Writing Research Proposal
Structure of Research
• Most research projects share the same
• "Well begun is half done" --Aristotle, quoting
an old proverb
• Where do research topics come from?
• So how do researchers come up with the idea
for a research project?
• Probably one of the most common sources of
research ideas is the experience of practical
problems in the field?
• The Literature Review
Concept mapping is a structured process, focused on a topic or
construct of interest, involving input from one or more
participants, that produces an interpretable pictorial view
• The data analysis involves three major steps,
done in roughly this order:
• Cleaning and organizing the data for analysis
• Describing the data (Descriptive Statistics)
• Testing Hypotheses and Models (Inferential
• Formatting http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/formatting.php
• Title Page
• Abstract (on a separate single page)
• The Body (no page breaks between sections in the body)
– Introduction (2-3 pages)
– Methods (7-10 pages)
• Sample (1 page)
• Measures (2-3 pages)
• Design (2-3 pages)
• Procedures (2-3 pages)
– Results (2-3 pages)
– Conclusions (1-2 pages)
• Tables (one to a page)
• Figures (one to a page)
• Sample Paper http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/sampaper.php
Researching a company
• US Census Bureau
• Company profile : Volksvagen
Business research proposal
• Business research proposal is like doing a
• In a real business you have to be
confident in yourself, be good in
persuading people and be able to make
effective advertising of your goods or
• Your major goal, while writing a business
research proposal, is to persuade the members
of a committee that your business research will
be the most valuable and fascinating.
• First of all, you should have a clear idea in your
mind that your business research is really going
to be the most precious one.
• Second, you should develop the exact strategies
for writing a business research proposal. You
have to know every step that you will make
when writing this task.
• In the business research proposal tell
about the expected outcomes of your
work, possible difficulties and time limits.
• This will persuade the committee that you
have thought over the whole research
thoroughly. You know what you want to
achieve, what can bother you and how you
can overcome it.
• Your business research proposal should
be detailed. Tell about the methods you
are going to use for achieving the results.
Say why these exact methods are suitable
for that aim.
• Do not forget that it is extremely important
here to sound confident. Give the
reasonable arguments that will support
your every point of view.
How to prepare a research
• Normally a proposal should be between 1500 and 2000
words and will include the following:
• A working title of the topic area
• This should do more than convey the key words
associated with the proposed research.
• General overview of area
• This should take the form of a brief abstract of
the general area of study and identify the
discipline(s) within which it falls. You might also
refer to the way in which your own background
gives you competences in your chosen area.
• Identification of the relevant literature
• In this section you should develop your proposal
to demonstrate that you are aware of the
debates and issues raised in relevant bodies of
literature. References to key articles and texts
should be made to show that you appreciate
their relevance to your research area. A PhD is
an original piece of research and so you should
demonstrate that your proposed area has not
been studied before. So you need to identify your
niche which will lead on to the thesis
• Key research questions
• Since you need to demonstrate that the topic can be
completed within the normal time period allowed, you
need to demonstrate that it is manageable, and so focus
on key questions within your niche area.
• You need to demonstrate an awareness of the
methodological tools available to you and show some
understanding of which would be suitable for your
research. It may be that qualitative methods, including
the analysis of interviews, is appropriate. Alternatively
your approach may involve forecasting or statistical,
financial or econometric modelling. In other cases you
may be combining methodologies. You need to specify
the approach you feel will be most appropriate.
• Timescale/research planning
• You need to demonstrate an awareness of
the need for planning and the timescale of
• You should include a short list of
references to key articles and texts
included in the application.
• 1.If you want to set up a coffee shop
near the university and school, what is
your research topic?
• 2.Identify the problem statement.
• 3.Identify the objectives
• 4.The hypotheses
• 5. The research methodology.
• 6. The examples of the questionaireใ