Algorithm Reading Assignment and Questions by lee92256


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      Business numbers
             bv                                                                                                                pow crolconrtutc.s' nca1hr 1   n algor ilhm s
                                                                                                                               crn cxt(ure hsl(s wilh blindiiS sptcd us
                                                                                                                               i Is vun anrcunts   otdata.
                                                                                                                                   sonrr of l hcs. l i rsks nior om {ichr
                                                                                                                               nislic(hanolhoilitr iDslancc,      pcol)k'oi
f4                                                                                                                             ter nrtrkc            w
                                                                                                                                           mrs{ l kcs hcn tlicykcv in t heir
E     c ons udr c r \ at r d c o n ,p u i e s i n c rc a s i n g l y d e p e ndonahi ddormathenrati cal w orl d
                                                                                                                               uedi r crrd.urnhcr\or1,n c.
                                                                                                                               ol Itansactionsb.iDs
                                                                                                                                                               Wilh r illions
                                                                                                                                                        trocesscdalariDre, a
                                                                                                                               rapi dw ry l ri w ccd ou( i nvr lid nu. r bcr s

        A t r i( n( llllM s s ,r' Id \!J rv ,,' f ' n rrr!\t                                       take
                                                                         AlSorirhnrscan many inng Al ils helDslo tce0 processnrg                            rimcsdown. !n.
      f1. . r ly        r , l,,rrol rra ,]ti l ,.J l l (,.J         c o r!, an rl gori l hm 1s a stcpbystcp l crthct uhnrl gori thm b clow)!,am cd        Gee
      I ic ir n\ .ln iac tr h c y h l v c b fd )D r (h c i n        n rc l hod (l oi nrrj dr. l l )csccanbc l tro ri l er i ts i nvcnl or, arr l uhi, ! n r HMr o
                                                                                 for                                                                H

      strudnlr manu h fdf a hosr of n,uline s a i r areci poi srnal gori thrnl orprcl ari ng                                   scarchcr.   'rho numbe$ on a dcdit card
      cor)slrnrcr     transrctions.    Browscfora booL a u l l -or theycdr be uD ythi ng                              bur (h. i dcnri l vthc crd tvpc,the issuer nd t hc
      on Amr^)n.cotrrand algoril|nrs Senc.alc dccjstuntrer poslftstharhaDA hospilai uscr' s                      oD                   accounl    numbef.   TIc lastnum bcr
                                ns                   k
      r c c om m c ndat i o fo r o th e rri rl e s ) b u y - walls and which hclp dodoi\ work oul ol all is scl ro ensurerhar rhc LuhDal8o
      B Lr y of y nn. llh e y c i pa l o 8 j s ti clsrm to whal is wnrng wlth a paricnl frcft his ri thmprodu(sal i gurcdi v isible t cn. I i
                                 h                     i                                                                                                            bv
      d0cideoD lhe bcst dclivery route.Ringro synrptonrs                            rrecallcdDcd icalalgodthnrs. i( rs.ihc card tru rbor has been propc,ly
      t hed(y ou ods f s p ro g re $ n dm o r0a l Bo
                                           n                            ' l hi sfornul ai cstvl eof (hl nLri ng i t      can   cntcrcdand theproccssingcan ahead.go
      r ir hm s Dr jn8                   l                th
                          inlo a c ri o n o d c rc rm i n c e s e l fbe a useful rool for                busi ncsses,    I,uch     Thd Luhnalgorithn pertbrns a simplc
      quicke( conrecrionlo and rhrougha call Iikc rhe riSour ol good prcjeclnranage calcularion.                                              [u( the rcal power ol alg]
      c c nt r e.r om ! nrl y s i n 8 o e d i t c a rdtra n s me n i . B ul comtutcr | ave nrade.i go ri l hnrs                                  w
                                                                                                                                      cnergcs henrheyar e! ul b wor k
      aclrons     to.lecrdinghow       losiacft  supennar rilhnrsiar nrore!nluablctocompanies.A oD much more complexprl,bleDs.A! tar
      ket shelves,       alBorjrhnl! now underph a compllicr prograrn a lvritlen encoding as most busiresscsare concerned,
                                                                                                    is                                                                 lhese
      l ar ge ount ole v e rv d a y l i l e .                       of an aLgori(hm,"              explainsADdrew Her problenrs            rypicallyhll into lwo typcs:inl.
           It'eir pervanlcdessretlcctsthc appli                                                                       in
                                                                    ben.who runsMic6sofi Rescarch Carn provingearjousprocesses, rs holv att                   such
      c.uion oi novcl computnlgpowcr to thc
      d8eold complexilies bustncss-No hu
                                  of                               I
      nran beinScan worlt iasr enough to pro t ootrythisat home
      cessaLl tle data available at a certanr                          lhE Ltrhialgonihm         foryaLrdatligoeditftrdi
      scale, saysMilte Lynch.hdss of Auton
      omy. a computing llnn that uscs algo                                                                                                                   4 !. 1.6
      rnhrnstonakescrseof un\t!ufi DEd dara.                                                                                                        2.!
      AlSonlhmscan.As lhc amounl of dataon
      everythingfrom        sho!prnshitbnsro media
                                                                       1.11d                                 ! 4 1 rrs d ; r
                                                                                                                                                   ':1.         '::
      consDlPron,ncreases              ar                                       "9rb!!1p. -     -dMsihL ty ten)
                                                                       ln*d-      30. (vtrridii
      c hoos e or epc rs o n a l i s a r' oa l,g o ri rh n s
      will only bercmemorcimportanr.
        TheEconomist       15th 2oo7
                   S€ptember                                                                                                                BriefingAlqorjth
                                                                                                                                                           ms 87

     > and sp€€dof an aircraft,           and re ordcrins                                                            supemarketrapjdlyto spotshiftsin rheir
       the qucuecan mininris€lhc dclay bcfotc                                                                        consumption      !atlems (caused children
       aLlth€ planesgel into the air (malhema_                                                                       soing10university,                   s
                                                                                                                                             say).Tesco res!onse
       ticians caU rhis lhc dcpallurc problcn).                                                                      raicsto suchtargeted      marLeting    standsat
       Air trafic conriollcrs havc always rcor                                                                       1(}2o%,againsl an induslry averageof
       deredplanes lhe depa ure queuernan
       ually,butrcsearcherare            workjngon algo                                                                 Convcrgys!van$ to bring more rcal-

       rithrnsrhatwould be mole eft cient.
       handy whenpeopl€areswampedby vast
       numbersof!ermutations,so sialistjcal

                     hclp tums to grapplewith com
                                                                                                                    timc daG to rhe operadonof call ccntres.
                                                                                                                     &rr Gordon gives the exampleol a cus-
                                                                                                                     tomerwho callsan elcctriciry
                                                                                                                     an areaihat has sufered a po\'€r failure
                                                                                                                     and,bcouuse where (h€y are speakiDg
                                                                                                                                                        utility from

       plex datasets.     Dunnhunlby,a dataanaly-                                                                   fron1, aulonratjcJly pui th.ough to an
       s is t um , us es                    o       d
                        algo ri th rn s lc ru n c h a tao n                                                         olerator who can deal wrth his qucries.
,]     cusLomcr       behavioul fol a Irumbcr of cli                                                                Suchalgoriihnrshelp fi|ms to ieasc sim
       enls.Itsbestknown cuslo,ner             (andmajol                                                            plicity from complexity.
       ny owner) is T€sco, Bitish supennartct                                                                           Algorithms,rc nor for €veryon€.         some
       wrfi a clubcardloyalty.card             schcmcrhar                                                                        wiU
                                                                                                                    co'npanics alwaysgenerate             moredata
       Bcnerat€samind-numbing of dataDn     now                                                                                       ol
                                                                                                                    rhun orhcLs, cou6e; retailers,           utilitics
       the puirhases of 1tnl mctnbcrs across                                                                        and teleconrs      frrms process   rnany rnorc
       55,ooopodud lines.lo ntrke scnscol il lhrd ii nright bc thr an0unt of moDey lGDsrclionsrhatr hoosc i.surers. whose
                                             c        u
       a ll.Dunnhum by s n a l y s tso o k e d p a n b c n r g
                                a                                       spent,l hc ppi ng aj l s
                                                                                    $hi        del      and the deah tend to happcn once a year.some
       alSorithncallcdlhc mllnrSbnll.                            tioe of day.aDdso on. Transacti0rs         lhen will ako bc more focusedthan othcrc on
 i          ll worksby assigninE
                                        nllribuleslo each Sct a fEUd 0(,pcnsi(v scorc based on how algorirhnrs shavccoslsor maxi
       ol t he pr oduc ls n ' i c s c o s h c l v e s . h c s c th e s € churacl cri ni csi
       rans - "f r or er s y l o c (l * 1 0 v a l u cfo r        which sco.cs
                                                                                                          dcci dc misc caprcily.Irinnslhal enjoy hjgh mar
                                                                                should ting alarn bclls and si ns tnd ni {)ngdc,nand e goiDg bc    ar           10
 l                                          s
       m o. c y ,f r om advc n l u rl ' u1 oi e s h . l n o .
                      r                    (l
       d c rlo giv e at ing s i o rc v c rvi mc n s i o o fu
                                                         n                        rru
                                                                    Al B ori (hnrs rnost    commonl y
                                                                                                                    l ess ofti cduboull he enicicncy t hcil
                                                                                                          associ . supfi v drri ns,saysIl au Le e, Slanf or d

       product, rolling.b ll .rlBolilhm nalts a( a tc d wj l h i nl cncl -scarch
                    thc            r                                                            cngi nes. The (nadur(e chool B usi ncss.
                                                                                                            "                  S          of
       (l' c c x lr em es : o s ri clh r8 c Ns a y ,w o u l d l u s s l e
                                     )u         ,                       bcLw ccn  MsN , (,oogl e andY ahool i s
       counlasv er yadv c n l u ()u sl.h c a l g o ri th n r ,b o u l w hoscal sori th produces best Rocltot
                                                                                                        thc                 scicncofor non-bofEns
      th.n trawls lhrough lcsds purchasing rcsullslo a qu0rv, obscrvesN,licrosoft\ w hrt i sN ' r0,l ol sol l hi ngs have)t ullink)                       t(
       data to sce what other froducts (staplcs M r tl c rb.rt-A sk.conr,                 anothcr   search    {rn plac f{tr rltorilhnrs ki work.Thcy teDdk)
      s uc has ilk andb rc a d a s i d o )rc n dw i n d gi.c,has cvcnlricd k) popularise lern
                  m                                to                                                  lhc          be haghlyconrplcEit is not casy b find
                                        ba                       h
       u p iDr hes anr . s h o p p i n g s k c ts a s o s tri c h a. adv{rlisarg cal|rpaign.lrw othcr pcopl cw i th hcr,ghlski l l sl o dcvck, p
                                                                                                                                   l                             and
      burge6do.Products           that cnronglyasso. lypcs of cotrrpanics so obviously dc
                                                                                        ard                         rcnnrl hcm.l hcsysl cmswilhin         whicht hc
      cialrd will scorc,norc highly on thc ad                    pcndrnl on algorithms    t(trsucccss,bur     rhe al8orithDrs     run-lhc uscr inlerfacc necd
      v.nlurdusnelsscalc.As $c associrrioDs rolc thal they play is risnr{ in importancr to bc i nl ui ti vc to non bom ns. Tbis is
      bc(wcen prcductsbe(nnc pogrcssively                                                                           roclel scictrcc you don't baveto bc a
      wealicon onedi me n s i o n , c ys l a r1 1Bc l
                                           th             o         The lirn is drc rJ)ecrarnouorof dara rockel cnti sl l rs. i 1,' !dysJad(Noo
                                                                                                                           sci           1o
      siron80.on another.Thc brll has rolicd th a ti s                                  c
                                                                        now avai l ablto compani es.Thc nrn, bossol srss. l he i npur ! havelo bc
      from o.e anribu(c(o unorher.              With cvery tormatior floodwrlers arc rising every ri ghl .One ur,spl anni ng delr ouledall        mo
      produd catesoriscd gradcdacros ev where.Sma m clcrsgivc utilil y Iirmsdala rhe pad(agcs lhc svsiemthroughlowa,
                                 and                                          11                                                     in
      ery lribLlte,      Dunnhumby is able lo scg on consumplionpattcrns inside house- whjch pcrd€xcd cvcryone until thcy
      ment add cluster       Tcscors                                    D
                                        customc6bascd h o l d s. i gi tal      mcdi r w i l l makci t casi er for i bundan ci i or i n l hedatal hat m adejt      ap.
                                                                lirms slrch as Dunnhumby to sec how pearto bc ftc01o                                      via
                                                                                                                                          scndpac kages lowa.
                                                                wha( people read online and warch on Thc algorithm was right,in orher words,
      wherelo pur the biscuir$                                  television aileclswhat theybuy-                    b!l lhe datawercw'ong. MrNoonan says
      Thc rulling ball algorilhm is jn rts lourth                   Online shoppingueans lhar inlemer that spsss"sccrelsrDce"ljcs in ac abjlity
      veaion. Rehnements            occurcvcry ycar or merchanls            now know wha                                                       or
                                                                                                                   lo dcal wilh trrissiDg urreliable dala.
      rwo, lo add new a(lribures lo rweaklhe browsingas well as buyang.
                                          or                                                       search en       mtherlhan thc algorithms        themselvps-
      maths-Al1rlese dararhcn fc,cdinto a va- gines miningt hcir own into.mationon
                                                                      arc                                              Aboveall. humanjudSmenrstill has a
      rietyof dccisions,such rhc langcsloput the relationship belween qucries and rolc a poinl perhapsrcinfo(ed by the re
      into eachstore which products
                          aDd                      should clicktlnoughs usto jmprovefieirranli
                                                                                so                                 ceDtperfonnanceof algorithmicallydri
      sit next to cachoth€r on the shelves.'All jng aigorjlhms.'[or the first time i. bu!i                         ven quanlilalive funds in the ijnancial
      this sophisdcared         data analysis and jt ness hislory there is more information nlarl(ets. ftaud detection, dample,
                                                                                                                              ln                      for
      comesdown ro whcrc you pul the bis' than many organisaiions                             capaciiyio deal alg{trithms        can eljminaieihe majonly of
      cuiis,"lamcntsMart]n H.1yward,              dircdor wjth it," saysDu n nhumby'sMr I-Iay             ward. tran sa   ctions  ihat areabove    suspicion a  but
      of consDcrstratcgyar Dunnhumby.                           Aleorilhmsarca way lo cope.                       human ls still besi placcdlo aDalyse           the
           Fraud    d€lection a touchmoie glam-
                               has                                  Thc s€cond   reason  why algoithms are dod8yoncs.Dunnhumbyistiyingto over-
      our lo it. sFssianotherdata-analysis            nrft, becoming       more importanris lhal compa. lay aniiudinalrcscarch                  oniop ofpurchas
      uses aLgorithnrs scrutinis€ customcr nies inevibbly wanr io use all this new in8 dala lo undcrslandwhy people buy
      data and 1o build propensityscores                rhat datato do morccomplicarcd          lhings. pal
                                                                                                         ln       thingsas wcll as wbar lhey buy. [ven so,
      predicthowpeoplcwill behave.               Oneof its nqhr, they want to respondto eachcus AuronomyS Lynch onvinced that al  Mr          is
      clien$is Clearcomnerce,            which provides tomer in a personalkedway. Tesco                   does gorjthns arc on rhe march. Algorirhns
      payment?rocessjnS             services to oiline this by using its analysisto tailor dircci prccess                    data lo arrive at an an$ver. The
      merchanrs.       spss helped Clearcommerce marketingofers to cach Clubcardnem                               moredrta lhey canprocess more accuthe
      krbuildasys{emlhar           looksata cusloher's ber. As well as segmeniing customen rale the answer.For thai reason. says,
                                                                                                us                                                          he
      pan transactions Iearnsand            what hinls at onho!'lhcy ljv€,th€ dataalsoenablethe ' thevareboundl otate                          overt hewodd. I
        , nctwork is configured and asupply chain                       l i neC rocershav€huge   fe€dba& l oops" i n    not talk to ihe no\r conirol alSornhm,
          is nrn, or dalysinS dataon thingssuchas                      which $e delivery times chosenby os              which mcans paths do not changeeven
                                                                       tomers affecl tbe rcutes thal van5 take,        when lhere is congestion.     Accordingto
             ups usesalgorithms hclp deliverlhe
                                       to                                                    ih€
                                                                       whnhin tutn aflects choice d€livery
                                                                                                        of             t\4arcWennlnk,a researcherat    B!itainjs!r,
         miLlions packages
                   of              thatpassthroughits                  slotsmade available cuslomers.
                                                                                              to            ups is     combining the alSornhmswould Incan
         transportation     nelwork every day in ihe                   working on a realtim€ algori(hm for its         ihat laskssuchasdownloadingiiles corLld
         most ellicientway possible.          the simplest              drivers  thal caDrecalibrate orderofde.
                                                                                                    ibe                becom€much more rcsilientto nctivork
         roures easyto draw up. lfa drjter hrs
                 are                                                             on
                                                                       li!,eries lhc fly, in much the sameway          disruplion.It would alsoallow Br lo make
         only tbreedeslinations visit,hecanlake
                                      lo                               thatsalellite.navigation          in
                                                                                                 sys(ems carsad        belleruseofits e\islingnetworkcapacily-
         only s ix p o s s i bro u te s .B u l l h c n mb € rof
                              le                                       just rhcnselv€sif a driver chooses ,g to           Airponsaho havea k€en inlereslin dy
         possibierout€s cxplodcsas the deslina                         noreasuggesi€droute.                            namic algorithnx.fass€ngers l-ondons
         tionsincrease.Thcrc morc tban 15Uii
                                   are                                       1nihc world of lhc intcrnet,operaiors     Ileathrowandolhercongested       airporlsof-
         lion, ldlLion possibleroutcs to tal(c on a                    arelookingat waysofmaffying up ihe al.          Qn sit jn a lons queueof planeswdiliig
         journey withjust 25drop of points-and                         gorithms llat lind the shonest palh             ncarthenrnwaylo depart.     D€layshtupen
         an av€6gcdayfora ur s driverjn America                        througha nelwork and thoscthat control          bccause  airlrafiic contrcllelsneedro lcave
         involves15o destinations.         The pi€ruie is              lhe spcedwrih which informationfloivs.          a satcly margD bclween aarcmft lhey as
         fulther colnplicarcd consiraints
                                  by                  suchas           At rhemoment,therouiingalSorithm      does      lake otr. This nurgin dcpendson the sizc |l
         specifi€ddrop otr and pick u! iimes for
         drjvers or runway lcnglhs and noise rc                         B l gsum5
         strictions ajrcrali- Algorithmsplovidc
         bcnclilswhenthe drcjccsaresogrcrl rh|l
         thcy arc impossiblcto processin yot.
                                                                        Of greedand ants
         hoad, ' s a yu rs s J a c [ e v i s .
                                                                        Nature could help designcven smaner algorirhms
         Solving this 'lft]vcllingsalesman pi{)                        r\l   A LLrhepl e-sJ,c\ ' red rhc
                                                                                              utti   by                (rl gc.rneal gori ,hnwour d r h". cxr
                                      rJ                   o
         blc m " mc a na l o 1 1 () r,s .l b rrl s te e lfri r
                             s                                         \-,, alponthmi" solld.thc colourtul             masrwhererr covers   rhemaxrmum
         crliil in America. ()ftpany uscsrn al
                                  the                                   namcs usinhabnanls prelty
                                                                            oI          rank                           rmountof uncovered
         Sdrilhmcalled voLc^No (which slands                           highly.Bubblesortis a sortingalgorilhn        Greedyalgo.ithms      can be very effcc-
         fttr Volumc,                  and
                          Location Aircraf(Nclwork                                  i
                                                                       l hal sw aps(cms n al i s(i f theydren
                                                                                         i                  l                 are
                                                                                                                 ti ve.They us€dinnelwor k ouung o  r      t
         O plinr is e r). c v e l ,)p c j o i n tl y w i l h { h c
                           D                d                          (hew roncorder.crrbl i nprm.rl l €r,tem! fi nd rhcshorresr o r sible h o r dcs
                                                                                                                                    D         Dar t
         N, hs s ac h u s e tts ti l u tc o l T c c h n o k )g y
                                lns                                    to buobl c thei op.the bLl l yr.l E onrhr ri nfl i on.for.xoniple. our 'gr ecdr l'n
         ( M n) ,it 1 !!s c d b y th r* d i fl c rc np l u n n i n g
                                                      t                \el ccFa l .,d comprrcr n drsr,.bured
                                                                                                i                makr: rhem\horrr ghr cd.      <JysE'ik   Dc-
         S nnr ps n h i n u rs .-o n e op l a ns c h c d u l cs
                    w                       1                          compu I proces:es.
                                                                               rin           tvcn aIgonlh m r    majne.a compurcr-(cjen pmfes,orI
         lbr lheio i l o w n r[ o u rk ,s i xmo n l h s ,o n e l o
                                 i                                     namedaftertheirparents amu$ecan           Mrr. creedyalgorithms       makebad chcss-
         wo orr what kitrd of faciliticsand air                        Blum Blumshub may sound like the title players, uample, laling an oppo-
                         b               o
        c r af t nr ig h ten c c d e d v c rth en e x tl w o k )       oIa Motown recod bur is actuallythe       nenfs pawn foi an immediatebut slighl
         lc t ry c ar s ,a n d o n c a n f,rrl h cp c d k s l a        namcofl numbergen" mrngD l gori ,hm.advanrage rti r m eans
                                                                                                                               evcn            losind r
        $nr bc t w c c nT h a n k s g i v i na .d (i h ri s l
                                                  g                        C rcedy B ori rhm\
                                                                                    al        rekca.hoo'i rorn quccr asa reruh.
        m 0s . ( ; c1 1 i nlgrc s u h c d u l i n g rc n g i m
                              l                    w                   dre-hrp  approach,makmgrhc ce   choi          I' orrhcqamcrc D, on               .
                                                                                                                                            al8or ir hmJr c
        f os c s a h e a v y c o s l : l l y i n g h a l fc mp l y     rhdlgi vcl rhcbesl posebl coul (omear norvFrvgoodal co p'newir hf ssi. chr ns-
        Dlanesor      Ieasin8cxlra                is
                                         arrcrafi an expcn             any particula.momentTo solvethe           ing environments,    su€has tmnsportnet
        sivcbusiness. red(oDs voL(i^No        thar                     travelling-salesmar problem. a Br€edy     works thal are prone to disruption. But
        has s av eth cc o m ttrn y rs o fmi l l i o n s t
                       d                   re                  o       algorithmwould simplylnstructa ddver they ar€Setting             r.
                                                                                                                                  ben€ Themassof data
        dollarssince introduction 2ooo,         in                     rogoro,hereare{unvi si rcddesri na        combi nedw i rh(h epower ol. om pur er \
              l-o8istics   lirms lrc lar from thc only                 ,i on. dcci de hof ro E l acc
                                                                             To        w               mobrl e                                ur
                                                                                                                 now rnake' j rD o\\ iolcr\o Dass     hum dn
        oncs worklnS on optjnrisalion" ulgo                            phonemastsforthew i d;si possi bl ecrj v-expertsi asoni e f r elds, sayst inayr cs, a
        r ilhnt . T e l e c o n rs o !c ra l o n u sl e o ri rh ms
                                                   a g                     '                                     professor YaleUniversity, a new
                                                                                                                              at                 in
        to cstablishthe quickc( connections                   for                                                book,"Sup€rCrunchers"       (seepa8c1o3).
        phone callslhtuugh lheir Derworlsor ro                                                                       Tbo{sten Schnier,a Esearcher at
        rctriev€web pagcsspeedilyliom the in                                                                     C€rcia, otrshoot lle compuiersci- l
                                                                                                                           an         of
        lerncl. Manufaclurcrsand retailersusc                                                                    cncedepdr     tmentat BriErn s Univ€rsitv
                                  l                          .
        t hemt oll n e tu n e h c i rs u p l l y c h a i n sc a l l                                              of Birmingham,    bclieves  that alsortih;s
        ccntresdecid€        whcre1oplacean incoming                                                             basedon biological    iystemdoffergreat ,
        call, based o.                     such as lhe cus                                                       potential.Anis, instance,
                                                                                                                                  for            dropphero' -
        lomeis location,lhe     'hin8slengthofqueu€s(hal                                                         mones6 they search food to bring
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Reading Assignment Questions

1. What is the title of this article and which magazine (including the issue) did it
come from?

2. List three industries that use algorithms.

3. Use the Luhn algorithm on one of your parent’s (or your own) credit cards.
Don’t list the original number, but what was the answer and was it divisible by

4. What is the name of the algorithm that UPS uses? What does it stand for?

5. What is Bubble sort?

6. On the last page, the article says of algorithms “…the role that they play is
rising in importance for two reasons.” What are those two reasons?

7. In your own words, what is an algorithm?

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