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									      NON VERBAL                                           TOPICS
     COMMUNICATION                      • How Nonverbal Communication is Defined

                                        • Types of nonverbal message codes

                                        • How nonverbal can be a barrier in
                                          intercultural communication
          Douglas Chin Yi Ren
      Muhammad Anas Danial Ismail
              Juton Kar                 • How other aspects of the culture are revealed
                                          in nonverbal communication behaviors

         ACTIONS SPEAKS                             NONVERBAL
                                          Not all nonverbal behavior = nonverbal

                                           Only when intentionally use symbol to
                                           create meaning for others.

         He’s probably very

              Theory                                        Theory
Nonverbal behavior as analogic rather      Nurture Approach
                                             Believed that nonverbal communication is
than digital(Burgoon and Saine)              learned.

3 major approaches to the studies of       Nonverbal behavior is innate
                                             Nonverbal behavior is believed to be genetically
nonverbal behavior                           determined.
 Nurture Approach
 Nonverbal is innate                       Functional Approach
 Functional approach                         Focus on the types of nonverbal behaviors and
                                             the communication functions they perform.
      AS INTENTIONAL                                                           Functions
     COMMUNICATION                                                                         Sending uncomfortable
• Nonverbal communication can be narrowly         • Replacing spoken
  used to refer to intentional use, as in using     messages.
  a nonspoken symbol to communicate a                                                      Forming impressions that
                                                                                           guide communication.
  specific message
• Nonverbal communication as those                                                         Making relationships clear.
  actions and attributes of human that have
                                                                                           Regulating interaction.
  socially shared meaning, are intentionally
  sent or interpreted as intentional, are                                                  Reinforcing and modifying
  consciously sent or consciously received,                                                verbal messages.
  and have the potential for feedback from
  the receiver.

                                                           NON VERBAL AS CUES
• Some basic nonverbal behaviors seem to          •   Innate behaviors can change as
                                                      we grow and learn our culture.
  be reliable cues as to a person’s state of           – Example :
  mind.                                                     • Smile universally
                                                              recognized as sign of
                                                              friendliness, it has other
                                                              meaning to other culture.
• Facial expressions are not learned but                    • Germans smile less than
  biologically determined.                                    people from US, but
                                                              doesn’t mean Germans
                                                              are less friendly.
                                                            • U.S. wives are usually
• Most people can tell what another                           shown smiling at their
                                                              husband but Japanese
  person’s facial expression means, but                       wives are rarely shown
  there are of course exceptions.                             smiling.

                                                              TYPES OF NONVERBAL
                                                  •   Proxemics.
                                                  •   Kinesics.
         Nonverbal Message                        •   Chronemics.
                                                  •   Paralanguage.
                                                  •   Silence.
        The study of nonverbal communication      •   Haptics.
     examines how messages are communicated       •   Clothing.
      through physical behavior, vocal cues and
                spatial relationships.            •   Territoriality.
                                                  •   Olfactics.
           PROXEMICS FACTOR                                                                            PROXEMICS
                                                                                                     Distance          Description Voice
• The study of our use of personal distance
  is proxemics.                                                                  Intimate            Touching to 18    Private situation whisper
                                                                                                     inches            with people who
                                                                                                                       are emotionally
• “ Cultures differ substantially in their use of                                Personal            18 inches to 4    Handshake         Soft voice
  personal space“ – Edward Hall(1959).                                                               feet              distance.

                                                                                 Casual              4 to 12 feet      Distance          Full voice
                                                                                                                       Customers and
                                                                                 Public              12 feet           Teacher in a      Loud voice

                          KINESICS                                                                   CHRONEMICS
                                                                                 • Chronemics
  Body language or kinesics :                                                        – the study of our use of time.
        - Body Movement.                                                             – ancient cultures have established their own
        - Gestures.                                                                    system in measuring time which differs from
                                                                                       one to another.
        - Posture.
                                                                                     – Example :
        - Facial Expressions.                                                               • Muslims use moon-based calendar system,
        - Eye Contact.                                                               – The usage of time varies from culture to
  “Communication depends heavily on the                                                culture.
   actions,postures,movements and expression                                                • Example :
   of our bodies“ – by Desmond Morris(1979).                                                   – Arabs engage in up to half an hour of informal
                                                                                                 conversation before turning to business.

                PARALANGUAGE                                                                                SILENCE
Paralanguage include the
                                                                                 • Silence can communicate
  - Vocal characterizers such as         •   Loudness indicates strength in          – Agreement.
                                             Arabic cultures,
    laughter and sobs.                        indicates confidence and               – Disagreement.
  - Vocal qualifiers, such as                authority to the Germans and
    intensity(loud/soft),pitch(high/lo       softness indicates weakness;            – Confusion.
                                         •   But it is opposite to Asian
    w), extent(clipping).
                                             culture.Loudness indicates              – Respect.
 - Vocal segregates, such as                 impoliteness to the Thais;
    “Uh“, “Um“ and “ Uh-huh“.                indicates loss of control to the
                                                                                     – Sadness.
                                             Japanese. Generally, one learns
                                             not to “shout” in Asia for nearly
                                                                                     – Thoughtfulness, or any number of meanings.
                                             any reason.
                                         •    Gender based as well: women
                                             tend to speak higher and more
                                             softly than men.
          USE OF SILENCE IN ASIA                                           HAPTICS – STUDY OF TOUCH
                                                                           • Touch can communicate :
                                                                              – Affection.
       “Silence in Asia has commonly been                                     – Attention.
    entirely acceptable whereas in the West                                   – Announcing a response.
    silence has generally been considered                                     – Greetings inclusion.
    socially disagreeable.“ – Oliver(1971)                                    – Departures.
                                                                              – Support.
                                                                              – Sexual interest.
                                                                              By Jones and Yarbrough(1985,United States)

                        CLOTHINGS                                                            TERITORIALITY
                                                                           • Territoriality
                                                                              – refers to how space can be used to communicate messages.
• Clothing can reflect cultural    • Clothing can reflect subgroup
  heritage.                          identity.                                – Spaces can encourage democracy (Sennet, 1999).
                                                                                Example :
•    Example:                      • Example:                                    Pnyx and Agora in ancient Greece.
     – Traditional clothing of          – US Army Combat Uniform.

                                                                           • Territoriality
                                                                              – each culture have their own customs in space planning.
                                                                             e.g: Feng Shui in Chinese culture


The study of communication via     Example:
  smell is called Olfactics.

    “In all cultures, women can
                                   •   Western culture — fear of
                                       offensive natural smells (billion
                                                                               NONVERBAL ISSUES AND
    detect odors in lower              dollar industry to mask
    concentrations,identify them
    more accurately and
                                       objectionable odors with what is
                                       perceived to be pleasant ) —
                                       again connected with
    remember them longer than          “attractiveness” concept.
    men“ – Doty et al.(1984)       •   Many other cultures consider
                                       natural body odors as normal
                                                                                       Nonverbal actions and their
                                       Asian cultures (Filipino, Malay,
                                                                                    different meaning due to cultural
                                       Indonesian, Thai, Indian) stress
                                       frequent bathing — and often                            differences.
                                       criticize western culture of not
                                       bathing often enough!
Gestures varies from culture to culture

For example:
• Pointing : US with index finger; Japanese
  with entire hand,in fact most Asians
  consider pointing with index finger to be
• Counting: Thumb = 1 in Germany, 5 in

                       POSTURE                                                        EYE CONTACT
• Bowing (not done, criticized, or   • Hands in pocket (disrespectful
  affected in US; shows rank in        in Turkey)                          • Western cultures — see direct eye to eye
  Japan)                             • Sitting with legs crossed             contact as positive (advise children to look
                                       (offensive in Ghana, Turkey)
                                     • Showing soles of feet.                a person in the eyes). But within USA,
                                       (Offensive in Thailand, Saudi
                                                                             African-Americans use more eye contact
                                                                             when talking and less when listening.
• Slouching (rude in most
  Northern European areas)                                                 • Japan, Africa, Latin American, Caribbean
                                                                             avoid eye contact to show respect.

                           TOUCH                                                            TOUCH
• Touch is culturally determined     • Islamic and Hindu: typically
  and each culture has a clear         don’t touch with the left hand.
  concept of what parts of the         To do so is a social insult. Left
  body one may not touch.              hand is for toilet functions.
• In Western culture, handshake        Mannerly in India
  is common (even for                  /Bangladesh(some other Asian
  strangers), hugs, kisses for         countries) to reccive anything
  those of opposite gender or of       from others is only allowed
  family (usually) on an               with right hand.
  increasingly more intimate         • Islamic cultures generally
  basis.                               don’t approve of any touching
• Most Africans touch on               between opposite-sex (even
  greeting but are annoyed if          hand shakes). But consider
  touched on the head (good            such touching (including hand
  boy, good girl overtones).           holding, hugs) between same-
                                       sex to be appropriate.
               THE END                                          Reference
• Question :                                     • Fred E. Jandt, “Nonverbal Communication,”
                                                   in An Introduction to Intercultural
                                                   Communication, Identities in a Global
                                                   Community, F.E. Jandt. Thousand Oaks,
 Have you experience any nonverbal                 London, New Delhi: Sage Publication, pp.97-
 misinterpretation that will lead to a serious
                                                 • Andrews University, “Non-Verbal
                                                   Communication Modes”,

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