JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT by leg38704

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									      JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT


     A JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION AHMADU BELLO

                              UNIVERSITY ZARIA

                        VOLUME 1, NO. 1, NOV. 2005


                         NOTES TO CONTRIBUTORS

      The Editorial Board welcomes articles of research and developmental
nature in all areas of Education, Physical and Health Education, Library and
Information Science, Vocational and Technical Education, etc.
              GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS/CONTRIBUTORS
-     All articles should bear the Names and address(es) of Author(s).
-     The blind cover page must carry only the title of the paper.
-     All papers must have an abstract of between 150 and 200 words
-     All authors should follow the APA format of referencing
-     Three clean copies of each article intended for publication should be
      submitted to the Editor-in-Chief of the journal.
-     A diskette containing the article(s) with title of article(s) clearly indicated
      must accompany every article.
-     Articles must not be more than 12 pages of A4 papers including
      references using font 12.
-     Tables and figures should be kept to the barest minimum. They should be
      submitted on separate sheets and clearly labelled. Their positions should
      be clearly marked in the text.
-     Quoted passages of more than three typed lines should be extracted:
      indented 5 spaces and typed single spaced. Shorter quotations should be
      enclosed in single inverted commas.
-     Footnotes are not permitted.




                                         1
                  JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

EDITORIAL BOARD

Prof. F.D. Kolo           -      Chairman

Prof. B.A. Ladani         -      Editor-in-Chief

Prof. I.A. Olaofe         -      Member

Prof. K. Venkateswarlu    -      Member

Prof. (Mrs) D. Bozimo     -      Member


EDITORIAL ADVISERS

Prof. F.A. Amuchie -      University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. P. Lassa       -    University of Jos

Prof. J. Akinboye         -      University of Ibadan

Prof. P. Okebukola -      NUC/Lagos State University

Prof. Malumfashi          -      A.B.T. University, Bauchi

Prof. E.Igbokwe           -      University of Nigeria, Nsukka


JOURNAL COMMITTEE

Prof. B.A. Ladani

Dr. Sadiq Mohammed

Dr. A.I. Kabido

Dr. (Mrs) V.O. Babalola

Mrs Ramatu Jibril Daura

Mr. Baba S. Aduku




                                       2
                                  EDITORIAL
Human society is dynamic and not static but it could be static if the inhabitants
are not dynamic. The ability to mobilize and harness human resources leads to
progress and achievement. An academic community should vary in several ways
from non-academic because of the caliber of people available in it. However, an
academic community having no forum to express and exchange their ideas and
view is like a stagnant pool without an outlet.

The fundamental purpose of this journal of research is to give academic staff
both within and outside the university the opportunity to put across to the public
part of the knowledge they have acquired so that others can benefit from their
wealth of experience. This journal has been dormant for the past fourteen years
and I am happy that it has been revived by the Dean of Faculty of Education,
Prof. D.F. Kolo, who gave maximum support to see that the journal was revived.
The entire members of the Faculty of Education are grateful to you.

The journal is going to be a continuous process and as for that, contributors
need not wait for call for papers before sending their articles for publication.
Acceptance of articles for publication is open, therefore, articles can be sent at
anytime.

The reaction of scholars to the call for papers was quite encouraging and I wish
same to continue for the subsequent volume. Those authors whose articles came
late and did not appear in this volume should not be discouraged. Very soon the
second volume will be out with your articles.

Articles published in this volume cut across many academic fields such as
psychology, language arts, education, science, physical and health education,
sports management, exercise and sports science, business education, agricultural
science, home economics, etc.

I have no doubt whatsoever that this journal will serve useful purpose to both
staff and students, administrators, policy makers, agriculturists and the public at
large. I seize this opportunity to show my application to every member of the
journal committee for their untiring efforts to see to the success of this volume.

Finally, I thank the ALMIGHTY GOD who gave us life and good health to enable
us carry out this assignment successfully.

Prof. B.A. Ladani
Editor-in-chief
October, 2005




                                        3
                       ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS

1.    Dr. (Mrs.) E.F. Adeniyi, Senior Lecturer, Department of Education,
      Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

2.    Mr. Fuandai, Cornelius Madas, Lecturer in the Department of Educational
      Foundations, Nasarawa State University, Keffi.

3.    Dr. (Mrs.) T.E. Lawal, Lecturer in the Department of Education , Ahmadu
      Bello University, Zaria.

4.    Dr. Munir Mamman, Lecturer in the Department of Languages, Faculty of
      Arts, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

5.    Dr. M.M. Tajordeen, Chief Lecturer, School of Science, College of
      Education, Minna.

6.    Dr. E.A. Buoro, Lecturer in the Department of Education, Ahmadu Bello
      University, Zaria.

7.    Mr. Raymond Kano, Lecturer in the Department of Education, Ahmadu
      Bello University, Zaria.

8.    Very Rev. Fr. Dr. J. Mamman, Senior Lecturer in the Department of
      Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

9.    Dr. J.N. Kwasau, Senior Lecturer in the Department of Education, Ahmadu
      Bello University, Zaria.

10.   Dr. J.S. Mari, Senior Lecturer in the Department of Education, Ahmadu
      Bello University, Zaria.

11.   Dr. O.I. Inekwe, Senior Lecturer in the Department of Education, Ahmadu
      Bello University, Zaria.

12.   Dr. (Mrs.) Eleanor Uchenna Leleji, Demonstration Secondary School,
      Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

13.   Mrs. Barakat Abubakar is a Lecturer in the Department of English, Federal
      College of Education, Zaria.

14.   Dr. Sadiq Mohammed is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Education,
      Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.




                                      4
15.   Dr. Nebath Tanglang is an Associate Professor in the Department of
      Physical of Health Education, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri.

16.   Mr. Shettima Mustapha is a Lecturer in the Department of Physical and
      Health Education, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri.

17.   Mr. Apagu Kambayari is a Lecturer in the Department of Physical and
      Health Education, College of Education Science and Technology Bama,
      Borno State.

18.   Dr. A.G. Suleiman is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Physical and
      Health Education, Bayero University, Kano.

19.   Dr. (Mrs.) M.A. Suleiman is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of
      Physical and Health Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

20.   Mrs. Vercit Dashe is a Lecturer in the Department of Physical and Health
      Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

21.   Mr. Ezra Gunen is a Lecturer in the Department of Physical and Health
      Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

22.   Dr. (Mrs) C.O. Adegbite is a Senior Lecturer in the Institute of Education,
      Ahmadu Bello University Zaria

23.   Mr. Shehu Adaramaja is a Lecturer in the Department of Physical and
      Health Education, University of Ilorin, Ilorin.

24.   Dr. (Mrs) O.A. Adekiya is a Lecturer in the Department of Geography,
      Bayero University, Kano.

25.   Dr. Abimbola O. Odumosu, Officer in charge of Staff Training, Nigeria
      Institute of Transport Technology, Zaria.

26.   Dr. A.A. Udoh is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Vocational and
      Technical Education, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.

27.   Dr. M.M. Aliyu is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Vocational and
      Technical Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

28.   Dr. James Timothy is a Lecturer in the Department of Biology, Federal
      College of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.




                                       5
29.   Mr. B.I. Okeh is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Vocational and
      Technical Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

30.   Dr. (Mrs) V.O. Babalola is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of
      Vocational and Technical Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

31.   Mr. E.J. Chom is a Lecturer in the Department of Physical and Health
      Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

32.   Dr. A.A. Ladan is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Education,
      Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.




                                     6
                                     PREFACE

       The journal of Education and Development is the singular publication that

is Faculty based in this great faculty of Education. Great leaders who were

inspiring in the academic initiated the journal but after a few issues, the journal

got lost in its voyage to greatness. The last volume was in 1991.

       As a faculty with great potential both in human, intellectual and also in

material resources, a search light was kindled to trace the path of the Journals

voyage to a point of departure from its normal route. Not too far yet from its

normal route it was discovered by the present faculty leadership and brought

back on course.

       It is therefore gratifying under the meticulous and painstaking leadership

and support of the journal committee to see the production of what one may call

a re-maiden issue after almost a decade and a half of lying in state.

       Journals are essential academic endowment which any serious-minded

academic unit can not pay a liming service to. While it is a melting port for

academic exposition of ideas from junior and senior academics, it is a source to

be diligently put in place for the development and marketing of individuals and

their potentials beyond their inner rings.

       While on our part as current leaders in this Faculty, we are determined to

develop our human capacity through this means, the staff must on their part

seize the opportunity to enhance their academic potentials in engaging in




                                         7
researches and making the findings known to the entire world through this

journal.

       At this point, the Journal Committee under the Chief Editor must be

heartily congratulated for their zeal and understanding of the environment they

called to service at this period. Their dedication can only be seen from the

production of this journal. The entire Faculty appreciates you and will continue to

count on this dedication for a systematic and continuous production of the

Journal.

       To all writers, writing is a task which you must learn and relearn how to

do. An unsuccessful outing should not terminate the entire process. The art of

writing is a skill which you have no choice but to acquire and develop if you are

to remain relevant in academics. The more unsuccessful trials you have, the

more motivated you should be to inquire and practice how it is being done. Your

perseverance will soon be rewarded by finding your paper in this great journal

one day. Keep trying until you win the race and it is not too long again.




                                         8
                                CONTENTS

1.    Determinants of Help-seeking Behaviour
      Dr. (Mrs) E.F. Adeniyi

2.    The Family and Harmful Traditional Practices in Nigeria-Implications for
      Girl-child Education
      Mr. Fuandai Corenlius Mada

3.    The Effects of Concept Mapping Strategy on Cognitive Preferences Modes
      of Undergraduate Level Learners at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
      Tanimowo E. Lawal

4.    An Analysis of the Forms and Functions of the Bound Morphemes-n and-r
      in Hausa
      M’unir Mamman

5.    Development and Validation of Self-Perception Instrument for Academic
      Publication Competence.
      Dr. Mustapha, Mohammed Tajordeen

6.    Art as a Forerunner to Technology
      Dr. E.A. Buoro

7.    The Relationship Between Philosophy and Education: A Re-emerging
      Debate
      Mr. Raymond Bako

8.    The History of the New Testament Canon
      Very Rev. Fr. Dr. Joseph Mamman

9.    The Teaching and Learning of Christian Religious Education in the
      Attainment of National Objectives
      Dr. J.S. Kwasau

10.   Striving for Gender Equality in Science and Technology and Mathematics
      Education in Nigeria
      Dr. J.S. Mari

11.   Misconceptions of Definitions Denting Geometric Problem Solving at the
      Secondary School Levels
      Dr. O.I. Inekwe




                                      9
12.   The Summary Writing Component of the National Curriculum for Senior
      Secondary Schools in Nigeria: A Case for a Review
      Dr. (Mrs) Eleanor Uchenna, Leleji

13.   Psycho-socio-linguistic Factors that Facilitate Achievement in Senior
      Secondary School Certificate English Language.
      Mrs. Barakat Abubakar

14.   Readability of Selected Hausa Textbooks as Determined by the Close Test
      Procedure
      Dr. Sadiq Mohammed

15.   The Role of Computer Information Technology (ICT) in Journalism
      Ojonugwa Anthony Obaje.

16.   History of corporate sports sponsorship in Nigeria
      Dr. Nebath Tanglang and Shettima Mustapha

17.   Development of Women Potentials in Sports Participation in Nigeria
      Democratic Society: An overview. Mr. Kambayari Apagu

18.   Impact of School Sports on Sports Development in Borno State
      Mr. Shettima Mustapha, Prof. B.A. Ladani and Prof. (Mrs) F.B. Adeyanju

19.   Administrative Concerns in the Making of Champion Athletes
      Dr. A.G. Suleiman

20.   Cardiovascular Responses to Cold Pressor test Among Selected Female
      Athletes
      Dr. (Mrs) M.A. Suleiman

21.   Differences Between Nigeria University Female Athletes and Non-athletes
      in Their Menarchial Age
      Mrs. V. Dashe and Prof. K. Vankateswarlu

22.   A Development Model for Promoting and Supporting Exercise Adoption
      Mr. Ezra Gunen

23.   Adolescent Pregnancy Strategies for Prevention and Management
      Dr. (Mrs) C.O. Adegbite

24.   The Influence Environmental Factors on the Adolescent Health
      Dr. (Mrs) M.A. Suleiman and Mr. Shehu R. Adaramaja




                                       10
25.   Solid Waste Management in Bodija Market, Ibadan
      Dr. (Mrs) O.A. Adekiya

26.   Towards an Optimal Efficiency of Public Transportation Buses in Lagos
      Metropolis
      Dr. Abimola O. Odumosu

27.   The Senior Secondary School Accounting Curriculum and Its Relevance to
      Societal Needs: Views of Small Scale Employers and Business Educators.
      Dr. A.A. Udoh

28.   Relationship between Entry Qualification (Mathematics) and Computer
      Application on Students Performance: A Case Study of Business Education
      Section, A.B.U. Zaria
      Dr. M.M. Aliyu

29.   Effects of Combining Concept Mapping and Reflective Writing Strategies
      on Academic Achievement of Pre-service NCE Students in Biology
      Dr. James Timothy

30.   Secretarial Profession and Self-Reliance
      Dr. M.M. Aliyu

31.   Utilizing Indigenous Technology in the Preservation and Storage of Food
      Grains in Imo State
      Mr. B.I. Okeh

32.   Carpets, rugs and Upholstered Furniture in Modern Housing Environment:
      Selection and Care
      Dr. (Mrs.) V.O. Babalola




                                       11
THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE ADOLESCENT’S
                            HEALTH


                                      BY


                   DR (MRS.) M.A. SULEIMAN
         DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION
               AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA


                                     AND


                     SHEHU, R. ADARAMAJA
         DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION
             UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, ILORIN, NIGERIA




ABSTRACT

Factors such as lifestyle, environment and social support network are crucial to
understanding how people make decisions about health and behaviour. Peoples’
decisions and patterns of coping affect their psychological, physical as well as
social health. Lifestyle, social, psychological and environmental factors have
profound effects on health and well being, but information on how these factors
are defined, and how they influence health is urgently required. This paper,
therefore, examines the influence of social, psychological and environmental
factors on the health of the adolescents. It also looks into the various
consequences of unhealthy behaviour and how they affect the well being of the
adolescent.




                                      12
Introduction

         The relevance of the wider social structure and its influence on the life

style and health of the adolescent has begun to be identified along side the

development of social concept of health (WHO, 1993). In the past, people have

not been considered active participants in their own health care. In most

people’s minds, the health field and the personal medical care system are

synonymous. This has been due in large part to the powerful image projected by

medicine in its role in the control of infective and parasitic diseases (WHO,

1998).

         To   understand   how    people    participate   in   health   maintenance,

comprehensive information is needed on how people think and act in relation to

health, including details of their beliefs, attitudes, knowledge and awareness of

health matters (Adesina, 1990). It has been suggested that the individual strives

to maintain a healthy balance and an equilibrium achievement by reducing health

risks and improving healthy resources, including health potential (Dean, 1993).

         Recently, there has been considerable interest by researchers (WHO,

1993; James, 1990; Shipley, 1994) on how to control the various environmental

factors in order to improve the health of the adolescent. According to WHO

(1997) the major causes of death among the adolescents in Africa are external

causes, and that the increasing prevalence of unhealthy life style is a worrying

sign since it is likely to result in higher mortality. In a country like Nigeria, where




                                           13
there is rapid increase in population there is the need to examine the influence of

the environment on the adolescents’ health.

Factors Influencing Health

       Health is influenced by a variety of external factors based on the complex

interactions between the individual and his immediate environment. Numerous

among these are social, psychological and environmental factors. The social

environment plays a decisive role in the adolescents’ capacity to maintain and

promote their health and to prevent diseases (Adesina, 1990).

       Of   central   importance     in   understanding   this   extension   are   the

psychological factors within the relationship between the adolescent and the

environment (Dean, 1994).

Psychological Factors

       Burada (1994) has highlighted those environmental conditions which led

to a sudden and serious or long lasting overload on the adolescents health within

the environment as the psychological risks. These, as stated above, have

consequently caused maladjustment at the physical and/or emotional levels and

in lifestyle and social behaviour.

       Researchers have tended to categorize these psychological factors into

three places such as: threatening life events, strain at home and school, and

major transitions in the lifestyle (Dean, 1994; Harris, 1999).




                                           14
Social Factors

          Recently, efforts to identify factors influencing the social health of the

adolescent has shifted to the intervening variables such as health, beliefs, self

esteem, personality factors, coping ability and social support (Catford; 1993). All

these variables relate to adolescents potential ability to control their own life

styles.

          Life styles, are patterns of behavioral choices made from the alternative

that is available to people according to their socio-economic circumstances and

to the case with which they are able to choose certain ones over others (WHO,

1993).

Environmental Factors

          Environment is considered a crucial factor in the health and well-being of

the adolescent. Everything within the environment ranging from the air, water

and chemical products, etc, has tremendous impact on the well-being of the

individual. This does not exclude both the psychological and social environment.

All these external factors, both natural and man-made are capable of affecting

health and well-being of the adolescent (Catford, 1993).

Life Style and The Adolescents Health

          The concept of lifestyle has been proposed as a bridge between individual

and his immediate environment. Reference is then made to healthy and

unhealthy life styles. An analysis is needed of why the adolescents adopt

unhealthy behaviour as a reaction of pressures in their daily lives (Lazarus 1994).




                                          15
The adolescent adopts a healthy life style by avoiding the risk of breakdown and

illness with the help of various health potential variables. They can also be pre-

disposed to unhealthy lifestyles when short-term reactions to stress, such as

alcohol and drug abuse, smoking, obesity or risk-taking become long term, firmly

established patterns of behaviour (WHO, 1981).

         To understand the processes that influence the adolescent to healthy or

unhealthy lifestyles, the new measures of positive and negative health as

proposed by World Health Organization in 1981, must be adopted. Therefore,

more specific tools need to be designed to access the concept of health held by

different social and cultural groups in the various societies of the world (WHO),

1981).

         Life styles may be positively related to health: health and disease are the

expressions of the relative degree of success or failure experienced by the

adolescent as he/she tries to respond adaptively to environmental changes and

also to the inner demands created by the adolescent by traditions and

aspirations (Dubos, 1998).

         In the practice of traditional medical epidemiology, lifestyle has been used

without considering socio-psychological content. This has usually led to blaming

the victim, or saying that unhealthy lifestyles are due to people themselves

without any consideration of living conditions (Dubos, 1998). Some of the

lifestyles affecting the adolescent’s health are discussed as follows:




                                          16
(A)      Smoking

         The World Health Organization WHO (1997) estimates that there are

about 1.1 billion daily smokers in the world, equivalent to one third of all persons

aged 15 years or over. Eight hundred million of those smokers are male, and 700

million live in developing countries, Nigeria inclusive. Globally, almost half (47%)

of all men smoke; only 12% of women do so (WHO, 1997).

         WHO, (1993) highlighted that between 1980 – 1982 and 1990 – 1992

cigarette consumption declined by 1.5 per cent annually in developed market –

economy countries and remained relatively constant in countries with economies

in transition, and rose by 1.4% annually in developing countries. Epidemiological

research has shown that smoking increases markedly the risk of developing

cancer of the lungs and of the upper – aerodigestive track and slightly less so

the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, because cardiovascular disease is a

more common cause of death than the other causes related to smoking, the

impact of smoking is greatest in increasing the number of deaths due to

cardiovascular disease among the adolescents (WHO, 1997).

         It is estimated that in 1995 tobacco smoking was responsible for 1.9

million deaths in developing countries, 1.2 million of which occurred in the

developed market-economy countries. In developing countries, smoking-related

deaths amounted to 1.6 million, half of which occurred in China and Nigeria

among the youths. By 2020, smoking is expected to cause 8.4 million deaths

annually, of which 6 million will be in the developing world. That year, smoking

will be the leading cause of death among the adolescents in the world (WHO,

1997).


                                        17
(B)      Alcohol

         In contrast with smoking, the effect of alcohol consumption on

survivorship is not necessarily negative. When consumed at low levels, alcohol

provides some protection against Ischaemic heart disease. However, moderate

to high levels of alcohol intake increase the incidence of cirrhosis of the liver,

certain cancers, some types of cardiovascular disease, and traumatic or violent

deaths due to accidents particularly among the adolescents (WHO, 1997). It is

estimated, that alcohol causes 1.25 million deaths annually, 625,000 because of

injuries and 620,000 because of disease. (WHO, 1993).

(C)      Aids

         Another growing threat to adolescents’ well-being is undoubtedly the AIDS

epidemic caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Because sexual

intercourse is the main mode of transmission of HIV, behavioural factors,

particularly of the adolescents, are the root of the epidemic and need to be

addressed if the epidemic is to be brought under control (WHO, 1997). Although

basic information on the prevalence of HIV infection and AIDS is generally poor,

it is estimated that between 1992 and 1995, another 1.5 million had become

infected. The high prevalence of HIV infection among the adolescents is resulting

in mortality increases. The economic and social consequences of AIDS epidemic

impose major burdens on countries that are ill-prepared to face them (WHO,

1997).




                                         18
      There is therefore an urgent need to combat the further spread of the

disease by promoting the use of condoms and the avoidance of sex with multiple

partners and by reducing the likelihood of transmission through the treatment of

sexually-transmitted diseases (WHO, 1993; WHO, 1997).

      Other factors that affect the risk of morbidity and mortality among the

adolescents are diet and exercise. With regard to diet, there is strong evidence

linking high level of saturated fat intake to the incidence of cardiovascular

disease, especially ischaemic heart disease (Dean, 1994). Nutrition and dietary

factors are more likely to have an important influence on survivorship of the

adolescent than genetic factors, since genetic composition has essentially

remained the same.

Environmental Hazards and The Adolescent Health

      Better health, a longer life with less sickness, is crucial to a better

standard of living. Yet, worsening environmental conditions in many areas

threaten to reverse gains made in pubic health over the last several decades

(WHO, 1993).

      Millions of adolescents die every year from illnesses caused by

environmental pollution, and millions more suffer chronic disabilities such as

diminished physical strength and endurance, lower intelligence, and lack of

alertness (WHO, 1993). The poor adolescent suffer most because they have no

choice but to face unsanitary living conditions, malnourishment, exposure to

infectious organisms and toxic chemicals, and lack of health services.




                                      19
Malnutrition results in weakened condition, poor health, impaired intellectual

development, and low productivity. Altogether, diseases caused or aggravated by

polluted environment kill an estimated 10 to 25 million adolescents in Africa

yearly (WHO,1993). Many adolescents risk mental retardation due to exposure to

lead in the air, water and soil, mainly from leaded fuel burned by vehicles. Health

effects of exposure to hazardous wastes include cancer and damage to liver,

kidney and eyes (WHO, 1998).

       The adolescents health habits and behaviour constitute what he does and

what he fails to do, ranging from smoking, overeating, inactivity, drug abuse,

and participation in an un protected sexual relationship.

       The World Health Organization (1993) reported that there is a strong

negative relationship between adolescents’ mortality rates and lifestyle practices.

This has serious negative consequences on the nation’s health status and

survival.

       WHO (1993) highlighted conditions that lead individuals to engage in

unhealthy lifestyle practices such as lack of adequate health knowledge,

acquisition of misinformation about health matters, development of hazardous

lifestyles, and health efforts of government and other social institutions. Over 30

million people worldwide were estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS virus as at

the end of 1997, around 1.1 million of whom were adolescents. More than 90 per

cent of all cases are to be found in developing countries (WHO,1997).




                                        20
      Chronic and degenerative diseases are also emerging thereby increasing

proportion of all deaths among the adolescents in the developing word. A key

intersection of health and development concerns has been the lifestyle and the

environment. Poor environmental quality is linked to diarrhea diseases,

respiratory infections and a variety of parasitic diseases, as well as cardio

vascular diseases and cancer.

      Accidents and violent events leading to injury or death of the adolescents

are other aspects of environmental factors causing high morbidity and mortality

rate among adolescents. WHO (1990).

      Highlighted that about one in every 10 deaths in the developing world was

attributable to such condition. Accidents and injuries accounted for 12.5 per cent

of all deaths among male adolescents and 7.4 per cent among female

adolescents. Road accidents were the most important causes of death of the

adolescent worldwide (WHO, 1990).

      Traditionally, injuries have been a neglected public health problem

because authorities do not perceive them as amenable to intervention. However,

much is known about effective interventions to reduce injuries and health and

other authorities must take the lead in adopting measures to reduce morbidity

and mortality associated with preventable injuries and violence.




                                       21
Conclusion

      Although many countries face major challenges in maintaining the gains

made in reducing mortality or in achieving further reductions among the

adolescents, current knowledge provides a good basis for the design and

implementation of effective interventions. Given that a number of behavioural

factors have a very significant influence on health and longevity, public health

authorities have the responsibilities of promoting those behaviour that are most

likely to enhance the chances of adolescent for a long and healthy life. The

means to do so exist, but the will to intervene must be strengthened.




                                       22
                                REFERENCES

Adesina, C.B. (1990). Health Knowledge, Interest and Concerns of Selected
      Secondary School Students; Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, ABU, Zaria.

Burada, B. (1994). Lifestyles and Health. The Socio-Ecological Perspective.
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Cafford, J.C. (1993). Positive Health Indicators – Towards a New Information
       Base for Health Promotion. Community Medicine, 5: 125 – 132.

Dean, K. (1993). Influence of Health Beliefs on Lifestyles: What Do We Know?
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Dubos, R. (1998). Man, Medicine and Environment. London: Pall Mall.

Fisher, B.H. (1992). Peckham Health Project: Raising Health Consciousness.
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Harris, D.M. (1999). Health Protective Behaviour: An Explanatory Study, Journal
       of Health and Social Behaviour, 20: 1, 17 – 29.

Lazarus, R. (1994). Promoting Health Through the Public. In F.A. Davis
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Valiant, G. (1991). Theoretical Hierarchy of Adaptive Ego Mechanisms Archives of
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World Health Organization (1981). Environmental Health Profile, Technical
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World Health Organization (1990). Population Newsletter: Symposium on Health
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World Health Organization (1991). Health Hazard for Human Environment. World
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World Health Organization (1993). Environmental Health Aspects of Metropolitan
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World Health Organization (1998). Environmental Health: WHO Newsletters No.
      115.




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