Token-Ring Technology

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					Module
Token-Ring Technology
                Ring Topology Characteristics




                                                May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 2
               Ring attachment

 What                  happens if a station is switched off ?




                                                        May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 3
                Logical Ring / Physical Star




From RO on
                                                   TO RI on
  Previous
                             RI           RO         Next
    MAU
                                                     MAU



                     Relay




                                               May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 4
                   Ring in / Ring out

                                             RI                             RO

                                         RO                                 RI



                                                        Back-up Ring Path
From RO on
  Previous                                                                                  To RI on
    MAU           RI                                                             RO           Next
                                                                                              MAU
                                                           Main Ring Path




                                             Inserted                BY-PASS

                                                                                      May 1996
    Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 5
               Primary / Back-up Path
                       What happens if the cable is removed between the MAUs?
                       What happens if RI is Connected to RI on the next MAU?
                       What happens if the cable breaks between the two MAUs?




                                              Primary Path




                                   RI    RO    Back-up Path   RI   RO

                                   RO    RI                   RO   RI




                                                                        May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 6
               Maximum Stations on a Ring
                 IBM            Specification (old)
                           STP                         4 Mbps   260
                           STP                        16 Mbps   260
                           UTP Cat 2                   4 Mbps    72
                           UTP Cat 3                   4 Mbps    72
                           UTP Cat 4/5                 4 Mbps    72
                           UTP Cat 4/5                16 Mbps   132

                 802.5              Specification (new)
                           STP                        4 Mbps    250
                           STP                      16 Mbps     250
                           UTP                        4 Mbps    144
                           UTP                      16 Mbps     250
                           UTP Active LAM            4 Mbps      72
                           UTP Active LAM           16 Mbps      72
                                                                   May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 7
Token-Ring
  Cabling
Cabling System Overview


                                                                               Distribution Panel
            A1                              A B C D E F G H
                                         1
                                         2
                                         3

                                         
                                         4
                                         5                     
                                         6                                       Faceplate
                                         7

            B3                           
                                         8
                                                                                                 Workstations
                                                           
                                                           
                                                                                                  G2
    Workstations                                           
                                                   .
                                                   .
    Multistation                                                           Adapter Cables
    Access Units                                   .                                                     H2
                                                19” Rack

                                   Workstation A1 and B3 connected to same network
                                                                                             May 1996
                                   Workstation G2 and H2 connected to same network
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 9
Wiring System Overview

 Cabling limitations
 Requirement for worst-case calculations
 Where is the signal regenerated ?
 What are the limitations ?

                                                              1
                                                 A=100m
                                                                      B=100m

                                          4
                                                                                 2
                                              D=100m
                                                                  C=100m

Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 10
                                                          3           May 1996
IBM Cabling System

     Type 1                      Copper     Two AWG 22 Main Paths work Area’s to wiring closet


     Type 2                      Copper     Two AWG 22    Work Area to wiring closet

     Type 3                      Copper     Four AWG 26 Work Area to wiring closet


     Type 5                      Fiber      Two Fibers 100/140          Main Paths inter building


     Type 5J                     Fiber      Two Fibers 50/125           Main Paths work Area’s to wiring close

     Type 6                      Stranded   Two 26 AWG    Main Paths work Area’s to wiring closet

     Type 8                      Copper     Two 22 AWG    Main Paths work Area’s to wiring closet

     Type 9                      Copper     Two AWG 26    Main Paths ( Plenum)




                                                                                                           May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 11
          IBM Wiring Distance 4Mbps (Type 1,2)
                                                          Number of Racks
          1            2                3           4          5       6     7        8           9     10
     1     385
     2     380         370
     3     375         365              360                                  Meters
     4     370         360              355         350
     5     365         355              350         345        340
     6     360         350              345         340        335     330
     7     355         345              340         335        330     325   320
     8     350         340              335         330        325     320   315      310
     9     345         335              330         325        320     315   310      305         300
     10    340         330              325         320        315     310   305      300         295   290
     11    335         325              320         315        310     305   300      295         290   285
     12    330         320              315         310        305     300   295      290         285   280
     13                315              310         305        300     295   290      285         280   275
     14                310              305         300        295     290   285      280         275   270
M    15                305              300         295        290     285   280      275         270   265
     16                300              295         290        285     280   275      270         265   260
A    17                295              290         285        280     275   270      265         260   255

U’   18
     19
                       290
                       285
                                        285
                                        280
                                                    280
                                                    275
                                                               275
                                                               270
                                                                       270
                                                                       265
                                                                             265
                                                                             260
                                                                                      260
                                                                                      255
                                                                                                  255
                                                                                                  250
                                                                                                        250
                                                                                                        245
s    20
     21
                       280
                       275
                                        275
                                        270
                                                    270
                                                    265
                                                               265
                                                               260
                                                                       260
                                                                       255
                                                                             255
                                                                             250
                                                                                      250
                                                                                      245
                                                                                                  245
                                                                                                  240
                                                                                                        240
                                                                                                        235
     22                270              265         260        255     250   245      240         235   230
     23                265              260         255        250     245   240      235         230   225
     24                260              255         250        245     240   235      230         225   220
     25                                 250         245        240     235   230      225         220   215
     26                                 245         240        235     230   225      220         215   210
     27                                 240         235        230     225   220      215         210   205
     28                                 235         230        225     220   215      210         205   200
     29                                 230         225        220     215   210      205         200   195
     30                                 225         220        215     210   205      200         195   190
     31                                 220         215        210     205   200      195         190   185
     32                                 215         210        205     200   195      190         185   180
     33                                 210         205        200     195   190      185         180   175




                                                                                            May 1996
          Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 12
     IBM Wiring Distance 16 Mbps (Type 1,2)
                                                        Number of Racks
            1            2               3         4          5       6     7     8                9    10
     1       173
     2       170         160
     3       166         156             151
     4       162         152             147       142
     5       158         148             143       138        133
     6       154         144             139       134        129     124

M    7
     8
             146
             142
                         136
                         132
                                         135
                                         131
                                                   130
                                                   126
                                                              125
                                                              121
                                                                      120
                                                                      116
                                                                            115
                                                                            111   106
A    9       138         128             127       122        117     112   107   102              97

U'   10
     11
             134
             131
                         124
                         121
                                         123
                                         119
                                                   118
                                                   114
                                                              113
                                                              109
                                                                      108
                                                                      104
                                                                            103
                                                                            99
                                                                                  98
                                                                                  94
                                                                                                   93
                                                                                                   89
                                                                                                        88
                                                                                                        84
s    12                  117             116       111        106     101   96    91               86   81
     13                  113             112       107        102     97    92    87               82   77
     14                  109             108       103        98      93    88    83               78   73
     15                  105             104       99         94      89    84    79               74   69
     16                  101             100       95         90      85    80    75               70   65
     17                  97              96        91         86      81    76    71               66   61
     18                  93              93        87         83      77    72    67               62   57
     19                  85              88        83         78      73    68    63               58   53
     20                  77              80        75         70      65    60    55               50   45
     21                  69              72        67         62      57    52    47               42   37
     22                  61              65        59         54      49    44    39               34   29
     23                  53              56        51         46      41    36    31               26   21
     24                                  48        43         38      33    28    23               18   13
     25                                  40        35         30      25    20    15               10   5
     26                                  32        27         22      17    12    7
     27                                  23        18         13      8     3
     28                                  15        10         5
     29                                  7



                                                                                        May 1996
         Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 13
UTP “Unshielded Twisted Pair” Cabling


       UTP cable specifications are defined in EIA/TIA-568
               Commercial Building Wiring Standard with EIA/TIA Technical Systems Bulletin No. 36 which defines 5
                categories of unshielded four-pair 100 ohm UTP cable:

       Category 1: Voice only
       Category 2: Low-speed data.
               This category of cable can only be used in 4 Mbps Token-Ring
               IBM cabling system Type 3 Media fall in this category

       Category 3: Data, through 16 MHz.
               Intended for data transmission rates up to 10 Mbps.            AT&T Systimax PDS LAN cable 1010
                Fall in this category

       Category 4: Data, through 20 MHz.
               Intended for data transmission rates up to 16 Mbps.            AT&T Systimax PDS LAN cable
                1061/2061 Fall in this category

       Category 5: Data, through 100 MHz.
               Intended for data transmission rates up to 100 Mbps.           Exceeds the requirements for 16
                Mbps Token-Ring cabling




                                                                                                                 May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 14
UTP Cabling Distances

 IEEE 802.5 Recommend
    it is recommended that the concentrator manufacturer
     provide a table that shows the maximum supported cable
     length ( budget), for the types of media specified in
     ANSI/EIA/TIA 568A for passive concentrators.
 This               is due to complex calculations
Cable_Budget=( 19 - ( CLATT+CLSQA) - ( n-1) ( CTATT+CTSQA+0.1)) / 2( CA)

         CA = Cable Attenuation dB / meter
         N = Number of concentrators
         CLATT = Concentrator Maximum flat attenuation
         CTATT= Concentrator Trunk flat loss
         CLSQA= frequency dependent loss



                                                            May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 15
 Olicom Lobe length UTP MAU 16 Mbps

                                 Lobe 1: Belden 1154A T3M E 34972 24 AWG
                                         Lobe 2: AT&T-D Systimax PDS FE 2061 1061 4/24T (UL) TYPE CMP (Category 4)
                                                       Lobe 3: AT&T-D CD DIW 4/24 (UL) TYPE CMR




 No of          No of         Lobe 1        Lobe 2    Lobe 3              No of         No of      Lobe 1      Lobe 2   Lobe 3
Adapters        MAU           Meters        Meters    Meters             Adapters       MAU        Meters      Meters   Meters

  1 - 8            1             82          125         87             105 - 112         14         55          98      60
 9 - 16            2             79          122         84             113 - 120         15         53          96      58
17 - 24            3             77          120         82             121 - 128         16         51          94      56
25   -   32        4             75          118         80             129   -   136     17         49          92      54
33   -   40        5             73          116         78             137   -   144     18         47          90      52
41   -   48        6             71          114         76             145   -   152     19         45          88      50
49   -   56        7             69          112         74             153   -   160     20         43          86      48
57   -   64        8             67          110         72             161   -   168     21         41          84      46
65   -   72        9             65          108         70             169   -   176     22         38          81      43
73   -   80       10             63          106         68             177   -   184     23         36          79      41
81   -   88       11             61          104         66             185   -   192     24         34          77      39
89   -   96       12             59          102         64             193   -   200     25         32          75      37
97   -   104      13             57          100         62


                                                                                                             May 1996
  Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 16
Cable Drive Distance


                                          c                                           Example:
                                                                                      a = 20m
                                                                                      b = 30m
          .                                   .                           .           c = 80m
                                a                          b                          d = 100m
          d
                                                                                      e = 5m per MAU
                            Drive distance with longest lobe active is:               (general guide-line)
                            a + b + c + 2 x d +3 x e
                            ( 20+ 30+ 80 + 200 + 15 ) = 345m


                                          c

          .                                   .                           .
                                                           b
         d
                            Worst case: drive distance with longest lobe active is:
                            2 x (b + c + d + 3 x e)
                            2 x ( 30 + 80+ 100 + 15 ) = 450


                                                                                      May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 17
 Adjusted Ring Length (Longest lobe lgth)

Token-Ring Wiring Components

                ARL:
                   Used for problem determination
                   is the length of the main ring with the shortest
                    segment removed
                   ARL + longest lobe length is max. 385m (4 Mbps) or
                    173m (16 Mbps)
                                       c                                  Example:
                                                                          a = 20m
                                                                          b = 30m
           .                                .                     .       c = 80m
                                a                      b                  d = 100m
          d
                                                                          e = 5m per MAU
                                ARL = (a + b + c + 3 x e) - a =           (general guide-line)
                                ARL= ( 20 + 30+ 80 +15 ) -20 = 125m
                                Longest lobe (4 Mbps) is 385-125 = 260m
                                Longest lobe (16 Mbps) is 173-125 = 48m
                                                                          May 1996
  Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 18
CAU Cabling Distance ease Calculations

 CAU functions as a repeater
    Always at two adapters in Main Ring
 Maximum                             Lobe length


                                             Backup Path
                                                  or
                                               Internal


                         Ring In                           Ring Out




                                                                      May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 19
STP Connector wiring




                                          Black
                                          Orange
                                          Green
                                          Red




                                                   May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 20
UTP Connector wiring




                             RJ-45



                                          1
                                          2
                                          3= LRX-A
                                          4= LTX-A
                                          5= LTX-B
                                          6= LRX-B
                                          7
                                          8
                                                     May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 21
Questions

                                          A




                                                 50 m
                                          20 m           30 m
                                                 118 m



                                                                80 m




                                           B               C           May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 22
Answers to exercise
A.               What is the max. Lobe length in the above configuration
                 when 4 Mbps is used.      152 meters

B.               What is the max. Lobe length in the above configuration
                 when 16 Mbps is used.     Will NOT work

C.               Will the max. lobe length change, if station C is powered off        NO

D.               What is the cable impedance for STP cabling            150 Ohm

E.               What is the cable impedance for UTP CAT 5 cabling 100 Ohm

F.               CAN the STP / UTP Cabling be mixed on the Main Ring                  NO




                                                                           May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 23
Token-Ring
 Protocol
               Token Passing Ring
                  When a frame reaches an addressed station, the
                   frame is copied and the station sets the Frame Copied
                   bit.
                  Sending station removes the frame again by changing
                   the frame into a Token.
                  Where is the signal a token, and where is it a frame?
                                                            Transmitting Station

                                      B            A
                                                               Receiving Station

                                                        D
                                          C
                                Frame                                    Token
   SD AC Frame Dest SRC Routing Data          ED   FS        Starting    Access        Ending
         Control Addr Addr info                              Delimiter   Control      Delimiter


                                                                                   May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 25
        Early Token Release “Think Big”

                The sending station issues a token just after
                 transmission of frame.
                Several frames - only one token

                                                                                                                  Token
                                                                                                     Starting         Access     Ending
                                                                                                     Delimiter        Control   Delimiter



                                                                                                                                                      A
4 Mbps 1 Bit = 50 Meters                       SD   AC Frame        Dest        SRC          Routing         Data         ED     FS

   Token = 1 200 meters
                                                       Control      Addr        Addr          info
                                                                                                                                            B
    Min Frame = 10 000 meters
                                                                                                   Token

16 Mbps 1 Bit = 12.5 meters                                                            Starting     Access           Ending


                                                                                                                                                           D
                                                                                       Delimiter    Control         Delimiter
    Token = 300 meters                                                                       Frame
     Min Frame = 2 00 meters                                       Frame       Dest       SRC      Routing
                                                        SD   AC                                                Data       ED    FS
                                                                   Control     Addr       Addr      info




                                                              SD     AC      Frame
                                                                             Control
                                                                                          Dest
                                                                                          Addr
                                                                                                   SRC
                                                                                                      Frame

                                                                                                   Addr
                                                                                                             Routing
                                                                                                              info
                                                                                                                         Data   ED    FS
                                                                                                                                                C


                                                                                                                                                May 1996
     Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 26
                Token Passing Ring
               Transmitupon receipt of a free token
               Change the Token into a frame.

                                            Token
                               SD            AC       ED

                         Starting           Access     Ending
                         Delimiter          Control   Delimiter
                         1 Byte              1 Byte     1 Byte



                                           Frame

SD AC Frame Dest SRC Routing Data                            ED   FS
      Control Addr Addr info




                                                                       May 1996
 Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 27
   Station Insertion and Wire Test



Phase 0: Lobe Test
         Physical insertion
Phase 1: Active Monitor
         Detect
Phase 2: Duplicate
         Address check
Phase 3: Neighbor
         Notification
Phase 4: Request
          Initialization




                                          May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 28
   Ring Management

           Why is management of the ring needed?
           What kind of management is required ?



                                                  A
                                          B

                                                      D
                                              C


                                                      May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 29
   Management Functions


      ActiveMonitor
      Ring Error Monitor
      Ring Parameter Server
      Configuration Report Server




                                          May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 30
The Active Monitor and the Standby Monitor


    Detection/recovery  of circulation tokens or frames
    Detection/recovery of lost tokens or frames
    Detection/recovery of multiple tokens
    Detection/recovery of multiple Active Monitors
    Master clocking + 24 bit delay
    Initiate/Monitor Neighbor Notification




                                                 May 1996
 Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 31
   Ring Purge
                                                      Active Monitor



                                                  Purge frame




                                          • Check propagation
                                          • Reset stations
                                          • Restart timers




                                                                       May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 32
Claim Token “Select Active Monitor”

          Used to select an ACTIVE Monitor
          The Highest MAC address
          Claim Token Transmit
          Claim Token Repeat


                                                  A
                                          B

                                                      D
                                              C

                                                      May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 33
   “Hard Errors” and beaconing

           “Hard  errors” are permanent faults that stop
            normal traffic on the ring.
           When a station detects a “hard error” it
            starts sending Beacon MAC frames at
            specified interval until the signal is restored
            or the station removes itself.
           Nearest Active Upstream Neighbor (NAUN)
            goes off-line after some Beacons
           The station goes off-line
           Management is informed
              a set of addresses is provided
              by the station for location of fault
                                                       May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 34
   Soft Errors

          Caused   by temporary disruptions
              CRC errors etc...
          Recovery is normally handled by upper layer
           protocols.
          Critical soft error is monitored in each station
          Reported to the Ring Error Monitor address
          If threshold values are exceeded, a LAN
           Manager is informed.




                                                      May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 35
                Keeping the station busy
             with all this protocol handling?
              Not at all,
                 this is handled by the Token Ring Chipset
              Only frames addressed to the station and
               broadcast / multicast frames will interrupt
               the PC
              In promiscuous mode all frames will be
               delivered to the PC.



                                          Token-Ring
                                            Chipset
                                                       May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 36
   MAC Addressing


                               • Individual Addresses
                                      Universally Administered
                                      Locally Administered
                               • Group Addresses
                                      Standard Group Addresses
                                      Functional Addresses
                                      Broadcast Address
                                      Null Address




                                                                 May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 37
   Functional Addresses


                             Active Monitor                C0 00 00 00 00 00

                             Ring Parameter Server         C0 00 00 00 00 02

                             Ring Error Monitor            C0 00 00 00 00 08

                             Configuration Report Server   C0 00 00 00 0010

                             NetBIOS                       C0 00 00 00 00 80

                             Bridge                        C0 00 00 00 01 00

                             CAU / CAM                     C0 00 00 00 10 00




                                                                               May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 38
   Frame Formats

                                             DSAP SSAP C            I                      LLC


          Frame

           SD AC FC DA SA RI                                            FCS ED FS          MAC


           Token                          DSAP   = Destination Service Access Point (8 bits)
                                          SSAP   = Source Service Access Point (8 bits)
           SD AC FC                       C      = Control
                                          I      = Information
                                          SD     = Starting Delimiter
                 3 byte
                                          AC     = Access Control
                                          FC     = Frame Control
                                          DA     = Destination Address (6 bytes)
                                          SA     = Source Address (6 bytes)
                                          RI     = Routing Information (Optional)
                                          FCS    = Frame Check Sequence
                                          ED     = Ending Delimiter
                                          FS     = Frame Status


                                                                                                 May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 39
     Frame Formats

                                                                                            MAC
                    Destination            Source     Routing       Information
SD AC FC                                                                           FC ED FS Frame
                     Address               Address     Info             Field
                                                                                            Format
1b   1b     1b           6byte               6byte                    min. 1byte   4b   1b   1b


                                                                                                   LLC
                                                        Control      Information
                                          DSAP SSAP                                                Frame
                                                         Field           Field
                                                                                                   Format


                                          NetBIOS
                                                                  User Data                        NetBIOS
                                          Header



                                                           Server Message Block
                                                                                                   SMB




                                                                                             May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 40
   Exercise


    LAN Analyzer
       Connect the LAN Analyzer to the network.
       Which station is the Active Monitor?
       Disable the Active Monitor and trace the selection
        of new Active Monitor .
        Which station is selected?
       Introduce a Beacon situation - and trace it!
         Explain the beaconing process!




                                                        May 1996
Token-Ring Technology Rev. 1.00 Page 41