Chapter 1 Biology Semester 1 Final Exam Study Guide Do Not Write on This Paper – put all answers on a separate sheet of paper 1 What is biology the study of 2 What are the 4 character by aus20718

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									Chapter 1         Biology Semester 1 Final Exam Study Guide
Do Not Write on This Paper – put all answers on a separate sheet of paper.

1. What is biology the study of?
2. What are the 4 characteristics of life?
3. How are structure and function related in biology?
4. What is homeostasis? Give an example of how you maintain homeostasis.
5. List an explain the general steps of the scientific method.
6. What are independent and dependent variables? (explain)
7. What are constants and controls?
8 Sugar dissolves in, or mixes completely with, water. The solubility of a substance in water is
         determined by measuring the maximum amount of the substance that dissolves in a given amount
        of water at a given temperature. HYPOTHESIS: The solubility of sugar in water increases as the
        temperature of the water decreases. Identify the independent and dependent variables.
9 An electromagnet can be made by wrapping insulated wire around an iron nail and connecting the
        ends of the wire to a 6-volt battery. HYPOTHESIS: Increasing the number of coils of wire
        wrapped around the nail increases the strength of the electromagnet, as measured by the number of
        paper clips the magnet can pick up. Identify the independent and dependent variables.
Chapter 2
1.    What is the difference between a covalent bond and an ionic bond?
2.    What are the 4 properties of water?
3.    Is water polar or non-polar and why is this important?
4.    What is adhesion? (give an example)
5.    What is cohesion? (give an example)
6.    Why is the fact that water has a high specific heat important?
7.    What is a monomer? What is a polymer?
8.    Fill in the chart below
     Polymer              Monomer                    Function                       Foods
                                               What the body uses it for       What types of foods do
                                                                                  You eat to get it


Carbohydrate


Lipid


Protein


Nucleic acids


9. 2HO2 → H2 + O2 Explain why this is a chemical reaction and label the reactants and the products
   of this reaction.
10. What is a catalyst? (give an example)
                                                    11. What is an enzyme? (give an example)
                                                    12. Use the diagram below to explain how an
                                                        enzyme works.
Chapter 3
Cells and Organelles
    Cell Theory – list the parts of the cell theory
    Two types of Cells – describe the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    Organelles :
          o What are they
          o Describe the functions of the following organelles and be able to pick them out of a
             diagram:
           Nucleus                       Ribosomes                      Endoplasmic reticulum
           Mitochondria                  Vesicles                          (ER)
           Lysosomes                     Golgi apparatus                Cell membrane
           Chloroplast                                                   Cell wall

Phospholipid Bilayer                                 Chapter 4
    What is it made of (which parts are polar         1. What is ATP?
      and which are non-polar)                         2. What is the difference between the
    Selective permeability – what does it                 energy stored in food and the energy in
      mean                                                 ATP?
                                                       3. What is the purpose of cellular
Passive Transport – what is it?                            respiration?
    Diffusion –                                       4. Where does cellular respiration occur?
           what is it?                                5. What is aerobic respiration? (include the
           What is a concentration gradient?              advantages and disadvantages)
    Osmosis –                                         6. What is anaerobic respiration? (include
           what is it?                                    the advantages and disadvantages)
           In what direction does the water
               move in the following solutions:           Match the following processes with the
                    o hypotonic                      statements below:
                    o isotonic                            Glycolysis      Kreb’s cycle      Electron
                    o hypertonic                     Transport chain      Fermentation
    Facilitated Diffusion – what is it? How             7. Which process(es) are aerobic?
       does it work?                                     8. Which process(es) are anaerobic?
                                                         9. Which process(es) starts with sugar and
Active Transport – what is it?                               ends with pyruvate?
     Endocytosis –                                      10. Which process(es) allows glycolysis to
          o what is it?                                      continue if oxygen is not readily
          o Phagocytosis                                     available?
          o pinocytosis                                  11. Which process(es) produces the most
     Exocytosis –                                           ATP?
          o what is it?                                  12. Which process(es) has the products of: 2
          o How does it work?                                ATP, 6 CO2, 8 NADH, and 2 FADH?
     Pumps – how do they work?                          13. Which process produces Lactic Acid?
                                                         14. Which process it the first step of cellular
                                                             respiration?

                                                        15. What are the products of glycolysis?
                                                        16. How many ATPs can be produced by the
                                                            electron transport chain?
Chapter 5                                         What occurs during Metaphase? (draw and
                                                   explain)
Cell Cycle
 Describe what occurs during each step of the
   cell cycle.

 What types of checks occur during the G 1
  and G2 stages before the cell can move on to
  the next step?

Mitosis
 What is the purpose of mitosis?                 What occurs during Anaphase? (draw and
                                                   explain)
 What do you end up with at the end of
  mitosis?

 What is the difference between a
  chromosome and a chromatin? (label the
  parts of the figure below)

                                                  What occurs during Telophase? (draw and
                                                   explain)




                                                  What occurs during Cytokinesis? (draw and
 What occurs during Interphase? (draw and
                                                   explain)
  explain)




                                                 Cancer
 What occurs during Prophase? (draw and
                                                  What is cancer?
  explain)
                                                  Why does cancer occur?

                                                  What is the difference between Benign and
                                                   Malignant tumors?

                                                  Why are Malignant tumors so dangerous?
Genetics – Chapter 6 & 7
Meiosis
 What is the purpose of meiosis?

 What are the stages of meiosis? (draw and explain)
Mendel
 Who is Mendel? What are the basics of his experiment? (what type of plants did he use – what traits
  did he test for – what did he find). What is the P, F1 and F2 generations and what happened to them in
  Mendel’s experiments?

 Know the difference between:
           o Trait, gene and allele
           o Homozygous and heterozygous alleles
           o Dominant and recessive traits
           o Genotypes and phenotypes
           o Co-dominant and Incomplete dominant (ch 7)
Punnett Squares
 Know how to set one up and find the ratio and percentage of offspring (also what phenotype each
   offspring would be)
 Ex
   a) What would be the genotype and phenotype of the offspring of a heterozygous black haired dog
       and a homozygous white haired dog if black hair was dominant to white?

       Genotype                                                     Genotype
       Dog #1 ___ ___                                               ratio:           %
       Dog #2 ___ ___
                                                                    Phenotype
                                                                    ratio:           %

   b) What would be the genotype and phenotype of the offspring of a heterozygous grey haired dog
      and a white dog if black is incompletely dominant to white?

       Genotype                                                     Genotype
       Dog #1 ___ ___                                               ratio:           %
       Dog #2 ___ ___
                                                                    Phenotype
                                                                    ratio:           %

   c) What would be the genotype and phenotype of the offspring of 2 black and white spotted dogs if
      black hair is co-dominant to white?

       Genotype                                                     Genotype
       Dog #1 ___ ___                                               ratio:           %
       Dog #2 ___ ___
                                                                    Phenotype
                                                                    ratio:           %

   d) What would be the phenotype ratio of a two heterozygous straight eared lamas if straight ears are
   dominant to floppy?

								
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