Fall Exam Study Guide by aus20718


									Fall Exam Study Guide

Completing this study guide will help you prepare for the exam and is NOT
OPITIONAL. We will work on this study guide in class and you must ask questions
as we proceed through the guide. I will not answer any questions beginning on
Thursday, December 17th, so ask in advance!

Introduction to World History, Early Village Life-Preview of Book and Chapter 1

BC-Before the Birth of Christ
AD-Anno Domini In the Year of Our Lord

Look at the timeline on page TOOLS 3 and answer these questions.
      What is the title of the timeline? Three Ancient Civilizations
      When does it begin and end? 2500 BC------650BC
      What year did the Aryans invade India? 1500 BC
      What occurred first? The First Olympics or the beginning of the
      Shang Dynasty? Shang Dynasty Begins

Create a timeline using these events: Battle of Marathon, Namer Unites Egypt?
Caesar conquers Gaul (49BC), Pope Urban called for the First Crusade

3100BC               490BC                        49BC                 1095

Narmer Unites Egypt         Battle of Marathon Caesar conquers Pope
                                                    Gaul            calls

Study the map of the Eastern Hemisphere and label these places:

Nile River                  Greece                       Rome         Atlantic Ocean
Tigris River                Anatolia                     Gaul         Arabian Peninsula
Euphrates River             Mesopotamia                  Spain
Indus River                 China                        Adriatic Sea
Ganges River                Egypt                        Alps
Huang He River              India                        Pyrenees
Mediterranean Sea           Himalaya Mountains           Carthage
Red Sea                     Italy                        Crete
Persian Gulf               Europe                      Aegean Sea
Pacific Ocean              Ionian Sea                  Indian Ocean
Paleolithic -Old Stone Age
Neolithic New Stone Age
Anthropologist-Scientist who studies how humans developed
Archaeologist-Scientist who studies evidence buried in the ground
Historian-person who studies about the human past
Artifact-weapons, tools, and other things made by humans
Specialize-develop different kinds of jobs besides farming like artisans
Neolithic Revolution-change in the way humans lived brought about by farming
Domesticate-using/taming animals for human use

Paleolithic Age:
      How did Hunter-Gathers live? Moved from place to place, lived in small
      What kind of homes did they have? Temporary shelters, caves

Neolithic Age:
      What is the Neolithic Revolution? when people began to grow crops
      How did farming change the way people lived? could live in one place
      and specialize with jobs
      How did domesticated animals help? work/ready supply of food
      What type of work did specialized workers do? artisans, priests
      What is Catal Huyuk? village in Turkey, known for obsidian products/was near
       a volcano/built with doors in roofs/worshipped a mother goddess

Mesopotamia: Chapter 1
Artisan -skilled workers who made metal products, cloth, or pottery
Empire-group of many differed lands under one ruler
Civilization-complex society with 6 characteristics
Scribe-record keepers of the ancient world
City-State-a city and the surrounding land/had its own government
Cuneiform (understand how it works)
What is the Fertile Crescent?-the region of land between the Tigris and Euphrates
rivers that is very fertile after the flooding period
What makes it fertile? the soil deposited (silt) following the floods
What was the name of the region formed in southern Mesopotamia by 3000BC?
How did Sumerian city-states operate in times of peace and war? during peace
priests would lead the government during war powerful army leaders ruled
What structure is at the center of the city-state? ziggurat
What happened there? priests offered sacrifices to the gods
What was the structure made from? Mud Bricks
What geographic features did most of our early civilizations form around? Rivers
Who was Gilgamesh? Epic hero who accomplished great deeds
Who was Hammurabi? Ruler of Babylon
What is he most remembered for? law code
Describe his law code. Eye for an Eye code where punishment usually matched
the crime/law code was biased for rich over poor/men over women

Egypt: Chapter 2
Cataract-Wild rapids along the Nile River
Hieroglyphics-Egyptian writing system made up of 1000s of picture symbols
Dynasty-Line of rulers from one family
Papyrus-reed plant that grew along the banks of the Nile River used for paper
Delta- fertile soil area at the end of the river that branches into a body of water
Deity -god or goddess
Embalm-process of preserving a body for burial
Mummy-tightly wrapped dead body
Pyramid-mountain like stone tomb built for the Pharaohs of Egypt
Pharaoh-Egyptian Kings
Old Kingdom-period from about 2600BC until 2300BC when Egypt grew and
Middle Kingdom-period from 2050BC until 1670BC when Egypt entered a golden age
of prosperity, stability, and achievement
New Kingdom-period from 1550BC until 1080BC when Egypt entered an even richer
and more powerful period

Old Kingdom
How did the Pharaohs rule? as gods on earth
Who was the Pharaoh believed to be the son of? Egyptians believed that he
was the son of Ra
What is polytheism? belief in more than one god
Why was the afterlife so important to the Egyptians? they believed in a glorious
afterlife that they could look forward to
What is natron? Salt like substance used in embalming
What is the Book of the Dead? Collection of spells and prayers studied to help in
the afterlife.
What is the Weighing of the Heart Ceremony?-ceremony to see if the person
lived a happy and carefree life
Why did Egyptians construct pyramids for their Pharaohs?
to give them a tomb and provide a stairway to the heavens
Middle Kingdom
In the peaceful period of the Middle Kingdom, what 3 areas of culture thrived?
arts, literature, and architecture
Who invaded Egypt on chariots? Hyksos

Who drove the Hyksos out of Egypt? Ahmose

New Kingdom
Who Amenhotep/Akhenaton? Pharaoh who changed the religion of Egypt to
the worship of one god called Aton
What new name did he give himself? Akhenaton
What did he do that made many Egyptians angry? refused to allow them to
worship as before
What Egyptian queen was the first woman to rule in Egypt in her own right and
what was she known for. Hatshepsut. Trade and building the Egyptian economy
Which pharaoh’s armies expanded Egypt’s borders to the Euphrates River?
Thutmose III
Which pharaoh ruled for 66 years? Ramses II
Which pharaoh is best known because of the discovery of his tomb?

Indus Valley Civilization: Chapter 6
Subcontinent -a region that is part of a Continent but is usually separated by
mountains or other geographic features
Monsoon-strong winds that blow in different directions in the summer and winter
Sanskrit-Aryan language developed in India
Caste-a social group that someone is born into
Karma-consequences of how a person lives (Hinduism)
Dharma- divine law that requires a person to perform the duties of their caste
Buddhism-new religion much like Hinduism founded by Siddhartha Gautama
Hinduism-one of the oldest religions in the world belief in many gods and goddesses
who control the forces of nature
India is called a subcontinent because of what? The Himalayas separate it from
the rest of Asia
What 2 rivers was the site of India’s first settlement. Ganges and Indus Rivers
What is Mohenjo-Daro? List some characteristics of this city large city located on
the Indus river/well-planned city with grid pattern/houses made from uniform
sized mud bricks/very little social differences because houses were all very
similar/had indoor plumbing and underground sewer systems/most people were
farmers but many were specialized workers/prosperous and peaceful people
What archeological evidence has been found here? jewelry, clay pottery, few
weapons, toys, plumbing systems
Why is it important? gives us clues about the society; toys= prosperous because they
are not a necessary item/few weapons=peaceful society
Who are the Aryans? hunters/nomadic shepards who prized cows/good
warriors/entered Indus Valley and conquered the people of the Indus Valley

What did they believe? they believed in a strict social caste system

Describe India’s social system using the following chart

Why do Hindus believe in reincarnation? They believe the soul must be reborn to join
a higher caste in order to be reunited with Brahman
How did reincarnation affect Indian life? effects how they treat other people and
animals b/c their karma will effect where they go in their next life.
Who founded Buddhism? Siddhartha Gautama
What are the Four Noble Truths? 1. Life is full of suffering. 2. People suffer b/c
they desire worldly things. 3. The way to end suffering is to stop desiring things.
4. The only way to stop desiring things is to follow the Eightfold path.
What must be followed in order to stop desiring things? The Eightfold Path

China: Chapter 7
Mandate-formal order
Dynasty-series of rulers from the same family
Legalism-founded by Hanfeizi; Chinese philosophy that said people were naturally evil
and need HARSH PUNISHMENTS and STRICT LAWS to force them to do their duty.
Confucianism- founded by Confucius; philosophy that said people should put the
needs of his family and community above his own. Must practice filial piety, which is
respect of parents and older relatives
Daoism- philosophy founded by Laozi; taught that people must follow “the way” or the
“Dao” in order to find harmony
Silk Road- network of trade routes that connected China with southwest Asia
What 2 rivers flooded in China? Yangtze and Huang He (Yellow River)
What was the soil called that the rivers left behind? Loses
What nicknames did the Huang He River have? China’s Sorrow or the Yellow
Why did the Chinese refer to their homeland as the Middle Kingdom? thought
their civilization was the best and at the world’s center
Review the information you learned from the Shang Tomb Activity.
       What is an oracle bone? used by priests to tell future
       What artifacts did you “uncover” oracle bones, ceremonial ax, jade
       disc, dagger, chariot, ox statue
What popular product did Shang artisans create and then trade along the Silk
Road? Silk
Why did the Zhou believe they should be in power? heavenly law gave them
their power…Mandate of Heaven
What important technologies were developed during the time of the Zhou? iron
plows, better irrigation, flood control, stirrups, crossbows, saddles
Describe Confucianism. founded by Confucius; philosophy that said people should
put the needs of his family and community above his own. Must practice filial piety,
which is respect of parents and older relatives
Describe Daoism. philosophy founded by Laozi; taught that people must follow
“the way” or the “Dao” in order to find harmony; taught people to give up their
concerns about the world and just follow their inner peace and nature
Describe Legalism. founded by Hanfeizi; Chinese philosophy that said people
were naturally evil and need HARSH PUNISHMENTS and STRICT LAWS to force
them to do their duty. This is the philosophy that Shi Huangdi based his govt on.
Who is Qin Shi Huang Di? the first Qin emperor; unified China, built many roads,
used one currency
What type of government did he establish? Legalist government, very strict and
harsh on his subjects
Why did he order the construction of the Great Wall of China? to keep out the
Xiongnu in the north
List at least 5 new inventions created during the period of the Han. acupuncture,
iron drill bits, waterwheels, paper, steel, rudders for ships
What is the Silk Road? What valuable products were traded on the Silk Road?
Trade routes between China and southwest Asia; silk, spices, gold, oils, paper, etc…see
pg 246 for complete list

Greece-Chapter 4 and 5
Peninsula -body of land surrounded by water on 3 sides
Peloponnesus- body of land that looks like a hand and is connected to the Greek
mainland…home of Sparta
Polis- Greek city-state
Agora- marketplace in Athens
Acropolis- fortified hilltop
Tyranny- govt ruled by one who takes control by force and rules with total
Oligarchy- govt where a few rule. Ex-Sparta
Democracy- govt. ruled by the people. Ex. Athens
Monarchy- govt in the hands of one monarch. Ex. a Kingdom
Phalanx- Greek fighting formation
Helot-Spartan slave
Tyrant-a person who takes power by force and rules by total authority
Ephor-5 elected men in Sparta who oversees the actions of the kings.
Satrap-head of the Persian government
Colony-settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties with its homeland
Delian League- alliance b/w Greek city-states with the goal of protecting them
against the Persians led by Athens
Peloponnesian League- alliance b/w Greek city-states with the goal of protecting
them against the Persians led by Sparta
Who were the Minoans? Sea trading people who were the 1st arise in the area that
would become Greece
Where did they live? Crete
What were they known for? Their trade, pottery, palace at Knossos
What was bull leaping? A sport the Minoans participated in
Who were the Mycenaeans? Very skilled sea traders who traveled outside the
What was their most important victory? Trojan War
How did the geography of Greece affect the people who lived there? Very
mountainous; it divided them into independent city-states; led to lots of tension
and fighting over scarce resources such as farmland; most lived on or very near
the sea
How were the city-states governed? Like a tiny independent country
What type of government existed in Sparta? Oligarchy
Who headed the Spartan government? 2 kings and a council of 28 men over
the age of 60
Why did the Spartans rely on older men to serve in government? believed they
had more wisdom and experience
At what age did Spartan boys begin to train for the military? 7
What did Spartan girls do? Trained in sports and became fit mothers
What type of government existed in Athens? Democracy
Who could participate in government? All free, land owning males
What role did women have in Athens? Ran household
What is the difference between a direct democracy and a representative
democracy? Direct democracy-every citizen can firsthand vote on laws and
policies. Representative democracy-citizens choose a smaller group to make
laws and governmental decisions on their behalf
What countries and regions became a part of the Persian Empire? All of the
Middle East, part of India, Egypt, Anatolia
How did Cyrus and Darius treat their subjects? With kindness and respect
Why did Ionia rebel against the Persians? The Persians tried to take over their
Who did they ask for help? Sparta
Who actually helped them? Athens
Who won this long battle? Persia
What did Darius vow to do? To attack Athens
Why did the Greeks defeat the Persians at the Battle of Marathon? The Persians
put their cavalry back on their ships and sailed to Athens. Then the Athenian infantry
defeated the Persian infantry
Who is Pheidippedes? What did he do? Athenian messenger What did he do?
Ran 26 miles to Athens to tell them of the victory over Persia
Who is Xerxes? Son of Darius, his successor, King of Persia
Who assisted the Athenians at the Battle of Thermopylae? Sparta
Who is Pericles? Athenian general who ushered in the Golden Age; wanted
Athens to be a model for the world.
Why did Athens and Sparta go to war? Sparta feared Athens’s growing power
and questioned its goals

Comedy-Greek drama with a happy ending; usually made fun of political
figures and/or events of the day
Tragedy- drama where someone attempts to overcome difficulties but fails
Epic- long poem about heroes and their adventures
Fable- short stories that teach a lesson or moral
Philosopher- thinkers who pondered questions about life
Who is Homer? Greek epic writer
What did he write? Iliad and Odyssey
Who Aesop? Greek fable writer
What did he write? Aesop’s fables
What were the 3 orders of columns in Greek Architecture? Ionic, Doric,
Review the Daily Life in Ancient Athens Activity
Who was Socrates? Greek philosopher put to death for his teachings. Taught that
there is absolute truth; taught students to question authority
What is the Socratic Method? A method of teaching developed by Socrates
where a teacher uses questions to force students to use their reason and find
things out for themselves
Why did Phillip II attack Greece? He wanted to unite the city-states so he could
take over Persia
Who warned the Greeks? Demosthenes
What war had left the Greeks divided and weak? Peloponnesian
What happened to Phillip? He was murdered
Who took over for Phillip? His son Alexander
What happened at Thebes? Alexander took over and Thebans rebelled
How did Alexander respond to the threat of rebellion? He killed 6,000 soldiers
and enslaved over 20,000 women and children
Why did Alexander want to defeat the Greeks?
How was Alexander treated by the Egyptians? Like a god king
Why did Alexander’s soldiers follow him into battle for so long?
What happened in India that made Alexander turn for home? soliders wouldn’t
go on
What happened to Alexander’s empire upon his death? It was divided into 4

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