History 101 Final Exam Study Guide

Document Sample
History 101 Final Exam Study Guide Powered By Docstoc
					                  History 101 Final Exam Study Guide
                New World Beginnings to Furnace of War
                             Chapters 1-21

Chapter 1: New World Beginnings

         An asterisk denotes questions from guidebook.

   1.      What four ideals did the colonists come to cherish as synonymous with American
           life? p. 2
   2.      How did the Great Ice Age account for the origins of human history in North America?
           p. 3
   3.      Give four common characteristics of the Inca, Mayan, and Aztec civilizations? p. 8
   4.      What was one main factor that enabled Europeans to conquer native North
           Americans with relative ease? p. 8
   5.      How did most native peoples in North America live before the arrival of Europeans?
           p. 10
   6.      Give four reasons why Europeans wanted to discover a new, shorter route to eastern
           Asia. p. 11
   7.      In an effort to reach the Indies, why did Spain look westward? p. 14
   8.      European contact with Native Americans had what devastating consequence? p. 16
   9.      Why did Spain begin to fortify and settle its North American borderlands? p. 23
   10.     What four foods were among the most important American Indians products to
           spread to the Old World? *
   11.     Much of the impetus for Spanish exploration and pursuit of glory came from what
           events in Spain’s recent history? *
   12.     The flood of gold and silver from Spanish America into Europe after 1500 played a
           large role in the rise of what two economic activities? *

Chapter 2: The Planting of English America
   1.      Give four motives for English colonization. p. 30
   2.      The guarantee that English settlers in the New World would retain the “rights of
           Englishmen” became the basis for what? p. 30
   3.      Give three characteristics of the early years at Jamestown. p. 31
   4.      What possibility ended with the results of the Second Anglo-Powhatan War in 1614?
           p. 33
   5.      Why were additional purchases of Africans so few after the first purchase of slaves in
           1619 by Jamestown settlers? p. 36
   6.      Why were some Africans especially valuable as slaves in the Carolinas? p. 39
   7.      How were North Carolina and Rhode Island similar? p. 40
   8.      English victory over the Spanish Armada had what two results for England? *
   9.      What were the social conditions in England when it began its colonization efforts? *
   10.     What saved England’s first colony at Jamestown? *
   11.     The early conflicts between English settlers and the Indians near Jamestown laid
           what basis? *
   12.     Most of the early white settlers in North Carolina came from what groups? *
Chapter 3: Settling the Northern Colonies

   1.     King James I opposed the Separatists who wanted to break away from the Church of
          England because he realized what implication? p. 47
   2.     Among the Puritans, it was understood that government had what purpose? p. 50
   3.     What was the English government’s interest in the early years of New World
          colonization? p. 54
   4.     What was the principle motive of the earliest settlements in New England? *
   5.     Why was the Massachusetts Bay Colony not a true democracy? *
   6.     What did King Philip’s War represent in the colonial history of New England? *
   7.     How did William Penn attract settlers to his Pennsylvania colony? *
   8.     What demographic trait did the middle colonies of New York, Pennsylvania, New
          Jersey, and Delaware share? *

Chapter 4: American Life in the 17th Century
    1.     What noticeable trait did the population of the Chesapeake colonies exhibit
           throughout the first half of the 17 century? p. 68
    2.     Give four reasons why indentured servitude solved the labor problem in many
           English colonies. p. 69
    3.     By the end of the 17 century, what fate did indentured servants who gained their
           freedom face? p. 70
    4.     The majority of African slaves coming to the New World went to what two
           destinations? p. 72
    5.     Give four reasons for the increased reliance on African slave labor in colonial
           America after 1680? p. 74
    6.     What powerfully molded the colonial American slave system, even though it seemed
           to have begun for economic reasons? pp. 74-75
    7.     Give four characteristics or beliefs of Slave Christianity that differed from the
           Christianity of the whites. p. 79
    8.     Why did southern colonies generally allow married women to retain separate title of
           their property? p. 81
    9.     The Salem witchcraft trials were an indication of what social/economic
           phenomenon? p. 84
    10.    The New England economy depended heavily on what three enterprises? p. 84
    11.    Give three elements of the early “slave codes” in colonial America. p. 74
    12.    How had most slaves who eventually reached North America become enslaved? *
    13.    What was the consequence of few urban centers in the colonial South? *
    14.    The Congregational Church of the Puritans contributed to what political activity? *
    15.    How were the experiences of New England residents differed from those who lived
           in the Chesapeake Bay colonies? *

Chapter 5: Colonial Society

   1.     What was the most ethnically diverse region in colonial America? the least ethnically
          diverse region? p. 91
   2.     By 1775, colonial Americans had less chance for what due to what change in colonial
          social classes from the 17 century? p. 91
   3.     Give the distinct economic identity of the three colonial regions. p. 94
   4.     Give four traits of the triangular trade. p. 94
   5.     What feature of the colonial American economy strained the relationship between the
          colonies and Britain? p. 96
   6.     Why did American colonies seek trade with countries other than Great Britain? p. 96
   7.     What one political principle did colonial Americans cherish above most others? p.
   8.    How were colonial legislatures often able to bend the power of the governors to their
         will? p. 104
   9.    Give four common traits of Britain’s North American colonies in the mid-18 century.
         p. 106
   10.   Give four common traits of the Scots-Irish who came to colonial America? *
   11.   The passage of increasing British restrictions on trade encouraged colonial
         merchants to engage in what activities? *
   12.   What was among the many important results of the Great Awakening? *

Chapter 6: The Duel for North America
   1.    Give four ways Indians suffered from their association with the French in New
         France. p. 111
   2.    Why did France need to control the Ohio Valley? p. 115
   3.    What was the long-range purpose of the Albany Congress in 1754? p. 117
   4.    For the American colonies, the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War) end? p.
   5.    What was the original cause of the French and Indian War? *
   6.    What was colonial reaction to the Proclamation of 1763? *
   7.    What was the most significant effect on the colonists of the French defeat in North
         America? *

Chapter 7: The Road to Revolution

   1.    What change in colonial policy by the British government helped to precipitate the
         American Revolution? p. 126
   2.    Mercantilists believed what about a nation’s wealth and power? p. 127
   3.    How did the British government enforce the Navigation Laws before 1763? p. 128
   4.    Why did American colonists dislike the mercantile system despite its benefits? p. 128
   5.    The passage of the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act convinced many colonists of what?
         p. 129
   6.    Give four colonial reactions to the passage of the Stamp Act that helped to unite
         them. pp. 130-131
   7.    With the passage of the Tea Act, the colonists suspected what trick? p. 135
   8.    At the start of the American Revolution, Britain had what two advantages? p. 139
   9.    Why did most Whigs in Britain hope for an American victory in the War for
         Independence? p. 139
   10.   The colonists faced what four weaknesses in the War for Independence? p. 142
   11.   What role did African Americans play in the Revolutionary War? pp. 143-144
   12.   The mobilization of nonimportation policies against the Stamp Act had what important
         political consequence? *
   13.   What were the two most intolerable provisions of the Intolerable (Coercive) Acts that
         the British imposed as punishment for the Boston Tea Party? *
   14.   Why did American colonists especially resent the Townshend Acts? *
   15.   The passage of the Quebec Act aroused what intense American fears? *
   16.   What was the most important action taken by the First Continental Congress in
         protest to the Intolerable (Coercive) Acts? *
Chapter 8: America Secedes from the Empire

   1.    What was probably the most important single action of the Second Continental
         Congress? p. 146
   2.    What loyalty did the colonists maintain once the fighting began between the colonies
         and Great Britain? p. 147
   3.    What colonial reason for fighting the British was contradicted with the colonial
         invasion of Canada? p. 147
   4.    Give four reasons why the colonists delayed declaring their independence until July
         4, 1776. pp. 149-150
   5.    What was one purpose of the Declaration of the Independence? p. 152
   6.    What did Thomas Paine argue about all government officials in his pamphlet,
         Common Sense? p. 151
   7.    Give four examples of colonial experience with self-government that prepared
         American colonists for republicanism. p. 151
   8.    Give four crucial roles the Patriot militia played in the American Revolution. p. 156
   9.    How did George Washington help to restore confidence in the revolutionary cause in
         late 1776 and early 1777? p. 158
   10.   Why was the Battle of Saratoga a key victory for the American colonists? p. 160
   11.   Give four things that French aid and a formal alliance mean for the colonists. p. 162
   12.   Why did Britain give America generous terms in the Treaty of Paris? p. 167
   13.   In the first year of fighting between April 1775 and July 1776, the colonists insisted
         they had what goal? *
   14.   Why did Thomas Paine’s appeal for a new republican form of government so
         attractive to American colonists? *

Chapter 9: Confederation and the Constitution
   1.    As part of the egalitarian movement of the American Revolution, what did several
         northern states do? p. 175
   2.    Why did the Founding Fathers fail to eliminate slavery? p. 175
   3.    As written documents, state constitutions had what purpose? p. 176
   4.    What was one reason why the U.S. avoided the frightful excesses of the French
         Revolution? p. 178
   5.    What made possible the success of the new Republic as far as the course of
         democracy? p. 178
   6.    What was the economic status of the average American at the end of the
         Revolutionary War? p. 179
   7.    What was the major strength of the Articles of Confederation? p. 181
   8.    What was one of the most farsighted provisions of the Northwest Ordinance? p. 182
   9.    After the American Revolution, what was the role of Britain and Spain in American
         domestic affairs? pp. 183-184
   10.   The Shays’s Rebellion convinced many Americans of what need? p. 185
   11.   What were the four motives of the delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention in
         Philadelphia? p. 187
   12.   The delegates of the Constitutional Convention demonstrated what four common
         beliefs by their actions? p. 190
   13.   What was probably the most alarming characteristic of the new Constitution to those
         who opposed it? p. 192
   14.   The Federalist made what argument about the establishment of a republican
         government during the height of the ratification debate? p. 193
   15.   List three traits dealing with government power and authority that the Articles of
         Confederation had. pp. 181-182
   16.   What did the ideal of “republican motherhood” that emerged from the American
         Revolution entail? *
   17.   What was the fundamental difference between ordinary laws and a constitution? *
   18.   What was one way that American independence actually harmed the nation’s
         economy? *
   19.   What were attempts to establish strong governments in post-Revolutionary America
         seriously hindered? *
   20.   What were the two great weaknesses of the government under the Articles of
         Confederation? *

Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State
   1.    The Bill of Rights was intended to protect what against the potential tyranny of what?
         p. 200
   2.    List four provisions of Alexander Hamilton’s economic program. pp. 202-204
   3.    Hamilton believed that a limited national debt would serve what purpose? p. 203
   4.    What was the result of Jefferson’s and Madison’s opposition to Hamilton’s financial
         plan? p. 206
   5.    During its first quarter-century as a nation, what was one major foreign problem
         facing the U.S.? pp. 210-212
   6.    How did Britain make U.S. neutrality difficult during the French and British conflicts of
         the 1790s? p. 212
   7.    Washington’s Farewell Address in 1796 contained what warning? p. 213
   8.    What did the compact theory as advocated by Jefferson and Madison argue? Pp.
   9.    Jefferson favored what kind of political system? p. 220
   10.   The first U.S. political parties developed primarily because of what disagreement? *
   11.   Why did the Whiskey Rebellion prove to be most significant in the long run? *
   12.   The Federalists had what basic view of government and political power? *

Chapter 11: Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic

   1.    What was one of the greatest problems faced by John Adams and the Federalists in
         the election of 1800? p. 225
   2.    The Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans presented themselves as the advocates
         and protectors of what four ideals? p. 224
   3.    In what way was Jefferson’s “Revolution of 1800” remarkable? p. 228
   4.    Jefferson’s presidency was characterized by what trait? pp. 229-231
   5.    His military service at Valley Forge during the American Revolution convinced Chief
         Justice John Marshall of what? p. 231
   6.    John Marshall, as chief justice of the U. S., helped to strengthen the judicial branch of
         government by asserting what doctrine? p. 232
   7.    What did Jefferson’s failed attempt to impeach and convict Supreme Court Justice
         Samuel Chase for “high crimes and misdemeanors” mean? p. 232
   8.    List four reasons what Napoleon chose to sell Louisiana to the United States in
         1803?. p. 234
   9.    Give four reasons why Jefferson’s embargo failed. p. 242
   10.   What were four arguments put forward by the war hawks as a justification for a
         declaration of war against Britain? p. 241
   11.   What were two actions of the New England states during the War of 1812? p. 246
   12.   The case of Marbury v. Madison established what judicial principle? *
   13.   What was Jefferson forced to reverse his strong opposition to a large- standing
         military? *
   14.   Give four consequences of the Louisiana Purchase. *
   15.   What did Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa urge Indians to do? *
   16.   What was President Madison’s primary goal in asking Congress to declare war
         against Britain in 1812? *
Chapter 12: The Second War for Independence
  1.    Give four reasons why the War of 1812 was one of the worst fought wars in American
        history? p. 248
  2.    What were two consequences of the Battle of New Orleans? p. 252
  3.    What was the consequence of the Hartford Convention resolutions? p. 254
  4.    What was one of the most important domestic by-products of the War of 1812? p.
  5.    Why did New England oppose the American System’s federally constructed roads?
        p. 257
  6.    What was one of the major causes of the panic of 1819? p. 258
  7.    What four things stimulated the rapid growth and development of the West after
        1815? p. 259
  8.    Give four results of the Missouri Compromise. p. 262
  9.    People moved into the Old Northwest for what four reasons? p. 264
  10.   What four things stimulated the rapid growth and development of the West after
        1815? p. 259
  11.   What did the terms of the Treaty of Ghent ending the War of 1812 provide for both
        sides? *
  12.   What was one significant domestic consequence of the War of 1812? *
  13.   Give four ways the new nationalistic feeling immediately after the War of 1812 was
        evident. *
  14.   Besides admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state, the Missouri
        Compromise provided for what? *
  15.   What did the Monroe Doctrine assert as proclaimed by Monroe in 1823? *

Chapter 13: The Rise of Jacksonian Democracy
  1.    In the 1820s and 1830s, what two issues greatly raised the political stakes? p. 272
  2.    The new two-party political system that emerged in the 1830s and 1840s had what
        legacy? p. 272
  3.    What did Jackson’s inauguration as president symbolize? p. 277
  4.    Why did southerners fear the Tariff of 1828? p. 281
  5.    Why did Jackson’s administration support the removal of Native Americans from the
        eastern states? p. 284
  6.    For what four reasons did Jackson and his supporters dislike the Bank of the United
        States? p. 286
  7.    What was one positive aspect of the Bank of the United States? p. 286
  8.    What cement held the Whig party together in its early history? p. 290
  9.    What were three reasons for the panic of 1837? pp. 292-293
  10.   Why did Jackson and Van Buren hesitate to extend recognition to and to annex the
        new Texas Republic? p. 298
  11.   What was the basis for Jackson’s strong appeal to the common people of the U.S.? *
  12.   Under the surface, what was the reason for the South’s strong opposition to the Tariff
        of Abominations? *
  13.   What did Jackson’s veto of the Bank of the U.S. recharter bill represent? *
  14.   What was one important result of Jackson’s destruction of the Bank of the U.S.? *
Chapter 14: Forging the National Economy

  1.    What four things gave rise to a more dynamic, market-oriented, national economy in
        the early 19 century America? p. 305
  2.    Give four factors encouraging the growth of immigration rates in the first half of the
        19 century. pp. 309-310
  3.    When the Irish flocked to the U.S. in the 1840s, why did they remain in the larger
        seaboard cities? p. 310
  4.    Why did native-born Americans fear the Catholic immigrants to the U.S.? p. 314
  5.    How did German immigrants do once they arrived in the United States? p. 316
  6.    What was the result of the development of the cotton gin? p. 318
  7.    What characterized the American workforce in the early 19 century? p. 324
  8.    Why did the lot of adult wage earners improve in the early 19 century? p. 324
  9.    What did the early 19 century industrialization affect the trans-Allegheny West? p.
  10.   In the new continental economy, what was the specialized economic activity of each
        region? p. 335
  11.   What were the transportation links between the three regions? p. 335
  12.   What was a major economic consequence of the transportation and marketing
        revolutions? pp. 335-336
  13.   How did Americans came to look on their spectacular western wilderness areas?*
  14.   What two groups composed the majority of European immigrants to the U.S. in the
        1840s and 1850s? *
  15.   Why was industrialization, at first, slow to arrive in the U.S.? *
  16.   What was a major change affecting the American family in the early 19 century? *
  17.   What was the greatest economic and political impact of New York’s Erie Canal? *
  18.   What was one major economic effect of industrialization? *

Chapter 15: Ferment of Reform and Culture
  1.    Give four traits of the Second Great Awakening. p. 341
  2.    One characteristic of the Mormons that angered many non-Mormons was what? p.
  3.    Tax-supported public education came to be seen as what? p. 343
  4.    What belief was the basis for the strong prejudice inhibiting women from obtaining
        higher education in the early 19 century? p. 347
  5.    Why did women become especially active in the social reforms stimulated by the
        Second Great Awakening? pp. 343, 348
  6.    Social reformers in the early 19 century had what three goals? p. 348
  7.    The excessive consumption of alcohol by Americans in the 1800s was due to what?
        p. 350
  8.    Why were sexual differences strongly emphasized in 19 century America? p. 351
  9.    What was one belief that most of the utopian communities in pre-1860 American held
        as one of their founding ideals? p. 354
  10.   Transcendentalists were dedicated to what three traits? p. 361
  11.   Give four characteristics of the Second Great Awakening. *
  12.   Evangelical preachers like Charles Grandison Finney linked personal religious
        conversion to what? *
  13.   The transcendentalist writers such as Emerson, Thoreau, and Fuller stressed what
        ideas? *
Chapter 16: The South and the Slavery Controversy
   1.    Give three reasons why the South became the Cotton Kingdom in the early
         nineteenth century. p. 372
   2.    How did members of the Southern planter aristocracy affect southern life? p. 373
   3.    Give four truths about the American economy under the Cotton Kingdom. p. 373
   4.    Why was plantation agriculture largely wasteful? p. 374
   5.    Give four weaknesses of the slave plantation system. p. 375
   6.    What was the occupation of most white southerners? P. 376
   7.    Why did the majority of southern whites own no slaves? p. 375
   8.    Give two reasons why those white southerners who owned no slaves still support the
         institution of slavery. p. 378
   9.    What did free blacks living in the North face? p. 378
   10.   What was slavery’s greatest psychological horror that was the theme of Harriet
         Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin? p. 381
   11.   Give four truths of slavery in the South before the Civil War. pp. 381-382
   12.   Slaves fought the system of slavery in what four ways? pp. 383-384
   13.   White southerners’ brutal treatment of their slaves and fear of a potential slave
         rebellion gave rise to what pervasive belief by the South? p. 384
   14.   Those in the North who opposed the abolitionists believed what about these
         opponents of slavery? p. 392
   15.   Why by 1840 had cotton become central to the whole American economy? *
   16.   Why did most southern whites strongly support the slave system even though they
         owned no slaves? *
   17.   What motivated most early abolitionists? *
   18.   By the 1850s, how could most northerners be described in their view of slavery? *

Chapter 17: Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy
   1.    How can the relations between Britain and the U.S. in the 19 century be
         characterized? pp 398-403
   2.    Give three reasons why Britain became interested in the newly formed Republic of
         Texas. p. 400
   3.    What was one argument against annexation of Texas by the United Sates? p. 400
   4.    What attracted most Americans who migrated to the Oregon country? p. 402
   5.    Give four points of contention between the U.S. and Mexico that led to war in 1846.
         pp. 406-407
   6.    Give four reasons why the U.S. went to war with Mexico in 1 846. pp. 406-408
   7.    The Wilmot Proviso symbolized what issue? p. 414
   8.    How did Texas maintain its independence in the early 1840s? *
   9.    Manifest Destiny represented what widespread American belief in the early 19
         century? *
   10.   Why was James K. Polk determined to acquire California and its ports from Mexico?
   11.   What was the major domestic consequence of the Mexican War? *

Chapter 18: Renewing the Sectional Struggle

   1.    Give four consequences of the United States’ victory in the Mexican War. p. 416,
   2.    Why did the public like the idea of popular sovereignty? p. 417
   3.    What event threatened to destroy the longstanding balance of free and slave states
         in the U.S. Senate? p. 418
   4.    Free Soilers condemned slavery because of what threat it posed to white workers?
         p. 418
   5.    Give four issues that concerned southerners in 1849-1850. p. 420
   6.    Give four provisions of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. pp. 425-426
   7.    Most American leaders believed that what had to be done to ensure that the new
         Pacific Coast territories would remain in the Union? p. 432
   8.    What was Stephen Douglas’s biggest mistake concerning the North in proposing the
         Kansas-Nebraska Act? p. 434
   9.    Give four consequences of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. pp. 434-435
   10.   Why was the rapid formation of an effective state government in California especially
         urgent? *
   11.   What were the terms of the Compromise of 1850 in regard to California and the
         Mexican Cession? *
   12.   What was a significant effect of the Fugitive Slave Law on the North? *
   13.   The Gadsden Purchase had what fundamental design? *

Chapter 19: Drifting Toward Disunion

   1.    What was the result of reading Uncle Tom’s Cabin for many northerners? p. 438
   2.    When the people of Britain and France read Uncle Tom’s Cabin, what did their
         respective governments realize? p. 439
   3.    The situation in Kansas in the mid-1850s indicated the impracticality of what principle
         being applied in the territories? p. 441
   4.    Nativists in the 1850s were known for what two attitudes? p. 443
   5.    The Republicans lost the 1856 election in part because of what reason? p. 444
   6.    As late as 1856, many northerners were still willing to vote Democratic instead of
         Republican for what reason? pp. 444-445
   7.    Give three rulings of the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott case. p. 445
   8.    For the majority of northerners, what was the most outrageous part of the Supreme
         Court’s ruling in the Dred Scott case? p. 445
   9.    What was the South’s reaction to the panic of 1857? p. 447
   10.   The South made what conclusion after John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry? p. 451
   11.   What was the reaction of the people in South Carolina to Lincoln’s victory in the
         election of 1860? p. 453
   12.   Give four reasons why secessionists supported leaving the Union after Lincoln’s
         election as president. p. 458
   13.   Why did abolitionists’ funding of antislavery settlers in Kansas especially enrage
         southerners? *
   14.   What did the Supreme Court rule about the power of Congress in the Dred Scott
         case? *
   15.   What was Stephen A. Douglas’s response to the Freeport Question asked by Lincoln
         during the Lincoln-Douglas debates? *
   16.   Why did the North’s reaction to John Brown’s execution particularly enrage the
         South? *
   17.   What was the position of Lincoln and the Republican party on slavery in the 1860
         presidential campaign? *

Chapter 20: Girding for War-The North and the South

   1.    In 1861, many Northerners were willing to allow Southern states secede until what
         Confederate action? p. 463
   2.    Lincoln’s declaration that the North sought to preserve the Union with or without
         slavery indicated what influence on the North’s policy? p. 465
   3.    To achieve its independence, the Confederacy only had to accomplish what
         militarily? p. 466
   4.    As the Civil War began, the South seemed to possess what advantage? p. 466
   5.    Of the many hardships suffered by Civil War soldiers, what was the greatest? p. 468
   6.    What was a supposed asset for the South at the start of the Civil War that never
         materialized to its real advantage? p. 471
   7.    Give four reasons why King Cotton failed the South as a tool of wartime diplomacy.
         pp. 471-472
   8.    Why were the problems experienced by Lincoln as president less prostrating than
         that Jefferson Davis faced? p. 473
   9.    The Southern cause was greatly weakened by what view of government power and
         social hierarchy? p. 474
   10.   What was the effect of the Civil War on the North’s economy? pp. 477-478
   11.   The firing on Ft. Sumter had what effect in the North? *
   12.   How did Lincoln justify his assertion of sweeping executive power and suspension of
         certain civil liberties? *
   13.   How did northern women make particular advances during the Civil War? *

Chapter 21: The Furnace of Civil War

   1.    Why was the Union’s defeat at Bull Run in 1861 better than a victory? p. 482
   2.    Give four parts of the Union strategy after the failed Peninsula Campaign. p. 485
   3.    What was one of Lee’s key objectives in invading Maryland? p. 487
   4.    Why was the Battle of Antietam particularly critical? p. 487
   5.    The Emancipation Proclamation had what two effects on the Union? p. 488
   6.    Give four results of the Emancipation Proclamation. p. 489
   7.    How did African Americans who fought for the Union Army perform in the Civil War?
         p. 491
   8.    Give four important consequences of the Union victory at Vicksburg in July 1863. p.
   9.    What two elements were probably critical in ensuring Lincoln’s victory in the 1864
         presidential election? p. 501
   10.   Give three casualties of the Civil War. pp. 508-509
   11.   What was a major effect of the First Battle of Bull Run on the South? *
   12.   Thousands of black soldiers in the Union Army had what effect on the Union cause?
   13.   What was Lee’s primary goal in invading the North in the summer of 1863? *
   14.   What was notable about Sherman’s march “from Atlanta to the sea?”*
   15.   How did Lincoln justify his assertion of sweeping executive powers and suspension of
         certain civil liberties? *