IN-USE FUEL ECONOMY by crt16941

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									IN-USE FUEL ECONOMY



       K.G Duleep
  Managing Director, EEA
            Project Overview
• Focused on LDV technologies that may not be
  important for fuel economy drive-cycle tests, but that
  could be important “on-road” or “in-use”
• Covers technologies relevant to today’s gasoline and
  diesel vehicles, with some preliminary findings for
  hybrid vehicles
• Estimates of technology cost, fuel economy impact,
  and cost effectiveness under specific use conditions
• Based primarily on engineering analysis; few studies
  of actual in-use fuel economy performance have been
  conducted recently
            Literature Review
• Few studies of in-use fuel economy in OECD
  countries; almost none since mid-1980s
• DOE-EPA studies from 1980s indicate that:
  – shortfall increases as a percentage with increasing
    absolute fuel economy (measured in MPG or km/l);
  – light trucks have higher shortfall levels than cars;
  – shortfall is also a function of vehicle drive-train
    technology and possibly manufacturer specific
    calibrations.
        In-use Technologies Covered
•   Electrically driven oil and water pumps
•   Efficient alternators
•   Efficient air conditioners
•   Fast engine warm-up technologies
•   Use of fuel-efficient replacement oils and tyres
•   Idle-off and 42V system
•   Items with behavioural aspects:
    –   Tyre pressure
    –   Adaptive cruise control
    –   Aids to improve driving habits
    –   Driver training
Results from DOE Study
   Four Types of Driving Conditions
• Locations with cold ambient temperatures - where
  daily low ambient temperatures are below 10°C for
  over six months.
• Location with hot ambient temperatures - where
  daily temperatures exceed 25°C for over six months;
• Dense traffic, with city-wide average speeds below
  25 km/hr (16 mph) corresponding to congested
  traffic conditions;
• Light traffic, with city-wide or rural average speeds
  in excess of 40 km/hr (25 mph), corresponding to
  freely flowing traffic.
         Technologies Helpful Over Test
                            Test FE Benefit   Effect on Shortfall
                            (%)
                                              Cold            Short   Aggres-   Urban   Highway
Technology                  (City/Highway
                                              Tempera-        Trips   sive      Oper-   Oper-ation
                            Average)
                                              ture                    Driving   ation
VVLT                        5 to 7            -               -       I         -       -
Cylinder Cut-Out            6 to 8            -               -       I         -       -
DI Diesel Engines           35 to 40          R               R       -         R       -
Gasoline Direct Injection   10 to 12          I               R       I         R       -
(Lean)
6-/5-Speed Automatic        2.5 to 5          -               -       -         -       R
CVT                         5 to 7            -               -       -         -       -
Shift Indicator Light       2 to 3            -               -       R         R       -
Electric Oil/Water Pump     0.5 to 1          R               R       -         -       -

Electric Power Steering     2.0 to 3.0        -               -       -         I       -
   Technologies Unhelpful Over Test
Technology                     Test FE Benefit   Effect on Shortfall
                               (%)
                                                 Cold         Hot      Aggressi   Urban   High-
                               (City/Highway
                                                 Temper-      Am-      ve         Oper-   way
                               Average)
                                                 ature        bient    Driving    ation   Oper-
                                                                                          ation
Efficient Alternator           ~0.5              R            R        -          -       -
Electric Oil Pump              ~0.5              R            -        -          -       -
Electric Water Pump            ~0.5              R            -        -          -       R
Heat Battery                   ~1.0              R            -        -          -       -
Fuel Efficient Oils            N/A               R            -        -          -       -

Driving Aids                   N/A               -            -        R          R       R
On-board computer)             N/A               R            R        R          R       R


Adaptive Cruise Control        N/A               -            -        R          -       R
Idle Off                       3 to 5            I            -        -          R       -
Efficient Air Conditioner or   0                 -            R        -          -       -
Heat Pump
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                                                                                                                                                            Savings by Technology/ Situation
     Driving Aids and Training
• Aggressive driving and speeding are major causes
  of shortfall. Using the US06 as a surrogate shows
  a FE penalty of 10 to 12% relative to highway
  cycle, although average speed is similar.
• Similar penalties are seen for aggressive driving at
  city type speeds based on California tests
• Interestingly, higher HP vehicles are less affected
  by aggressive driving and have lower shortfall.
      European Driver Training
• Many European countries have programs to teach
  owners “Eco-driving” techniques.
• NOVEM in Netherlands has trained thousands of
  drivers and claims a 10+% improvement in FE
  after training with effects persisting over time.
• Much of the European FE benefit may be
  traceable to early shifting of manual transmission.
• Applicability of benefits an usefulness in North
  American context is debatable.
                 Diesel Results
• For most techs, fuel savings estimates generally
  similar or slightly lower than those for gasoline
  vehicles.
• Biggest differences:
   – electric water pumps
   – Idle stop/start.
   – These are only about half as effective for diesels as for
     gasoline vehicles.
• On the other hand, adaptive cruise control impacts
  on diesels are 50% higher: 15% reduction in fuel
  use compared to 10% for gasoline vehicles.
   Hybrids- Preliminary Results
• Hybrids are complex – many different types and
  specifications that may have different in-use
  performance and trade-offs.
• Some drivers have complained of very high
  shortfall, but not scientifically supported to date
  by self reported data
• In general, hybrids are likely to perform worse in
  cold and hot conditions, short trips as engine
  cannot be turned-off as often in these conditions.
      Cost-effectiveness Scenarios

                                                        Annual Driving
                 Fuel cost          Baseline FE             (000)


               $/gal   Eur/litre   MPG     L/100km      Miles     KM


US gasoline   $1.50        0.32     27.0          8.7      12.0    19.2


EU gasoline   $4.25        0.90     31.4          7.5       9.3    15.0


EU diesel     $3.55        0.75     42.0          5.6      11.2    18.0
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                                                                             l
    ISSUES FOR DEVELOPING
          COUNTRIES
• Most developing countries do not have very
  cold weather, and much of the mileage is
  accumulated in dense traffic.
• Typical option content is not high and A/C
  is found in 10 to 20% of vehicles. Option
  content is growing with rising income.
• Vehicles are under-powered and roads are
  congested with little aggressive driving.
     DEVELOPING COUNTRY
          OPTIONS
• Technologies most effective in cold
  ambients and at higher speeds are NOT
  useful in this context.
• Electrification of accessories (water, oil and
  power steering pump) coupled with idle
  stop could be very effective.
• Future possibility for “micro’ and “mild”
  hybrids should be studied more carefully/
                  Conclusions
• Most technologies are most effective under cold
  conditions, dense traffic (exceptions: tyres, cruise
  control, efficient a/c)
• Electric water pump, energy efficient alternator,
  heat battery and 5W-20 oil are most cost-effective
  in cold/dense conditions
   – combined these could save up to 10% of fuel.
   – especially important for Northern climates
                 Conclusions
• Efficient alternator and air-conditioner, as well as
  idle stop best for hot ambient/ dense traffic.
• Since most developing countries experience hot
  ambient and dense traffic conditions, the above
  technologies will be useful.
• Micro- and Mild- hybrids may also be useful in
  developing countries but more development is
  required to reduce costs.
               Conclusions
• Driver training (as described by Novem for
  the Netherlands) and on-board indicator
  technologies appear very cost effective
• Diesels: lower shortfall, lower technology
  potential
  – Less cold start and acceleration fuel
    enrichment, less energy use at idle
  – Driver training, OBI systems most cost-
    effective
             Policy Implications
• Current test procedures in most countries fall short
  of capturing real-world conditions
• Other possible initiatives
   –   Information to consumers
   –   Tightening of emissions limits under cold conditions
   –   Price incentives to manufacturers
   –   Voluntary agreements
   –   Greater gov’t support for driver training
   –   Incentives for more efficient after-market programmes

								
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