Chapter 1 Biology Semester 1 Final Exam Study Guide Do Not Write on This Paper – put all answers on a separate sheet of paper. 1. What is biology the study of? 2. What are the 4 characteristics of life? 3. How are structure and function related in biology? 4. What is homeostasis? Give an example of how you maintain homeostasis. 5. List an explain the general steps of the scientific method. 6. What are independent and dependent variables? (explain) 7. What are constants and controls? 8 Sugar dissolves in, or mixes completely with, water. The solubility of a substance in water is determined by measuring the maximum amount of the substance that dissolves in a given amount of water at a given temperature. HYPOTHESIS: The solubility of sugar in water increases as the temperature of the water decreases. Identify the independent and dependent variables. 9 An electromagnet can be made by wrapping insulated wire around an iron nail and connecting the ends of the wire to a 6-volt battery. HYPOTHESIS: Increasing the number of coils of wire wrapped around the nail increases the strength of the electromagnet, as measured by the number of paper clips the magnet can pick up. Identify the independent and dependent variables. Chapter 2 1. What is the difference between a covalent bond and an ionic bond? 2. What are the 4 properties of water? 3. Is water polar or non-polar and why is this important? 4. What is adhesion? (give an example) 5. What is cohesion? (give an example) 6. Why is the fact that water has a high specific heat important? 7. What is a monomer? What is a polymer? 8. Fill in the chart below Polymer Monomer Function Foods What the body uses it for What types of foods do You eat to get it Carbohydrate Lipid Protein Nucleic acids 9. 2HO2 → H2 + O2 Explain why this is a chemical reaction and label the reactants and the products of this reaction. 10. What is a catalyst? (give an example) 11. What is an enzyme? (give an example) 12. Use the diagram below to explain how an enzyme works. Chapter 3 Cells and Organelles Cell Theory – list the parts of the cell theory Two types of Cells – describe the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Organelles : o What are they o Describe the functions of the following organelles and be able to pick them out of a diagram: Nucleus Ribosomes Endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondria Vesicles (ER) Lysosomes Golgi apparatus Cell membrane Chloroplast Cell wall Phospholipid Bilayer Chapter 4 What is it made of (which parts are polar 1. What is ATP? and which are non-polar) 2. What is the difference between the Selective permeability – what does it energy stored in food and the energy in mean ATP? 3. What is the purpose of cellular Passive Transport – what is it? respiration? Diffusion – 4. Where does cellular respiration occur? what is it? 5. What is aerobic respiration? (include the What is a concentration gradient? advantages and disadvantages) Osmosis – 6. What is anaerobic respiration? (include what is it? the advantages and disadvantages) In what direction does the water move in the following solutions: Match the following processes with the o hypotonic statements below: o isotonic Glycolysis Kreb’s cycle Electron o hypertonic Transport chain Fermentation Facilitated Diffusion – what is it? How 7. Which process(es) are aerobic? does it work? 8. Which process(es) are anaerobic? 9. Which process(es) starts with sugar and Active Transport – what is it? ends with pyruvate? Endocytosis – 10. Which process(es) allows glycolysis to o what is it? continue if oxygen is not readily o Phagocytosis available? o pinocytosis 11. Which process(es) produces the most Exocytosis – ATP? o what is it? 12. Which process(es) has the products of: 2 o How does it work? ATP, 6 CO2, 8 NADH, and 2 FADH? Pumps – how do they work? 13. Which process produces Lactic Acid? 14. Which process it the first step of cellular respiration? 15. What are the products of glycolysis? 16. How many ATPs can be produced by the electron transport chain? Chapter 5 What occurs during Metaphase? (draw and explain) Cell Cycle Describe what occurs during each step of the cell cycle. What types of checks occur during the G 1 and G2 stages before the cell can move on to the next step? Mitosis What is the purpose of mitosis? What occurs during Anaphase? (draw and explain) What do you end up with at the end of mitosis? What is the difference between a chromosome and a chromatin? (label the parts of the figure below) What occurs during Telophase? (draw and explain) What occurs during Cytokinesis? (draw and What occurs during Interphase? (draw and explain) explain) Cancer What occurs during Prophase? (draw and What is cancer? explain) Why does cancer occur? What is the difference between Benign and Malignant tumors? Why are Malignant tumors so dangerous? Genetics – Chapter 6 & 7 Meiosis What is the purpose of meiosis? What are the stages of meiosis? (draw and explain) Mendel Who is Mendel? What are the basics of his experiment? (what type of plants did he use – what traits did he test for – what did he find). What is the P, F1 and F2 generations and what happened to them in Mendel’s experiments? Know the difference between: o Trait, gene and allele o Homozygous and heterozygous alleles o Dominant and recessive traits o Genotypes and phenotypes o Co-dominant and Incomplete dominant (ch 7) Punnett Squares Know how to set one up and find the ratio and percentage of offspring (also what phenotype each offspring would be) Ex a) What would be the genotype and phenotype of the offspring of a heterozygous black haired dog and a homozygous white haired dog if black hair was dominant to white? Genotype Genotype Dog #1 ___ ___ ratio: % Dog #2 ___ ___ Phenotype ratio: % b) What would be the genotype and phenotype of the offspring of a heterozygous grey haired dog and a white dog if black is incompletely dominant to white? Genotype Genotype Dog #1 ___ ___ ratio: % Dog #2 ___ ___ Phenotype ratio: % c) What would be the genotype and phenotype of the offspring of 2 black and white spotted dogs if black hair is co-dominant to white? Genotype Genotype Dog #1 ___ ___ ratio: % Dog #2 ___ ___ Phenotype ratio: % d) What would be the phenotype ratio of a two heterozygous straight eared lamas if straight ears are dominant to floppy?
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