accidents,
                  and contamination of water supplies are likely effects of flooding situations.

Speed of
Onset             Flood warnings are disseminated from the National Weather Service,
                  IAWAS, and Tornado Spotters to the Bremer County/City of Waverly
                  Communications Center who, in turn, disseminates warnings to the affected
                  areas of the city and county, using established procedures.

                  People in the path of river floods may have time to take appropriate actions
                  to limit harm to themselves and their property. Floods may occur in the form
                  of flash flooding which can result in a matter of tens of minutes. Other
                  floods can be forecasted to allow for several hours, perhaps even days

              Illustration 1: Upper Cedar Watershed Area

                                                  The Cedar River that runs through
                                                  Waverly is actually part of the larger
                                                  Upper Cedar Watershed Area. This
                                                  watershed area covers area in both
                                                  southern Minnesota and Northeastern

                                                 Illustration 2: Detailed Watershed Map
The illustration to the right shows a
more detailed map of the area that the
Upper Cedar Watershed is responsible
for draining. From Ramsey, MN to
Waverly, IA it is approximately 100

Below in Table 11, please note that
the information given for the gauge
information is from the Janesville site.
This was the only site that had historic
stream flow data available for the
Cedar River in Bremer County.

                                   Table 11: Gauge Information

                              Cedar River at Janesville, Iowa
                                Station number: 05458500
                 latitude (ddmmss)............................. 42°38'54"
                 longitude (dddmmss)........................... 92°27'54" NAD27
                 state code.................................... 19
                 county........................................ Bremer
                 hydrologic unit code.......................... 07080201
                 basin name.................................... Upper Cedar
                 drainage area (square miles).................. 1,661
                 contributing drainage area (square miles)..... 1,661
                 gage datum (feet above NGVD29).................. 868.26
                 base discharge (cubic ft/sec)................. 4000

      The City of Waverly now has a river gauge that provides real-time data. Unfortunately, this
      gauge site is new enough that historic river heights and discharges were unavailable.
      Therefore, information from the nearest gauge providing such information near Janesville,
      Iowa was substituted. Although the peaks from this site may vary from the peaks that the City
      of Waverly has experienced it should give a rather good picture of years historic high water in
      the area. Please refer to Table 12 for Annual Recorded Peak flows from the Janesville site.

  Table 12: Annual Recorded Peak Flows (Janesville, IA)

Water                                     Stream Flow
             Station          Date                        Peak
Year                                          (CFS)
1905        05458500      May 17, 1905       5,840         7.1
1906        05458500      Mar. 27, 1906      27,100       14.2
1915        05458500      May 31, 1915       7,220         8.9
1916        05458500       Jun. 2, 1916      12,100        11
1917        05458500      Mar. 24, 1917      21,900       13.8
1918        05458500      Mar. 20, 1918      7,400          9
1919        05458500      Apr. 10, 1919      6,870         8.7
1920        05458500      Mar. 28, 1920      6,190         7.3
1921        05458500      May 29, 1921       15,300       11.5
1923        05458500      Apr. 4, 1923       4,630         6.2
1924        05458500      Aug. 22, 1924      4,410          6
1925        05458500      Jun. 15, 1925      6,860         7.7
1926        05458500      Mar. 22, 1926      4,010         5.6
1927        05458500      May 28, 1927       4,630         6.2
1933        05458500      Apr. 1, 1933       33,300        16
1934        05458500      Apr. 6, 1934       11,200        9.9
1935        05458500      Mar. 5, 1935       9,580         9.1
1936        05458500      Mar. 24, 1936      11,200        9.8
1937        05458500      Mar. 8, 1937       12,000        11
1938        05458500      Sep. 17, 1938      8,910         8.8
1939        05458500      Mar. 17, 1939      7,500         9.4
1940        05458500      Apr. 1, 1940       4,410          6
1941        05458500      Apr. 20, 1941      8,890         8.7
1942        05458500      Jul. 16, 1942      10,100        9.3
1945        05458500      Mar. 17, 1945      34,300       16.2
1946        05458500       Sep. 9, 1946      14,700       11.3
1947        05458500      Jun. 13, 1947      12,200       10.14
1948        05458500      Mar. 1, 1948       25,100       14.1
1949        05458500      Mar. 7, 1949       14,000       11.4
1950        05458500      Mar. 28, 1950      20,200       12.7
1951        05458500      Apr. 9, 1951       25,000       14.05
1952        05458500      Apr. 2, 1952       14,700       10.74
1953        05458500      Aug. 6, 1953       15,000       10.8
1954        05458500      Jun. 22, 1954      18,400       12.08
1955        05458500      Mar. 14, 1955      4,430        5.16
1956        05458500      Apr. 5, 1956       3,530        4.46
1957        05458500      May 31, 1957       1,890         3.1
1958        05458500      Feb. 25, 1958      1,100        2.73
1959        05458500      Mar. 27, 1959      6,620        6.78
1960        05458500      Mar. 30, 1960      13,200       10.46
1961        05458500      Mar. 28, 1961      37,000       16.33
1962        05458500      Mar. 31, 1962      24,000       13.86
1963        05458500      Mar. 19, 1963      6,200        9.65

1964      05458500     Jun. 23, 1964    1,240       2.53
1965      05458500     Apr. 7, 1965     29,200      14.33
1966      05458500      Oct. 1, 1965    18,800      12.05
1967      05458500     Jun. 12, 1967    7,690       7.57
1968      05458500     Jul. 17, 1968    21,700      12.79
1969      05458500      Jul. 1, 1969    23,500      13.74
1970      05458500     Mar. 4, 1970     3,400       4.85
1971      05458500     Apr. 2, 1971     11,400      9.59
1972      05458500     Sep. 27, 1972    5,060       5.42
1973      05458500     Apr. 18, 1973    16,500      11.67
1974      05458500     Jun. 11, 1974    10,800      9.33
1975      05458500     Apr. 30, 1975    12,000       9.9
1976      05458500     Mar. 14, 1976    9,260       8.58
1977      05458500     Sep. 18, 1977    2,460        3.3
1978      05458500     Jul. 10, 1978    9,740        8.9
1979      05458500     Apr. 2, 1979     15,700      11.24
1980      05458500     Aug. 12, 1980    14,900      11.14
1981      05458500     Jul. 19, 1981    7,050       7.13
1982      05458500     Mar. 21, 1982    9,640       8.69
1983      05458500     Mar. 8, 1983     12,800      10.28
1984      05458500     Jun. 20, 1984    12,100      9.96
1985      05458500     Mar. 3, 1985     4,640        na
1986      05458500     Mar. 21, 1986    15,100      11.03
1987      05458500     Oct. 15, 1986    12,600      10.18
1988      05458500     Mar. 6, 1988     3,080       4.15
1989      05458500     Mar. 27, 1989    4,170       4.71
1990      05458500     Jul. 30, 1990    12,800      10.3
1991      05458500     May 20, 1991     14,500      10.98
1992      05458500     Mar. 11, 1992    8,830       8.31
1993      05458500     Aug. 18, 1993    35,000      15.74
1994      05458500     Jul. 23, 1994    5,690       6.29
1995      05458500     Apr. 15, 1995    4,450       5.16
1996      05458500     Jun. 21, 1996    4,250       4.88
1997      05458500     Mar. 25, 1997    11,000      9.52
1998      05458500      Jul. 1, 1998    10,700      8.83
1999      05458500     Jul. 22, 1999    42,200      17.15
2000      05458500     Jul. 13, 2000    17,000      11.91
*Peak flow data were retrieved from the National Water Data
Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE).
Gage heights are given in feet above gage datum elevation.
Discharge is listed in the table in cubic feet per second.

           Table 13: Top 10 Peak Flow Recordings

   Year           Date         Gage at Peak      Discharge
    1999       Jul. 22, 1999        17.15             42,200
    1961      Mar. 28, 1961         16.33             37,000
    1993      Aug. 18, 1993         15.74             35,000
    1945      Mar. 17, 1945         16.2              34,300
    1933       Apr. 1, 1933          16               33,300
    1965       Apr. 7, 1965         14.33             29,200
    1906      Mar. 27, 1906         14.2              27,100
    1948       Mar. 1, 1948         14.1              25,100
    1951       Apr. 9, 1951         14.05             25,000
    1962      Mar. 31, 1962         13.86             24,000

           Illustration 3: Iowa Tornadoes by County

                                       Tornado/High Wind Event

              a violent destructive whirling wind accompanied by a funnel-shaped cloud
              that progresses in a narrow path over the land or a violent windstorm


              A tornado is an extremely violent wind that is generally identified
              by its funnel shape. A funnel cloud becomes a tornado when it
              makes contact with the ground. Tornados are most commonly
              associated with cumulonimbus cloud formations and can occur in
              conjunction with heavy rainfall, lighting, and hail. Tornados can
              vary in size from a few yards at their base to as much as a mile
              wide. The high winds that accompany tornadoes can result in the
              loss of life, generally due to the projection of surface debris or the
              destruction of occupied structures.

              Tornadoes are generally measured in intensity by a rating scale
              known as the Fujita Scale. The details of the Fujita Scale can be
              found in Table 14.

Occurrence    In the U.S., Iowa is ranked third in the number of strong-violent (F2-F5)
              tornadoes per 10,000 square miles. From 1950-95, Iowa averaged 31
              twisters per year. In Iowa most tornadoes occur in the spring and summer
              months, but twisters can and have occurred in every month of the year.
              Late afternoon to evening hour tornadoes are the most common, but they
              can occur at any time of the day.

              Bremer County has had 18 recorded tornadoes between 1950 and 1995.
              They are listed in Table 15. There have been no recorded deaths in that
              time period and no reports of injury due to tornados.

              High winds have been responsible for at least two events that caused
              extensive damage in the city. The first occurred in the mid 1980’s when a
              roof was lifted off of a downtown business. Strong winds have caused
              damage to houses in the Murphy Addition. In 1998, straight line winds of
              approximately 78 miles per hour resulted in damage to doors on an airplane
              hanger at the Waverly Municipal Airport.

                There have been 18 recorded tornadoes in Bremer County in the past 40
                years. That amounts to 6 events per decade. Because tornadoes are
                sporadic there cannot be a reliable long-term prediction made as to when
                they may occur. However, if the tornado events hold to their average,
                Bremer County can expect a 45% chance of experiencing a tornado in any
                given decade.

                Everyone is vulnerable to the powerful forces that accompany a tornado.
                There are those who are more vulnerable than others. For example:

                    1.   People in automobiles,
                    2.   People in mobile homes,
                    3.   People who may not understand warnings due to language barriers,
                    4.   The elderly and very young, and
                    5.   People with physical or mental impairments.

                In the event of a tornado the City of Waverly operates outdoor early
                warning sirens that, given enough time, allow people to search for suitable
                shelter. The sirens are operable on a 24-hour basis.

Threat          The maximum threat of a tornado usually occurs from a few hundred feet
                to a mile away from the tornado. Much of the damage incurred during a
                tornado event is often due to the accompanying hail, lighting, and wind

Severity of
Impact          Impacts can vary from broken tree limbs to the total destruction of
                buildings and other structures.

Speed of
Onset           Tornado watches can warn of likely conditions hours in advance of an
                upcoming storm.         Although significant advances in meteorological
                technology has allowed for much more effective forecasting, specific
                tornadoes cannot be predicted with any precision any more than minutes
                before they develop. The rapid change in direction a tornado can achieve
                makes it difficult to say with certainty the path the tornado will continue on
                even after it has been identified. Therefore warning time can sometimes be
                very short or occasionally non-existent.

                       Table 14: Fujita Scale of Tornados

       Category F0: Gale tornado (40-72 mph); light damage. Some
       damage to chimneys; break branches off trees; push over shallow-
       rooted trees; damage to sign boards.

       Category F1: Moderate tornado (73-112 mph); moderate damage.
       The lower limit is the beginning of hurricane wind speed; peel surface
       off roofs; mobile homes pushed off foundations or overturned; moving
       autos pushed off the roads.

       Category F2: Significant tornado (113-157 mph); considerable
       damage. roofs torn off frame houses; mobile homes demolished;
       boxcars pushed over; large trees snapped or uprooted; light-object
       missiles generated.

       Category F3: Severe tornado (158-206 mph); Severe damage. Roofs
       and some walls torn off well-constructed houses; trains overturned;
       most trees in forest uprooted; heavy cars lifted off ground and thrown.

       Category F4: Devastating tornado (207-260 mph); Devastating
       damage. Well-constructed houses leveled; structure with weak
       foundation blown off some distance; cars thrown and large missiles

       Category F5: Incredible tornado (261-318 mph); Incredible damage.
       Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and carried considerable
       distance to disintegrate; automobile sized missiles fly through the air
       in excess of 100 yards; trees debarked; incredible phenomena will

                    Table 15: Bremer County Tornado Events

     DATE                       TIME         DEATH   INJ.   FUJITA SCALE
MAY 14, 1961            5        1710          0       0         F1
SEP 01, 1961            9        1540          0       0         F4
MAY 29, 1962           10        1810          0       0         F1
AUG 20, 1964           41        1545          0       0         F0
APR 19, 1966            4        1920          0       2         F2
SEP 09, 1970           19        1500          0       1         F2
JUL 12, 1971           31        1900          0       0         F2
JUN 04, 1973           13        1415          0       0         F1
NOV 09, 1975           32        1815          0       0         F1
JUN 07, 1977           20        1830          0       0         F1
JLY 16, 1977           28        2035          0       0         F2
APR 10, 1981           10        1912          0       0         F2
JLY 05, 1985           18        1540          0       0         F0
MAY 08, 1988           16        1315          0       0         F1
NOV 15, 1988           46        1850          0       0         F1
JUN 14, 1991           42        2315          0       0         F0
JUN 26, 1996            --       1450          0       0         F0
JUN 27, 1998            --       2157          0       0         F2

              a shaking or trembling of the earth that is volcanic or tectonic in origin

              Although earthquakes have not been an event that has affected Waverly in
              the past, the community should be aware of the possibility that they can
              occur. Ground shaking from earthquakes can collapse buildings and
              bridges; disrupt gas, electric, and phone service; and sometimes trigger
              flash floods and fires.         Buildings with foundations resting on
              unconsolidated landfill and other unstable soil, and trailers and homes not
              tied to their foundations are at risk because they can be shaken off their
              mountings during an earthquake.

              Although earthquakes are generally associated with plate tectonics or
              volcanic activity a third type includes artificial earthquakes. In other
              words, a large explosion can cause the earth to quake resulting in
              substantial damage.

              According to the Iowa Geological Survey, Plum Creek River Fault Zone
              and Structural and Stratigraphic Framework of Eastern Iowa study volume
              Number 13, printed in 1985, there are several areas with faults in Iowa. The
              two that appear to be closest and could affect the community in this plan
              are the Plum River Fault Zone and the Fayette Structural Zone. The
              Fayette Structural Zone runs through Black Hawk County starting north of
              the City of Waterloo, through the very southeast tip of Bremer County and
              into Fayette County towards the City of Oelwein, at a diagonal from the
              southwest to the northeast. The Plum River Fault Zone can be found below
              Cedar Rapids and running east towards Rockford, Illinois.

Occurrence    Only 12 earthquakes with epicenters in Iowa are known in historic times.
              The first known occurrence was in 1867 near Sidney in southwest Iowa; the
              most recent occurrence was in 1948 near Oxford in east-central Iowa. The
              largest Iowa earthquake (Mercalli magnitude VI) occurred near Davenport
              in southeast Iowa in 1934. None of these events were instrumentally
              recorded. Although one of the events was to have been reported on January
              26, 1925 in Waterloo that registered a magnitude of II (2) on the Mercalli

              Historic seismicity in the upper Midwest in relation to the regional
              structural geology from 1800 to present has been slight. Assuming historic
              trends remain unchanged the likelihood of an earthquake causing any
              substantial damage to the City of Waverly is minimal.

                   Because the likelihood of an earthquake is relatively low the population is
                   not likely to be vulnerable to an earthquake (Refer to Illustration 4). If an
                   earthquake were to take place, those most vulnerable would be those who
                   live in taller structures, structures with poor foundations, or structures built
                   on less solid ground such as floodplain silt.

Threat             The maximum threat of an earthquake would still be rather minimal. It is
                   estimated that even if an earthquake did occur in this area, the effects
                   would be likened to that of a large truck passing on the street.

Severity of
Impact             When an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause deaths and
                   injuries and extensive property damage. The impact in a city such as
                   Waverly would be minimized in that the buildings are generally not any
                   higher than three stories, with few exceptions.

Speed of
Onset              Onset of an earthquake cannot be accurately predicted and therefore
                   warning time for such an event would not exist.

                            Illustration 4: Earthquake Probability Chart


                                               Winter Storm

                A storm including any one or more of the following that has a damaging
                effect on daily activities: heavy snow, freezing rain, blowing snow, sleet, or
                extremely low temperatures.

                A winter storm can cause many problems for a city. Winter storms often
                result in hazardous travel conditions. This alone can result in reduction of
                access both to and from service organizations. Increased government
                expenditure of time and money on such things as road clearing and
                maintenance can also cause financial stress on communities.
                Winter storms are most likely to occur between late October and late

Occurrence      Waverly has experienced winter storms of some type every winter on
                record. According to the National Climatic Data Center there have been 30
                Snow and Ice events reported in Bremer County between January 11, 1993
                and December 28, 2000. Over an eight year period that would average to
                3.75 events per year. These snow and ice events have been responsible for
                six deaths in the county over that period of time. Over that same time there
                has been nine (9) reported “extreme” low temperature and wind-chill
                events reported in the county.

                December of 2000 brought with it record snows. Approximately 34 inches
                of snow fell during the month. This is believed to have dwarfed the
                previous record for snow in a month set in January of 1962.

                The probability of a winter storm affecting the City of Waverly is almost
                certain on an annual basis. Some winters have been historically worse than
                others, but Waverly can expect at least several events per winter season.

                Those most vulnerable to the effects of a winter storm are those who cannot
                fend for themselves in times of severe weather. Example populations
                would be the elderly or disabled who rely on outside entities for delivery of
                food or medicine for their livelihood. People who work outdoors are also
                at greater risk of being affected by wind chill, extreme low temperature,
                and wet winter conditions.

              Although the developments in technology have been very beneficial in
              reducing the long-term negative effects of winter storms, certain dangers
              still exist. The maximum threat of winter conditions would be realized if it
              was accompanied by power outages and elimination of travel due to
              hampered road conditions. This could result in the inability for some of the
              population to maintain temperatures necessary for the body. In addition
              long winter events that eliminate communication could result in the
              reduction of adequate medical response time.

Severity of
              Depending on the type, duration, and the size of the event the entire
              population could feel the effect of a winter storm. Generally, due to
              existing snow removal services and other community services the affects of
              winter storms on Waverly are short term. Although more of an
              inconvenience, and somewhat more dangerous, travel and communication
              is usually an option in less than 24 hours of any given event.

Speed of
              The National Weather Service has developed effective weather advisories,
              which are promptly and widely distributed. Radio, TV, and Weather Alert
              Radios provide the most immediate means to do this. Accurate information
              is made available to public officials and the public up to days in advance.
              Again, weather prediction capabilities have made significant improvements
              in the past few years. There are several notifications made by the National
              Weather Service. These include winter storm watch, winter storm warning,
              blizzard warning, winter weather advisory, and a frost/freeze advisory.


              a period of dryness especially when prolonged that causes extensive
              damage to crops or prevents their successful growth (Webster)

              There are three types of drought conditions that are relevant to Iowa.
              Meteorlogic drought, which refers to precipitation deficiency; hydrological
              drought, which refers to declining surface and groundwater supplies; and
              agricultural drought, which refers to soil moisture deficiencies.

              Droughts can be spotty or widespread and last from weeks to a period of
              years. A prolonged drought can have serious economic impact on a
              community. Increased demand for water and electricity may result in
              shortages of resources. Moreover, food shortages may occur if agricultural
              production is damaged or destroyed by a loss of crops or livestock. While
              droughts are generally associated with extreme heat, droughts can and do
              occur during cooler months.

Occurrence    Since January of 1993 there has been only one recorded period of extreme
              drought. This drought affected the entire state of Iowa and resulted in
              approximately 500 million dollars in crop damage statewide. The event
              occurred in August of 1995 and lasted approximately one month.

              The average annual rainfall for Waverly is 32.9 inches with the vast
              majority of this falling between April and September. Although, as
              mentioned earlier, drought can occur in cooler months, it is most prevalent
              in late summer when the temperatures are high and any moisture
              evaporates a faster rate. The last recorded drought for the regions was in
              the month of August. Although possible any given year, recent trends
              would suggest that the likelihood of sustained drought is not likely in
              Bremer County. Recent theories would suggest that the probability of
              drought in this portion of the country hinges partially on larger global
              weather anomalies such as global warming, el nino, and la nina in the
              Pacific Ocean.

                Those who depend on rain for their livelihood would be the most
                vulnerable to a drought. This means that agriculture, agribusiness, and
                consumers (if the drought lasted long enough or impacted a large area)
                would be impacted. A drought limits the ability to produce goods and
                provide services. Because Waverly draws its drinking water from surface
                water and shallow ground water sources, a prolonged severe drought may
                impact all citizens if there was a dramatic drop in the stream flow coupled
                with the drop in the water table. Fire suppression can also become a
                problem due to the dryness of the vegetation and possible lack of water.

Threat          The maximum threat would likely extend far outside the borders of the City
                of Waverly. Droughts generally affect a large region, as opposed to a small
                area. Because Waverly lies in the middle of what is primarily an
                agricultural county the maximum threat would come to those who work
                directly with agriculture who rely on rainfall for their livelihood. As a
                result of the negative affects of drought on the farmers in the area, those
                who supply goods and services to the agricultural community would also
                stand to suffer substantial financial losses. City services could also be
                disrupted if the drought resulted in a lower water table, rendering wells
                inefficient or not allowing enough water for adequate fire fighting

Severity of
Impact          Drought in the United State generally does not directly account for loss of
                human life, although the extreme high temperatures that often accompany
                droughts could cause severe physical stress and even death. More likely to
                be affected are wildlife and domesticated animals which could be rendered
                without water for drinking or without vegetation for consumption.

Speed of
Onset           Although many efforts are made to anticipate droughts it is nearly
                impossible to be accurate with these predictions due to unlimited variable
                that factor in to such a prediction. Warning time is not a concern with a
                drought as the onset of drought can take weeks, months, and sometimes
                even years to feel the effects.

                                           Other Hazards

              To include Solar Flares, Heating Systems, Hazardous Materials, Fire,
              Communications Failure, Dam Failure, Power Failure, etc.

              This category is meant simply to bring attention to other possible hazards
              that could have an affect on the City of Waverly.

              Solar Flares happen on an irregular but predictable cycle. These flares
              have the potential to interrupt all types of communications including radio
              and television, plus public safety communications and the 911 system may
              me mired.

              Many Heating Systems require the use of explosive gasses such as natural
              gas or propane. The storage and transfer of these elements can result in
              dangerous conditions and precautions should be taken.

              Dam Failure would result in an increase amount of unregulated water flow
              to the areas lying below the dam and would lower water levels above the
              dam. This could be devastating in times of flooding and would be
              inconvenient in times of low water flow.

              Power Failure is a condition that often accompanies many of the natural
              hazards already discussed. Ice, wind, and snow are capable of knocking
              down power lines and therefore leaving businesses and residences without
              power necessary for communications and heat. Although not foreseen as a
              problem in the near future, over consumption of power could result in
              brownouts or blackouts in certain areas of the city.

              Hazardous Material spills and leaks are an event that can cause personal
              injury, sickness, and even death. Common hazardous material found in the
              region includes Anhydrous Ammonia, Nitrous Oxide, and other varying
              chemicals used in household and industrial settings.

Occurrence    During committee meetings there was discussion concerning the storage of
              Hazardous Materials within city limits. As Waverly lies in an agricultural
              community, storage of anhydrous ammonia is common. During the 1999
              flood event the Northeast Iowa Hazardous Materials Team from Waterloo
              was present for a herbicide spill at a building site near the river.

              Since 1999 there have been two major recorded Solar Flare events. The
              first occurred on March 6 th, 1989 and was associated with communication
              interference around the world and disruption of power grids in Canada.
              The second event was recorded on April 3, 2001. The extent to which this
              most recent solar flare has affected earth is not known at this time.

                The probabilities of most of these events are difficult to predict. Most of
                the events can be prevented if proper precautionary steps are taken.
                Unfortunately accidents still occur and the community should be prepared
                for such occurrences.

                Depending on the event, those living close to Hazardous Chemical and
                Anhydrous Ammonia storage would be more vulnerable to exposure. The
                risk would decrease with increasing distances from these facilities. Factors
                such as wind direction and speed would have a significant impact on the
                area affected by a spill.

                Those living in closest proximity to the river would obviously be most
                affected by a dam failure. Those with older or ill functioning heating units
                would be more at risk of explosion or gas leaks. Solar flares and
                communication breakdowns would likely leave the entire population

                Generally speaking, structures built before the enforcement of building
                codes may be at a higher risk for electrical fires or structure failure during
                high wind or heavy snow load events.

Threat          The maximum threat would exist when two or more of these events
                occurred simultaneously. Response time of those mitigating the emergency
                could be slowed or depleted.

Severity of
Impact          The impacts, depending on the hazard, could be limited to very few
                individuals or could affect the entire region.

Speed of
Onset           The speed of onset could vary from minutes to years (in the case of solar


  1. Emergency Services

     Emergency Management Director
      Bremer County’s Emergency Management Director is based out of the City of Waverly.
      The Emergency Management Director works in conjunction with local fire, rescue, police,
      and government officials to draft and implement workable emergency action plans in the
      community. Although the Emergency Management Director is accountable to the entire
      county, the location of the office in the Bremer County Courthouse is beneficial to the City
      of Waverly. The current contact information is as follows:

                             Mr. Scott LaRue
                             Bremer County Courthouse
                             415 East Bremer
                             Waverly, Iowa 50677

     Fire Department
      Fire protection is provided for Waverly with an authorized force of 32 part-time firemen.
      Fire equipment includes three fire fighting trucks, two tanker trucks, and one rescue unit.
      The fire station is located in the central part of the city on the west side of the Cedar river.
      Waverly’s rating for insurance is Class 5 within city limits.

      Equipment used by the Waverly Fire Department include the following:
          2 Pumper Trucks
          2 Tankers
          Diving Equipment
          Rescue Van
          85’ Aerial
          4 x 4 Gras Rig
          Boat
          New Pumper Truck pending

      Mutual Aid agreements have been signed with every fire department in Bremer County and
      the Shell Rock Fire Department (Butler County).

      Contact information for the Waverly fire department is as follows:

                             Waverly Fire Department
                             121 1st Street SW
                             Waverly, IA 50677
                             (319) 352-5521

   Medical Services
    Waverly is served by one local hospital:

                          Waverly Municipal Hospital
                          312 9th Street NW
                          Waverly, IA 50677
                          (319) 352-4121

    There are six other hospitals available in a 25-mile radius of the City of Waverly. Within
    Waverly Covenant Medical Center of Waterloo owns and operates a clinic. Furthermore,
    there are clinics held at Waverly Municipal, and Integra Health has an office in Waverly.
    These facilities are in addition to the many small doctor’s offices and small clinics in the

    The hospital has a landing area for Life Flight helicopters. Helicopters arrive generally from
    one of three hospitals; Mayo Clinic of Rochester, MN; Covenant Medical Center of
    Waterloo, IA; and University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics of Iowa City, IA.

    Emergency rescue and ambulance service is provided by the hospital throughout and beyond
    the city limits.

   Police
    Police protection is provided by the Waverly Police Department, Bremer County Law
    Enforcement, and the Iowa State Patrol. Currently, there are a total of 14 sworn officers and
    1 full-time secretary serving the Police Department. The Police department shares a
    building with the Bremer County Sheriff’s Department. Arthur C. Simpson is the acting
    police chief for the department. Contact information is as follows:

                          Waverly Police Department
                          111 4th Street NE
                          Waverly, IA 50677
                          (319) 352-5400

   Warning Systems

    The outdoor early warning sirens were just recently entirely replaced. The first test of the
    new system took place earlier this year, 2001. In addition to this state of the art warning
    system, some facilities in the City of Waverly still maintain and use the Plectron Warning

    NOAA Weather Radio broadcasts are also available in the community. NOAA Radio’s
    provide up to the minute weather related alerts. Other locations that warnings and watches
    can be found are television, Internet, and radio (KWAY and KWAR are local broadcasts).

    2. Property Protection

    The city participated in the 1999 Flood recovery program by using money made available
    through the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) and the Iowa Department
    of Economic Development (IDED). The funds were used to purchase several homes in the city
    along the Cedar River. The intent of buying out houses in the flood plain is to remove people
    from harms way.

    As a result of the 1999 Flood and a Federal Disaster Declaration the city is participating in a
    Housing Buy Out program funded through FEMA, IDED, and the Iowa Emergency
    Management Division (IEMD). There have been three phases of housing buyouts. The first
    two required matching funds to the IEMD. The City developed a list of structures that would
    be candidates for buyout. This list was then forwarded to FEMA where a cost/benefit analysis
    was performed. Of these 35 structures, only three are commercial properties. To date six (6)
    houses have been purchased and removed from the floodplain. Three houses are currently
    pending sale. A list of these structures, available damage estimates, and purchasing progress
    can be viewed in the following table (Table 16).

                           Table 16: Structures with Substantial Flood Risk

                                   Total Pre-Flood Tax      Building
#         Structure Address                                               Tagged        (Y/N or
                                    Assessed Value ($)     Damage ($)
1     1400 Cedar Lane                            129,320         21,000    Green         No
2     1402 Cedar Lane                             93,970          8,000    Green         No
3     1605 Cedar Lane                             62,340         24,000    Orange        No
4     421 3rd St. SW                              37,640         15,000     Red          Yes
5     108 8th Ave. SW                             45,190          9,500    Green         No
6     114 8th Ave. SW                             37,310         12,000    Yellow        No
7     703 Crestwood Ave.                          75,670         26,500    Yellow        No
8     209 8th Parkway SE                          73,400         35,000     Red          No
9     205 8th Parkway SE                          83,430         34,000     Red          No
10    515 2nd St . SE                             40,030         25,000    Orange        Yes
11    120 6th Ave. SW                             15,090          2,500    Green         No
12    608 2nd St. SW                              24,580         15,000     Red          Yes
13    503 3rd St. SW                              27,280         15,000     Red          Yes
14    99 E. Bremer Ave.                           33,870          3,500    Yellow        No
15    505 & 507 2nd St. SE                        42,010         30,000     Red          Yes
16    105 8th Parkway SE                          73,380         23,500    Yellow        No
17    310 3rd St. SW                              57,140          5,000    Yellow        No
18    112 2nd Ave. NE                             63,720         11,000    Green         No
19    608 Crestwood Ave.                          75,950         24,000    Yellow        No
20    1413 Cedar Lane                             64,320         25,000     Red          No
21    309 4th Ave. NW                             36,680         15,000     Red          No
22    903 1st St. SW                              52,880         22,000    Orange        No
23    503 3rd St. SE                              63,970         16,000    Yellow        No
24    817 4th St. SE                              66,430         27,000     Red        Pending
25     204 7th Ave. SW                               32,160           5,000    Green        No
26     509 3rd St. SW                                43,250          14,000    Yellow       No
27     725 2nd St. SW                                33,590           5,000    Green      Pending
28     403 Crestwood Ave.                            74,500          10,000    Yellow       No
29     927 1st St. SW                                66,280          15,000    Green        No
30     521 3rd St. SW                                50,510          15,000    Green        Yes
31     509 3rd St. SE                                77,480          14,000   Green         No
32     115 1st St. NW                                23,720          15,000   Orange        Yes
33     213 4th Ave. SW                                25280          13,000   Orange      Pending
34     507 3rd St. SE                                 64070          27,000    Red          No
35     934 1st St. SW                                 22680          12,000   Yellow        No
--     TOTAL: *                            1,889,121             589,500         --           --
     *Total represents the estimated total for all of the above properties.

     According to information obtained from the FEMA NFIP Repetitive Loss County Summary for
     the State of Iowa (6/30/2001) the City of Waverly had nine properties claim 18 losses during the
     1990’s. Cumulative NFIP payments as a result of the 1993 and 1999 flooding resulted in total
     payments of $199,263.12 to the insured property owners. This figure included payments for
     Building Damage ($187,357.28) and Contents Damage ($11,905.84). The average payment for
     these claims was $11,070.17. These properties were dispersed throughout the community and
     were all built prior to March 2 nd, 1981 (the date of Waverly’s entrance into the NFIP).

     3. Flood Research

     Although there have been many studies concerning flooding in Waverly, three studies in
     particular have had a significant impact on the understanding and mitigation of problems in the

     In 1980 the Federal Emergency Management Agency conducted a standard Flood Insurance
     Study for the City of Waverly. The study looked at flooding from three primary sources: the
     Cedar River, Unnamed Creek, and Dry Run Creek. The study reflects 100 and 500-year flood
     levels for rivers and streams located in the unincorporated portions of Waverly. It is this study
     and the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Maps that are used to enforce the county’s flood
     plain ordinance. These maps were updated in 1989 as part of a Flood Insurance Study for all of
     Bremer County.

     In January of 1980 the Dry Run Creek Drainage and Flood Control Study was prepared for the
     City of Waverly by Brice, Petrides & Associates, Inc. of Waterloo, IA. This study looked at the
     flooding characteristics of Dry Run Creek in Waverly. It then delineated the flood plain and
     identified flood problem areas. The plan then reviewed, in detail, solutions to the identified

     Most recently, in wake of the 1999 Cedar River flooding in Waverly, a report was conducted in
     order to identify projects that would mitigate the effects that future events would have on the
     city. The report was simply titled Waverly Flood Study. It was prepared for the City of
     Waverly by Stanley Consultants, Inc. This plan identified several projects and discussed impact
     and funding of the projects. The solutions derived from this January 2001 study are
     incorporated into the alternatives section of this plan.
4. Floodplain Management

On September 2nd , 1980 the City of Waverly became active members in the National Flood
Insurance Program (NFIP) by adopting its initial floodplain ordinance. The Federal Insurance
Administration manages the insurance component of the NFIP, and works closely with FEMA’s
Mitigation Directorate, which oversees the floodplain management aspect of the program.

The city updated the Floodplain Ordinance most recently in the year 1996. The Floodplain
Ordinance is a portion of the city’s Zoning Ordinance and is included in this document as
Attachment 1. In accordance with NFIP guidelines, the ordinance does not allow for new
construction within the floodplain. In addition, it requires those structures within the 100-year
flood to: (a.) “be adequately anchored to prevent flotation, collapse or lateral movement of the
structure”; (b.) “be constructed with materials and utility equipment resistant to flood damage”
and; (c) “be constructed by methods and practices that minimize flood damage.”

Floodplain management efforts have been made with the construction of several detention
ponds in Waverly. These detention ponds are thought to have a tremendous impact on the Dry
Run Creek flooding situation. Dry Run Creek is a creek that historically has flooded due to
heavy localized rains. The result is flash floods, much different than the floods of the Cedar
River, which usually are accompanied with substantial warning time. The detention ponds are
expected to help control the water in the Dry Run Creek area.

5. Other Mitigation Activities

       a. Earthquake

           The city has and enforces a building code. Currently there are no multi-story
           buildings in the community over three stories tall. The grain elevator is the one
           exception to this rule. It is expected that earthquake damage would be limited to the
           shifting of buildings off of their foundations, cracked plaster on walls and ceilings,
           and perhaps some bowed walls. Underground utilities would be at greater risk of
           damage during the winter season if the ground was frozen to depths of four feet or

       b. Tornado/High Wind Event

           Tornadoes have been known to cause great destruction. They have been recorded
           destroying entire buildings and it is not uncommon to hear of a tornado tearing off
           the roof of a house. This being the case it is important that mitigation efforts are
           made to protect people from this deadly force.

           The most important measure in reducing the threat of injury is to be aware of the
           oncoming danger. The City of Waverly has new sirens in place that cover the entire
           populated area of the city. Each one of these sirens is equipped with a battery back
           up to ensure operation in the event of a power failure. The County Emergency
           Management Director or a designee thereof (dispatcher at Law Center) activates the
           sirens in the event of a tornado.

In addition to siren alerts in the community there are also a wide variety of early
warning messages provided through local radio and television stations as well as the
cable Weather Channel. Furthermore, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA) Weather Radio provides an alternative media source for
weather information. NOAA Weather Radio is a nationwide network of radio
stations broadcasting continuous weather information direct from a nearby National
Weather Service office. NOAA Weather Radio broadcasts National Weather Service
warnings, watches, forecasts and other hazard information 24 hours a day.

There have been discussions during the preparation of this document on the
feasibility of educating the public about Tornado Safe Rooms. Properly built safe
rooms can provide protection against winds of up to 250 miles per hour and against
flying objects traveling as fast as 100 miles per hour. Some safe rooms have been
tested to withstand up the 450 mph winds. The idea behind safe rooms is that they
are built inside but separate from the main house. The walls and ceilings are extra
thick and strong so that the safe room remains standing and intact even if high winds
and flying objects destroy the rest of the house.

A tornado safe room may be built inside a house where it is easy to retreat to. It must
be anchored to the house foundation to resist overturning and uplift. The connections
between all parts of the shelter must be very strong and the walls, roof and door must
be strong enough not to be penetrated by flying objects.

Another option discussed was the feasibility of the construction of a large tornado
safe shelter at the community fairgrounds.

Information regarding how to protect ones self in the event of a tornado is largely
publicized in the form of flyers, radio, newspaper, and television announcements.
The following is an example of the types of actions that should be taken in the event
of a storm:

                      Tornado Safety Rules

      In a home or building, move to a pre-designated shelter, such as
       a basement.
      If an underground shelter is not available, move to a small
       interior room or hallway on the lowest floor and get under a
       sturdy piece of furniture. Put as many walls as possible between
       you and the outside.
      Stay away from windows.
      Get out of automobiles.
      Do not try to outrun a tornado in your car; instead, leave it
       immediately                for             safe           shelter.
       If caught outside or in a vehicle, lie flat in a nearby ditch or
       depression and cover your head with your hands.
      Highway overpasses do not provide shelter from tornadic winds.
      Be aware of flying debris. Flying debris from tornadoes causes
       most fatalities and injuries.
      Mobile homes, even if tied down, offer little protection from
       tornadoes. You should leave a mobile home and go to the lowest
       floor of a sturdy nearby building or a storm shelter.

c. Winter Storm

   The City of Waverly relies on forecasting efforts to predict the onset of a winter
   storm. Current technology usually allows for days of notice before the arrival of a
   major winter storm.

   The NOAA estimates that approximately 70 percent of all deaths attributed to winter
   storms occur in an automobile. Therefore the City of Waverly views proper snow
   and ice removal from roadways to be essential in mitigating negative effects of these
   events. Snow removal and ice prevention techniques are practiced by city and state
   employees on the corresponding local and state roadways within the city limits. The
   following is equipment currently at the disposal of the Waverly Public Works
   department that can be used for snow and ice removal:

                                    Two Graders
                                    Two End Loaders
                                    Seven Plow Trucks
                                    Two Small Plows for One Ton Truck
                                    Rotary Blower that can be mounted on and End

   In an ideal winter storm scenario it is estimated that all of the city roads can be
   adequately cleared within six hours or less barring continued moisture or high winds.
   In this scenario travel would be reasonable in two hours time.

d. Drought

   Drought is a concern for any community, but especially for communities with
   agricultural ties. Drought can have extremely adverse affects on crops, livestock,
   finances, and can even increase stress levels. The City of Waverly has never
   experienced a drought of such magnitude that it had to take any significant measures
   to mitigate the effects.

   Fire and municipal water could be affected in the case of severe drought lowering the
   water table to levels that would render the city wells ineffectual. The dam acts as a
   mitigating effort against drought. The dam would provide a filling area that could be
   accessed by fire fighting equipment if need be for quick access to water in times of
   low water tables.

e. Shelters

   Under the auspices of the County Emergency Management office, Bremer County
   has compiled a list of shelters within each community. The list includes such
   information such as location, heating source, water source, overall capacity, sleeping
   capacity, and feeding capacity. The details of the list can be found in full in the
   “Contingency Plan for Bremer County.” The list of shelters within Waverly
   included the following:

                      (a)   St. Johns Lutheran Church – 311 4th Ave SW
                      (b)   Trinity United Methodist Church – 1400 W Bremer Ave
                      (c)   Bartels Home – 1922 5th Ave NW
                      (d)   Waverly Municipal Hospital – 312 9th St SW
                      (e)   Bremer County Courthouse – 415 E Bremer Ave
                      (f)   Waverly-Shell Rock Jr. High School – 215 3rd St NW
                      (g)   Wartburg College
                                  i. Becker Science Hall – 111 10th St. NW
                                 ii. Field House – 1015 2nd Ave NW
                               iii. Knights Gym – 231 10th St. NW
                                iv. Luther Hall – 200 9th St NW

   It should be noted that there are several other structures that could serve as suitable
   shelters in certain events. The above list are those structures which meet the specific
   requirements of a fallout shelter as defined by the State of Iowa.

f. Communications

   Waverly currently has in place 911 Emergency Assistance. The 911 System is
   administered through the City of Waverly-Bremer County Law Office. Other
   communications used by city personnel include pagers, radios, and cellular phones.

   Radio, television, cellular telephones, landline telephones, newspapers, warning
   sirens, and NOAA Radio Service are available to the public at large.

   Communication of upstream river depths has been important in being able to predict
   river levels. With a river gage in Charles City (upstream on the Cedar River from
   Waverly) and a newly placed river gage near the Horton Road bridge forecasting
   river crests has become a very accurate endeavor. The advancement of real-time
   data has been very influential in these efforts.

   During past hazards such as the 1999 Flood, emergency services were coordinated
   from the public works department, which also serves as the emergency response
   center. This facility is old and not an ideal venue for coordinating disaster services.
   The committee identified the need for a new or alternative site from which to
   coordinate these activities.

   On June 19th, 2000 an official Flood Communication Protocol was officially adopted
   by the City Council of the City of Waverly. This document was prepared in order to
   develop a consistent method for notice to citizens regarding high water and flood
   conditions on the Cedar River. This document can be seen as a portion of this
   document. Please refer to Attachment

   The newest form of communication available in Waverly is that of the Internet. The
   City has developed a website in order to keep it’s citizens, and other interested
   parties, aware of local and government affairs.        The website address is


    A. Flood Mitigation

       Alternatives Considered:
           1. Continue acquisition and removal of homes from the floodplain.
           2. Continue Participation in the National Flood Insurance Program.
           3. Maintain, enforce, and update Zoning Ordinance as needed.
           4. Ensure proper training and certification of Floodplain Manager(s).
           5. Development of a Storm Water Management Program.
           6. Flood proofing of structures in the floodplain.
           7. Replacement or Increase Capacity of 3 rd Street Bridge.
           8. Kohlmann Park Levee/Floodwall*
           9. Left Bank Flood Walls*
           10. Replace the Power Dam*
           11. Raise 7th Ave. SE*
           12. Cedar Lane Bike Path

          * Alternative and discussion taken from 2001 Waverly Flood Study.

    B. Earthquake Mitigation

       Alternatives Considered:
           1. Systematically review and make necessary updates to building code
           2. Improve public awareness of proper steps to be taken in the event of an

    C. Tornado and High Wind Mitigation

       Alternatives Considered:
           1. Systematically review and make necessary updates to building code
           2. Develop a “Tornado Safe Room” awareness program.
           3. Develop a NOAA Weather Radio awareness program.
           4. Improve public awareness of proper steps to be taken in the event of a possible

    D. Provide Superior Emergency Services

       Alternatives Considered:
           1. Purchase and install additional outdoor warning sirens as necessary to ensure
              coverage to areas of future growth.
           2. Regularly review and amend Fire, Medical, and Hazardous Material response
              standard operating procedures.
           3. Maintain existing mutual aid agreements with surrounding communities.
           4. Install Global Positioning Systems in all emergency vehicles.
           5. Acquire a new venue for Emergency Disaster Coordination.


    A. Flood Mitigation

    Alternative 1: Continued acquisition and removal of homes from the floodplain.

                  The Hazard Mitigation Planning committee recognized this alternative as the
                  most feasible and cost efficient alternative to future flood damage in the
                  community. Recent acquisitions, with money made available as a result of
                  Disaster Declaration 1282, have already greatly reduced potential damage
                  that could be inflicted by future flood events. Although these programs have
                  been successful with 7 properties having been acquired in the flood zone
                  already. Many more properties that have been identified for possible
                  attainment have yet to be purchased due to insufficient funding.

                  The City of Waverly intends on continued pursuit of the necessary funding in
                  order to remove more flood prone structures from harms way. The city will
                  anxiously await further Federal support to finance the removal of the rest of
                  the identified structures in city.

    Alternative 2: Continue Participation in the National Flood Insurance Program.

                  The City of Waverly has been a participating member in the National Flood
                  Insurance Program (NFIP) since May of 1977. Continued participation in the
                  NFIP is considered to be vital to the financial well being of the community.
                  The flood insurance offered through this program provides needed financial
                  relief to those who carry the insurance and are negatively affected by flood

                  Although there are costs to the community associated with meeting NFIP
                  performance standards, often the increased costs are offset by other benefits
                  such as insurance availability, improved views, and reduced potential for loss
                  of life or property.

    Alternative 3: Maintain, enforce, and update Zoning Ordinance as needed.

                  The Zoning Ordinance is a reflection of the City’s long term land use
                  planning. Through zoning a city is able to restrict particular types of land use
                  in certain areas. Appropriate zoning initiative can also be used to direct
                  growth to more appropriate areas where the chances of a flood hazard are
                  substantially reduced. Furthermore the Zoning Ordinance can encourage the
                  placement of parks, campgrounds, trails, and other green space activity closer
                  to flood prone areas where the view is often more scenic. These uses, while
                  an asset to the community, are not likely to sustain long-term damage from
                  flood events.

                  It is the feeling of the City Engineer and the Planning Committee that this
                  may be the most effective strategy in reducing the effects of flooding along
                  the Dry Run Creek. As more area of the city is developed the water is more

               efficiently routed as to not cause flash flooding. This is a case where
               development is actually anticipated to help the flooding situation.

Alternative 4: Ensure proper training and certification of Floodplain Manager(s).

               Currently the city employs one individual who has the responsibility of
               ensuring that the Floodplain Ordinance is adhered to. The city should ensure
               that the individual(s) charged with this duty has up to date training and
               certification so that proper enforcement of the ordinance is applied and
               accurate information can be relayed to interested parties.

Alternative 5: Development of a Storm Water Management Program.

               The development of a storm water management program .is not yet required
               for cities the size of Waverly. This being said, it is likely that it will be a
               requirement in the not so distant future.

               A storm water management program would include several different
               requirements. First, it would involve a public education and outreach plan.
               Second, the development of the program would require public involvement
               and participation. Third, steps would have to be taken to detect and eliminate
               illicit discharge from storm water drainage before it entered its primary water
               body (in the case of Waverly; the Cedar River). Fourth, some sort of post
               construction storm water management would need to be in place. Finally,
               pollution prevention/good housekeeping education and oversight would need
               to be provided for all municipal operations.

Alternative 6: Flood proofing of structures in the floodplain.

               This alternative is viewed less attractive than the removal of these structures
               from the floodplain altogether. Although it is a less desirable alternative, it is
               still considered a possibility for those structures that are immovable or for
               those homeowners who do not wish to relocate.

               Many people may not be aware of some of the measures that can be taken to
               flood proof a facility. For instances such as this, efforts should be made to
               educate the general public as to their options.

Alternative 7: Replacement or Increased Capacity of 3 rd Street Bridge.

               This alternative was considered due to the bridge holding water back from
               flowing downstream and out of the community during the 1999 flooding.
               The Iowa DNR has specific regulations that state new bridges must have
               three foot clearance between the 50 year flood stage and the lowest point on
               the bridge. According to the 2001 Waverly Flood Study, that makes the
               replacement of this bridge at its current location more difficult. Four
               specific alternatives are actually being studied at this time. These alternatives
               include leaving the bridge as it currently is, raising the current structure,
               change bridge to pedestrian use only, or build an entirely new structure at an
              alternative location. More details of this project can be found by referencing
              the 2001 Waverly Flood Study prepared by Stanley Consultants Incorporated.

Alternative 8: Kohlmann Park Levee/Floodwall

              This alternative is attractive due to the fact that it is estimated that this project
              could protect as many as 400 homes that were flooded during the 1999 flood
              events. The negative aspects of this particular project are primarily based
              upon the concern of sacrificing the natural aesthetics of the riverside park.
              The levee design, as described in the 2001 Waverly Flood Study, call for the
              levee to be built three feet above the 100-year flood level. This would result
              in an eight-foot embankment in the park. The construction of this
              embankment would eliminate the view of the river, result in the destruction
              of most of the trees in the park, and require the placement of fill in the
              floodway. More details of this project can be found by referencing the 2001
              Waverly Flood Study prepared by Stanley Consultants Incorporated.

Alternative 9: Left Bank Flood Walls

              The placement of flood walls along the left bank of the river, across from
              Kohlmann Park would likely result in the benefit of protecting approximately
              25 homes from flooding. This alternative would require the construction of a
              wall, in two segments, from the powerhouse to the City Office Building
              embankment and then from the north end of that embankment to the railroad
              embankment. More details of this project can be found by referencing the
              2001 Waverly Flood Study prepared by Stanley Consultants Incorporated.

Alternative 10: Replace the Power Dam

              Replacement of the Power Dam is seen as an attractive alternative. The idea
              behind this replacement would be to construct a rubber inflatable dam in
              place of the current dam. This would allow the dam to be deflated during
              high water events thus allowing more water to escape downstream at a faster
              rate. Then, during normal flow, the dam could be inflated in order to
              maintain appropriate pool levels.

              There where two alternatives identified for the dam construction. The first
              required the construction of a 7.7-foot high dam. This alternative predicted
              that it would be able to contain a 100-year flood event almost entirely within
              the river channel. The second option called for the construction of a 5.5 foot
              dam with additional freeboard in the form of three foot high levees along the
              river. This would be a lower cost alternative that would still maintain the
              view of the river in the nearby communities.

              More details of this project can be found by referencing the 2001 Waverly
              Flood Study prepared by Stanley Consultants Incorporated.

Alternative 11: Raise 7th Ave. SE

              The elevation of this street was considered to protect houses in and around
              Crestwood Park. During the 1999 flood event many of these homes were cut
              off from access due to water overflowing the aforementioned avenue. This
              street could be elevated approximately two feet in order to keep these
              structures accessible during flood events up to and including a twenty year
              flood event. More details of this project can be found by referencing the
              2001 Waverly Flood Study prepared by Stanley Consultants Incorporated.

Alternative 12: Cedar Lane Bike Path

              Two options were identified for the Cedar Lane Bike Path in the 2001
              Waverly Flood Study. The first option was to widen Cedar Lane by 14 feet.
              The second option called for the construction of a 14-foot wide bench at the
              approximate 5-year flood level. The construction of the bike trail would
              provide an excellent addition to existing facilities for recreational purposes.
              These two options were initially discouraged by the Department of Natural
              Resources because both alternatives would likely require fill to be placed in
              the floodway.       Construction methods that would satisfy floodplain
              requirements and still provide adequate facilities are being explored.

B. Earthquake Mitigation

Alternative 1: Systematically review and make necessary updates to building code

              The development and application of Building Codes are the most vital
              mitigating activity in the effort to curb earthquake and tornado damage.
              Although the chance of an earthquake affecting the City of Waverly is
              unlikely, the need to keep building codes current is not reduced. Therefore
              this alternative is viewed as easily achievable and necessary action.

Alternative 2: Improve public awareness of proper steps to be taken in the event of an

              Public officials should develop a plan of action to ensure public awareness of
              the necessary precautions that should be taken in the event of an earthquake.
              Such a plan may include a short lesson provided through the local school
              system to children. Other ideas commonly used for public awareness include
              pamphlets and public notices.

C. Tornado and High Wind Mitigation

Alternative 1: Systematically review and make necessary updates to building code

              Building codes are constantly changing. Therefore, in order to provide
              minimum standards for the protection of life, limb, property, environment,

              and for the safety and welfare of the general public, building codes should be
              occasionally updated. This will allow the codes to reflect the safest known
              construction methods without restricting growth.

Alternative 2: Develop a “Tornado Safe Room” awareness program.

              The majority of the houses in Waverly are probably built in accordance with
              the local building codes that consider the effects of minimum, “code-
              approved” design winds in the area. Building codes require that buildings be
              able to withstand a “design” wind event. A tornado or extreme hurricane can
              cause winds much greater than those on which local code requirements are
              based. Having a house built to “code” does not mean that the house can
              withstand wind from any event, no matter how extreme.

              Tornado Safe Rooms can greatly reduce the chance of bodily injury
              associated with a tornado. Having a shelter, or a safe room, built in a house
              can help individuals and families protect themselves from injury or death
              caused by the dangerous forces of extreme winds. It can also relieve some of
              the anxiety created by the threat of an oncoming tornado or hurricane.
              Citizens should be made aware of the risks associated with tornados and the
              steps that they can take to reduce these risks. The knowledge of the
              availability of Tornado Safe Rooms would be a great stride towards that goal.

Alternative 3: Develop a NOAA Weather Radio awareness program.

              Although not exclusively for protection from Tornado or High Wind events,
              the NOAA Weather Radio provides an excellent source of information
              regarding up to date weather related events. Awareness of this resource
              should be considered a priority in order to allow citizens to be well informed
              and therefore able to take appropriate shelter in advance of storm conditions.

Alternative 4: Improve public awareness of proper steps to be taken in the event of a
               possible tornado.

              This alternative is currently taking shape in the form of frequent public
              service announcements on local radio and television stations.           The
              development and/or continuation of a youth tornado awareness program
              should be considered in order to educate the youth of Waverly. Flyers and
              mailers are often used to get relevant information to the public at large in
              addition to local media outlets.

D. Provide Superior Emergency Services

Alternative 1: Purchase and install additional outdoor warning sirens as necessary to ensure
               coverage to areas of future growth.

              The purchase and installation of additional outdoor warning sirens is not
              necessary at this time. The community currently has adequate outdoor siren
              coverage. The sirens can be heard throughout the community and are

              equipped with a battery back up system to be used in the case of a power

              However, the committee recognizes the possibility of future addition to this
              system if the city expands to areas that are currently not covered. This is a
              precautionary alternative that will be utilized only if the population migrates
              outside the coverage area, yet within city limits.

Alternative 2: Regularly review and amend Fire, Medical, and Hazardous Material response
               standard operating procedures.

              The regular review of the standard operations regarding disaster response is a
              necessary step in ensuring that the appropriate measures are taken in time of
              disaster. The plans should be reviewed to ensure the maximum level of
              response and the plans should be coordinated so as not to interfere or overlap
              responsibilities between responsible parties, unless that is the intent of the

Alternative 3: Maintain existing 28E agreements with surrounding communities for mutual
               aid assistance.

              The City of Waverly currently holds several agreements with surrounding
              communities to provide and be provided mutual assistance in times of
              disaster. The communities within Bremer County have been and should
              continue to cooperate to ensure mutual assistance to one another.

Alternative 4: Install Global Positioning Systems in all emergency vehicles.

              The installation of GPS (Global Positioning Systems) would speed response
              routes and allow for easy monitoring of the location of said emergency
              vehicles. This alternative is especially attractive when the city fire
              department must travel to rural areas that may or may not be familiar to the
              driver of the unit.

Alternative 5: Acquire a new venue for Emergency Disaster Coordination.

              The current emergency response center is located in the public works facility.
              The structure is old and does not provide the necessary amenities necessary
              to provide the best service possible. Therefore the solution considered for
              this problem involved either the construction of a new site to carry out such
              activities or perhaps locate a preexisting site that would provide the necessary
              facilities (i.e. phone connections, adequate room, internet accessibility, radio
              communication equipment, etc.).

              In addition, an alternative sight should be identified in the case that the
              primary sight is rendered unusable for any number of reasons. This would
              help to ensure that coordination in times of disaster goes as smoothly as

                     FUNDING OF ALTERNATIVES

                                          Funding Sources             Viability
                                    Federal     State         Local    Good,
    Alternative                      Funds      Funds         Funds    Fair, or       Comments
                      Cost ($)
                                      ($)        ($)           ($)      Poor

Acquisition and      NA            Will likely require a              Good        Housing buyouts
Removal of                         combination of funding                         are currently under
Structures from                    resources from all three levels                way. Cost will
Flood Zone                         of government of which the                     vary depending on
                                   majority will need to be                       access to funding.
                                   acquired from federal funding
Continue NFIP        625                               625            Good        $125 annual
Participation                                                                     training
Maintain, Enforce,   75,000                             75,000        Good        Cost reflects staff
and Update Zoning                                                                 time for review
Ordinance                                                                         and counsel.
Systematic Review    500                                500           Good        Cost reflects staff
of Hazard Response                                                                time for review
Policies                                                                          and counsel.
Ensure Proper        0*                                 0*            Good        *Cost accounted
Training of Flood                                                                 for in NFIP
Plain Managers                                                                    Membership
Development of       275,000                            275,000       Poor        May be soon
Storm Water                                                                       required by law.
Flood Proofing of    NA                                 NA            Fair        Many alternatives
Structures in the                                                                 available
Floodplain                                                                        depending on
3rd Street Bridge    2 million                          2 million     Fair        Several
Alternatives                                                                      alternatives being
Kohlmann Park        742,000                            742,000       Fair        Aesthetics aside,
Levee/Floodwall.                                                                  seems to be very
                                                                                  attractive option.
Left Bank            438,750                            438,750       Poor        Cost/benefit ratio
Floodwalls                                                                        not as attractive as
                                                                                  previous option.
Replace Power        1.4 million                        1.4 million   Good        Another very
Dam                                                                               attractive option
                                                                                  that may salvage
                                                                                  view from park.

Cedar Lane Bike        675,981                           675,981       Fair         Must satisfy DNR
Path                                                                                Regulations
Elevation of 7th       65,000                            65,000        Good         Can be
Ave. SE                                                                             accomplished
                                                                                    during 2003
Systematic Review      1,200                             1,200         Good         Cost reflects staff
and Update of                                                                       time for review
Building Codes                                                                      and counsel.
Improve Public         1,100                             1,100         Good         Likelihood of
Earthquake                                                                          occurrence reduces
Awareness                                                                           cost/benefit ratio.
“Tornado Safe          1,100                             1,100         Good         Cost reflects cost
Room” Awareness                                                                     of publication and
Program                                                                             dispersal.
Develop NOAA           1,100                             1,100         Good         Cost reflects cost
Weather Radio                                                                       of publication and
Awareness Program                                                                   dispersal.
Improve Awareness      1,100                             1,100         Good         Cost reflects cost
of Proper Steps to                                                                  of publication and
be taken during a                                                                   dispersal.
Tornado Event
Purchase and           15,000 per                        15,000 per    Poor         Currently adequate
Installation of        siren                             siren                      coverage within
Additional Outdoor                                                                  city limits.
Regular Review         500                               500           Good         Cost reflects staff
and Update of Fire,                                                                 time for review
Medical, and                                                                        and counsel.
Maintain Existing      1,250                             1,250         Good         Cost reflects staff
Mutual Aid                                                                          review, legal
Agreements for                                                                      counsel, and
Emergency Support                                                                   recording fees.
Install GPS Units in   250,000                           250,000       Fair         Likely will
Emergency                                                                           cooperate with all
Vehicles                                                                            emergency

*Many of these projects may be eligible for state and federal assistance at some time. For the purposes
of this plan only funds currently secured are listed in the state and/or federal assistance columns. All
other costs are contained under local funding until alternative funding sources are identified.


    The following summary serves as a recommendation from the preparing body. Many
    alternatives were identified and discussed. The summary acts as a priority list of which
    projects should be considered most important for the life of this plan.

    Waverly has come through the most flood-stricken decade in its entire history during the
    1990’s. Therefore, it is necessary to view flooding as the most substantial threat to the
    health and well being of the community and its residents. Although the other hazards are
    continually a threat to the community, the lack of historical occurrence in comparison to
    flooding demands that flood mitigation be the priority.

    Recommendation #1, #2, #3, #4 and #5

    ► Acquisition and Removal of Structures From Flood Plain (Short Term)
    ► Rubber Dam (Short Term)
    ► Kohlmann Park Levee (Short Term)
    ► East Bank Floodwall (Short Term)
    ► Raise 7th Avenue SE (Short Term)

    Currently, and into the foreseeable future, the acquisition and removal of structures from the
    flood zone is the most viable hazard mitigation alternative available. Four reasons support
    this conclusion. First, it eliminates the reoccurrence of financial loss done to structures that
    have been repetitively damaged and repaired by numerous flood events. Second, it lessens
    the likelihood of the loss of life. If less people live in the flood zone, less people have the
    chance of being flooded. Third, the boundaries of the project are easily identifiable. Past
    flood studies clearly define which areas of the city are at risk of flood hazard. Finally, there
    is financial assistance available to the city for this program. As a result of the past flood
    events, Waverly is eligible, and have taken advantage of federal funds that followed
    Presidential Declared Emergencies.

    The next four recommendations all come as a result of the 2001 Waverly Flood study as
    prepared for the city by Stanley Consultant’s Incorporated. The engineers who drafted the
    flood study recognized these recommendations as the three most legitimate alternatives.
    These alternatives stand to remove hundreds of homes and thousands of people out of harms
    way. Therefore they cannot be easily disregarded. More in-depth study and analysis will
    have to be performed in order to accomplish these goals. Furthermore, federal assistance
    will most likely be required in order to accomplish these goals.

    Recommendation #6, #7, and #8

    ► Routine Review and Update of Ordinances and Plans (Continuing)
    ► Maintenance of Mutual Aid Agreements (Continuing)
    ► Continue NFIP Membership (Continuing)

    Many of the alternatives explored in this plan are a matter of routine. For example, Waverly
    currently updates its Building Codes as necessary and regularly reviews the Zoning
    Ordinance. Nevertheless, the need for these systematic tasks to continue is essential to
    keeping the community as safe as possible. Therefore, they are included in this plan as a
    reminder to their importance and to ensure their continuation.

     Recommendation #9

     ► Improve Public Awareness (Short Term & Continuing)

     Several of the alternatives explored in this plan are simply intended to attain goals of having
     a more informed public. Public awareness of disaster includes both being notified when a
     disaster is occurring or about to occur. Perhaps more important is the awareness that is
     achieved long before the onset of any peril. The public awareness alternatives are attractive
     from a couple of standpoints. First, they are of minimal cost to the community. Second,
     they are very effective in helping ordinary citizens to mitigate disasters without government
     assistance, which can result in lower post hazard mitigation costs to the community.

     Recommendation #10

     ► Development of a Storm Water Management Program (Long Term)

     The development of a Storm Water Management Program is recommended as a long-term
     goal for two primary reasons. First, it is likely that sometime in the future cities the size of
     Waverly will be required to implement this program. Having knowledge of the
     requirements called for in the implementation phases of a project such as this will benefit the
     city when that time comes. Second, the cost of implementing a program such as this is
     expensive and will require some type of funding from the local government. The sooner
     that the city begins planning for funding of this program, the less traumatic it will be if it is
     required in the future. Several larger cities in the region have already starting implementing
     Storm Water Management Programs and could be used for reference if necessary.


  1. Priorities

        Acquisition and Removal of Structures From Flood Plain
        Rubber Dam
        Kohlmann Park Levee
        East Bank Floodwall
        Routine Review and Update of Ordinances and Plans
        Maintenance of Mutual Aid Agreements
        Continue NFIP Membership
        Improve Public Awareness
        Development of a Storm Water Management Program

  2. Phasing

             Phasing is a budgetary responsibility of the City Council or designated appointee
             who will review the projects annually. For projects that are entirely funded by local
             funds or require a local match commitment, the city should begin setting aside the
             appropriate resources to meet their liability.

   3. Responsibility

             The responsibility for reviewing and implementing this plan falls with the City
             Administration and the City Council.

   4. Schedule

             Projects should be reviewed for progress and update on an annual basis.

   5. Next Steps

             The City Council should review the effect of this Plan on existing codes and/or
             ordinances and officially adopt the Local Hazard Mitigation Plan.


Periodic Evaluation of Progress

      As part of the budget process, the city prepares a multi-year Capital Improvements Program.
      Mitigation projects should be included in the process.

Plan Review and Update

      This Hazard Mitigation Plan will be incorporated into the city’s Community Strategic Plan,
      which includes such items as the Community Builder Plan, Housing Needs Assessment,
      Land Use Plan, and Capital Improvements Program. This will ensure the systematic review
      and update of this and other plans.

Statement of Progress

      Waverly has made tremendous progress in recent years on its efforts to mitigate hazards.
      This is due largely to the fact that they have had to face several major floods in the most
      recent decade. Through these experiences the city has developed a new appreciation for the
      benefits that sound land use planning and the effectiveness of up to date Building and
      Zoning Codes. Waverly has received the task of preparing this plan, as a welcome step in
      identifying the future needs of the community. The community is mindful that the identified
      projects outlined in this plan are an important step in the road leading to a disaster resistant


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