Fall Exam Study Guide Name:____________________________________________________ Completing this study guide will help you prepare for the exam and is NOT OPITIONAL. We will work on this study guide in class and you must ask questions as we proceed through the guide. I will not answer any questions beginning on Thursday, December 17th, so ask in advance! Introduction to World History, Early Village Life-Preview of Book and Chapter 1 Define: BC-Before the Birth of Christ AD-Anno Domini In the Year of Our Lord Look at the timeline on page TOOLS 3 and answer these questions. What is the title of the timeline? Three Ancient Civilizations When does it begin and end? 2500 BC------650BC What year did the Aryans invade India? 1500 BC What occurred first? The First Olympics or the beginning of the Shang Dynasty? Shang Dynasty Begins Create a timeline using these events: Battle of Marathon, Namer Unites Egypt? Caesar conquers Gaul (49BC), Pope Urban called for the First Crusade 3100BC 490BC 49BC 1095 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Narmer Unites Egypt Battle of Marathon Caesar conquers Pope Gaul calls for Study the map of the Eastern Hemisphere and label these places: Nile River Greece Rome Atlantic Ocean Tigris River Anatolia Gaul Arabian Peninsula Euphrates River Mesopotamia Spain Indus River China Adriatic Sea Ganges River Egypt Alps Huang He River India Pyrenees Mediterranean Sea Himalaya Mountains Carthage Red Sea Italy Crete Persian Gulf Europe Aegean Sea Pacific Ocean Ionian Sea Indian Ocean Define: Paleolithic -Old Stone Age Neolithic New Stone Age Anthropologist-Scientist who studies how humans developed Archaeologist-Scientist who studies evidence buried in the ground Historian-person who studies about the human past Artifact-weapons, tools, and other things made by humans Specialize-develop different kinds of jobs besides farming like artisans Neolithic Revolution-change in the way humans lived brought about by farming Domesticate-using/taming animals for human use Paleolithic Age: How did Hunter-Gathers live? Moved from place to place, lived in small groups What kind of homes did they have? Temporary shelters, caves Neolithic Age: What is the Neolithic Revolution? when people began to grow crops How did farming change the way people lived? could live in one place and specialize with jobs How did domesticated animals help? work/ready supply of food What type of work did specialized workers do? artisans, priests What is Catal Huyuk? village in Turkey, known for obsidian products/was near a volcano/built with doors in roofs/worshipped a mother goddess Mesopotamia: Chapter 1 Define: Artisan -skilled workers who made metal products, cloth, or pottery Empire-group of many differed lands under one ruler Civilization-complex society with 6 characteristics Scribe-record keepers of the ancient world City-State-a city and the surrounding land/had its own government Cuneiform (understand how it works) What is the Fertile Crescent?-the region of land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that is very fertile after the flooding period What makes it fertile? the soil deposited (silt) following the floods What was the name of the region formed in southern Mesopotamia by 3000BC? Sumer How did Sumerian city-states operate in times of peace and war? during peace priests would lead the government during war powerful army leaders ruled What structure is at the center of the city-state? ziggurat What happened there? priests offered sacrifices to the gods What was the structure made from? Mud Bricks What geographic features did most of our early civilizations form around? Rivers Who was Gilgamesh? Epic hero who accomplished great deeds Who was Hammurabi? Ruler of Babylon What is he most remembered for? law code Describe his law code. Eye for an Eye code where punishment usually matched the crime/law code was biased for rich over poor/men over women Egypt: Chapter 2 Define: Cataract-Wild rapids along the Nile River Hieroglyphics-Egyptian writing system made up of 1000s of picture symbols Dynasty-Line of rulers from one family Papyrus-reed plant that grew along the banks of the Nile River used for paper Delta- fertile soil area at the end of the river that branches into a body of water Deity -god or goddess Embalm-process of preserving a body for burial Mummy-tightly wrapped dead body Pyramid-mountain like stone tomb built for the Pharaohs of Egypt Pharaoh-Egyptian Kings Old Kingdom-period from about 2600BC until 2300BC when Egypt grew and prospered Middle Kingdom-period from 2050BC until 1670BC when Egypt entered a golden age of prosperity, stability, and achievement New Kingdom-period from 1550BC until 1080BC when Egypt entered an even richer and more powerful period Old Kingdom How did the Pharaohs rule? as gods on earth Who was the Pharaoh believed to be the son of? Egyptians believed that he was the son of Ra What is polytheism? belief in more than one god Why was the afterlife so important to the Egyptians? they believed in a glorious afterlife that they could look forward to What is natron? Salt like substance used in embalming What is the Book of the Dead? Collection of spells and prayers studied to help in the afterlife. What is the Weighing of the Heart Ceremony?-ceremony to see if the person lived a happy and carefree life Why did Egyptians construct pyramids for their Pharaohs? to give them a tomb and provide a stairway to the heavens Middle Kingdom In the peaceful period of the Middle Kingdom, what 3 areas of culture thrived? arts, literature, and architecture Who invaded Egypt on chariots? Hyksos Who drove the Hyksos out of Egypt? Ahmose New Kingdom Who Amenhotep/Akhenaton? Pharaoh who changed the religion of Egypt to the worship of one god called Aton What new name did he give himself? Akhenaton What did he do that made many Egyptians angry? refused to allow them to worship as before What Egyptian queen was the first woman to rule in Egypt in her own right and what was she known for. Hatshepsut. Trade and building the Egyptian economy Which pharaoh’s armies expanded Egypt’s borders to the Euphrates River? Thutmose III Which pharaoh ruled for 66 years? Ramses II Which pharaoh is best known because of the discovery of his tomb? Tutankhamen Indus Valley Civilization: Chapter 6 Define: Subcontinent -a region that is part of a Continent but is usually separated by mountains or other geographic features Monsoon-strong winds that blow in different directions in the summer and winter Sanskrit-Aryan language developed in India Caste-a social group that someone is born into Karma-consequences of how a person lives (Hinduism) Dharma- divine law that requires a person to perform the duties of their caste (Hinduism) Buddhism-new religion much like Hinduism founded by Siddhartha Gautama Hinduism-one of the oldest religions in the world belief in many gods and goddesses who control the forces of nature India is called a subcontinent because of what? The Himalayas separate it from the rest of Asia What 2 rivers was the site of India’s first settlement. Ganges and Indus Rivers What is Mohenjo-Daro? List some characteristics of this city large city located on the Indus river/well-planned city with grid pattern/houses made from uniform sized mud bricks/very little social differences because houses were all very similar/had indoor plumbing and underground sewer systems/most people were farmers but many were specialized workers/prosperous and peaceful people What archeological evidence has been found here? jewelry, clay pottery, few weapons, toys, plumbing systems Why is it important? gives us clues about the society; toys= prosperous because they are not a necessary item/few weapons=peaceful society Who are the Aryans? hunters/nomadic shepards who prized cows/good warriors/entered Indus Valley and conquered the people of the Indus Valley What did they believe? they believed in a strict social caste system Describe India’s social system using the following chart Why do Hindus believe in reincarnation? They believe the soul must be reborn to join a higher caste in order to be reunited with Brahman How did reincarnation affect Indian life? effects how they treat other people and animals b/c their karma will effect where they go in their next life. Who founded Buddhism? Siddhartha Gautama What are the Four Noble Truths? 1. Life is full of suffering. 2. People suffer b/c they desire worldly things. 3. The way to end suffering is to stop desiring things. 4. The only way to stop desiring things is to follow the Eightfold path. What must be followed in order to stop desiring things? The Eightfold Path China: Chapter 7 Define: Mandate-formal order Dynasty-series of rulers from the same family Legalism-founded by Hanfeizi; Chinese philosophy that said people were naturally evil and need HARSH PUNISHMENTS and STRICT LAWS to force them to do their duty. Confucianism- founded by Confucius; philosophy that said people should put the needs of his family and community above his own. Must practice filial piety, which is respect of parents and older relatives Daoism- philosophy founded by Laozi; taught that people must follow “the way” or the “Dao” in order to find harmony Silk Road- network of trade routes that connected China with southwest Asia What 2 rivers flooded in China? Yangtze and Huang He (Yellow River) What was the soil called that the rivers left behind? Loses What nicknames did the Huang He River have? China’s Sorrow or the Yellow River Why did the Chinese refer to their homeland as the Middle Kingdom? thought their civilization was the best and at the world’s center Review the information you learned from the Shang Tomb Activity. What is an oracle bone? used by priests to tell future What artifacts did you “uncover” oracle bones, ceremonial ax, jade disc, dagger, chariot, ox statue What popular product did Shang artisans create and then trade along the Silk Road? Silk Why did the Zhou believe they should be in power? heavenly law gave them their power…Mandate of Heaven What important technologies were developed during the time of the Zhou? iron plows, better irrigation, flood control, stirrups, crossbows, saddles Describe Confucianism. founded by Confucius; philosophy that said people should put the needs of his family and community above his own. Must practice filial piety, which is respect of parents and older relatives Describe Daoism. philosophy founded by Laozi; taught that people must follow “the way” or the “Dao” in order to find harmony; taught people to give up their concerns about the world and just follow their inner peace and nature Describe Legalism. founded by Hanfeizi; Chinese philosophy that said people were naturally evil and need HARSH PUNISHMENTS and STRICT LAWS to force them to do their duty. This is the philosophy that Shi Huangdi based his govt on. Who is Qin Shi Huang Di? the first Qin emperor; unified China, built many roads, used one currency What type of government did he establish? Legalist government, very strict and harsh on his subjects Why did he order the construction of the Great Wall of China? to keep out the Xiongnu in the north List at least 5 new inventions created during the period of the Han. acupuncture, iron drill bits, waterwheels, paper, steel, rudders for ships What is the Silk Road? What valuable products were traded on the Silk Road? Trade routes between China and southwest Asia; silk, spices, gold, oils, paper, etc…see pg 246 for complete list Greece-Chapter 4 and 5 Define: Peninsula -body of land surrounded by water on 3 sides Peloponnesus- body of land that looks like a hand and is connected to the Greek mainland…home of Sparta Polis- Greek city-state Agora- marketplace in Athens Acropolis- fortified hilltop Tyranny- govt ruled by one who takes control by force and rules with total authority Oligarchy- govt where a few rule. Ex-Sparta Democracy- govt. ruled by the people. Ex. Athens Monarchy- govt in the hands of one monarch. Ex. a Kingdom Phalanx- Greek fighting formation Helot-Spartan slave Tyrant-a person who takes power by force and rules by total authority Ephor-5 elected men in Sparta who oversees the actions of the kings. Satrap-head of the Persian government Colony-settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties with its homeland Delian League- alliance b/w Greek city-states with the goal of protecting them against the Persians led by Athens Peloponnesian League- alliance b/w Greek city-states with the goal of protecting them against the Persians led by Sparta Who were the Minoans? Sea trading people who were the 1st arise in the area that would become Greece Where did they live? Crete What were they known for? Their trade, pottery, palace at Knossos What was bull leaping? A sport the Minoans participated in Who were the Mycenaeans? Very skilled sea traders who traveled outside the Mediterranean What was their most important victory? Trojan War How did the geography of Greece affect the people who lived there? Very mountainous; it divided them into independent city-states; led to lots of tension and fighting over scarce resources such as farmland; most lived on or very near the sea How were the city-states governed? Like a tiny independent country What type of government existed in Sparta? Oligarchy Who headed the Spartan government? 2 kings and a council of 28 men over the age of 60 Why did the Spartans rely on older men to serve in government? believed they had more wisdom and experience At what age did Spartan boys begin to train for the military? 7 What did Spartan girls do? Trained in sports and became fit mothers What type of government existed in Athens? Democracy Who could participate in government? All free, land owning males What role did women have in Athens? Ran household What is the difference between a direct democracy and a representative democracy? Direct democracy-every citizen can firsthand vote on laws and policies. Representative democracy-citizens choose a smaller group to make laws and governmental decisions on their behalf What countries and regions became a part of the Persian Empire? All of the Middle East, part of India, Egypt, Anatolia How did Cyrus and Darius treat their subjects? With kindness and respect Why did Ionia rebel against the Persians? The Persians tried to take over their shipping Who did they ask for help? Sparta Who actually helped them? Athens Who won this long battle? Persia What did Darius vow to do? To attack Athens Why did the Greeks defeat the Persians at the Battle of Marathon? The Persians put their cavalry back on their ships and sailed to Athens. Then the Athenian infantry defeated the Persian infantry Who is Pheidippedes? What did he do? Athenian messenger What did he do? Ran 26 miles to Athens to tell them of the victory over Persia Who is Xerxes? Son of Darius, his successor, King of Persia Who assisted the Athenians at the Battle of Thermopylae? Sparta Who is Pericles? Athenian general who ushered in the Golden Age; wanted Athens to be a model for the world. Why did Athens and Sparta go to war? Sparta feared Athens’s growing power and questioned its goals Define: Comedy-Greek drama with a happy ending; usually made fun of political figures and/or events of the day Tragedy- drama where someone attempts to overcome difficulties but fails Epic- long poem about heroes and their adventures Fable- short stories that teach a lesson or moral Philosopher- thinkers who pondered questions about life Who is Homer? Greek epic writer What did he write? Iliad and Odyssey Who Aesop? Greek fable writer What did he write? Aesop’s fables What were the 3 orders of columns in Greek Architecture? Ionic, Doric, Corinthian Review the Daily Life in Ancient Athens Activity Who was Socrates? Greek philosopher put to death for his teachings. Taught that there is absolute truth; taught students to question authority What is the Socratic Method? A method of teaching developed by Socrates where a teacher uses questions to force students to use their reason and find things out for themselves Why did Phillip II attack Greece? He wanted to unite the city-states so he could take over Persia Who warned the Greeks? Demosthenes What war had left the Greeks divided and weak? Peloponnesian What happened to Phillip? He was murdered Who took over for Phillip? His son Alexander What happened at Thebes? Alexander took over and Thebans rebelled How did Alexander respond to the threat of rebellion? He killed 6,000 soldiers and enslaved over 20,000 women and children Why did Alexander want to defeat the Greeks? How was Alexander treated by the Egyptians? Like a god king Why did Alexander’s soldiers follow him into battle for so long? What happened in India that made Alexander turn for home? soliders wouldn’t go on What happened to Alexander’s empire upon his death? It was divided into 4 kingdoms.
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