Soc 475—Midterm Exam Study Guide Below is a list of terms and a list of questions intended to help you study. The list looks extremely long, and that is both good and bad. It is good in the sense that I have tried to be as thorough as I can; if you master this study guide, you should have no trouble with the exam. It is bad in the sense that it is intimidating. In some ways, the list is artificially long, because everything here is interrelated. But by the same token, knowing the definitions to these terms and answers to these questions means seeing the connections among them. Consult both the lectures and the texts together as you study—each sheds light on the other. And by all means, study together! No matter how smart you are, cooperation can help you see and understand things that you didn’t before. Recognize your “species being” as students—yes, each of you faces your own “bottom line” of academic survival (your grade); but by working together, everyone will fare better, and you will attain real “human freedom” (graduation). Key Terms and Concepts Enlightenment Private property Modernity Superstructure Two revolutions Base/structure Classical liberalism Use value Division of labor Exchange value Invisible hand Fetishism of commodities Democracy Labor Social state (Tocqueville) Labor power Mores Wage Freedom of association Capital Freedom of press Surplus value Individualism Absolute surplus value Self-interest properly understood Relative surplus value Material relations of production General law of capitalist accumulation Historical materialism Industrial reserve army Species life/species being Communism Civil society Class and class struggle Political economy Bourgeoisie Commodity Proletariat Objectification The state Estranged/alienated labor Dictatorship of the proletariat Questions How did the two revolutions change life in Western Europe? What were the three ideological reactions to the two revolutions, and how does each theorist exemplify them? According to Adam Smith, where does the “wealth of nations” come from? How is Adam Smith’s view of human nature similar/different from Karl Marx’s? What did Alexis de Tocqueville think about democracy compared to the “Old regime” (aristocracy)? What is the “social state” of America, according to Tocqueville, and what causes it? Why did Marx disagree with German philosophical idealism, and how was his philosophy different? What are Marx’s views on religion? What was “the Jewish question,” and what was Marx’s answer to it? In what ways are workers estranged/alienated under capitalism? Why? Why does Marx divide institutions of society into the base/structure and superstructure? Which institutions fit in which category? What is the relationship between consciousness and the material relations of production, according to Marx? What does Marx think about politics and the state? Why does Marx think that the downfall of capitalism is inevitable? What is the relationship between labor, labor power, and wages? What is capital? Where does it come from? What is the source of surplus value? How does a capitalist create absolute surplus value and relative surplus value? What is the relationship between the well-being of workers and the well-being of capitalists? Why does Marx think it is inevitable that the proletariat gets increasingly large and the bourgeoisie get increasingly small under capitalism? When Marx speaks about the abolition of private property, what is he really saying? What differences exist between how Marx and Lenin talk about classes and class struggle, and why does it matter?