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									GE
Energy

Experience with Field Testing for
Model Validation of GE Wind
Plants

Nicholas Miller
Louis Hannett
Kara Clark
Jason MacDowell
Werner Barton


CanWEA
Quebec City, Quebec
October 2, 2007
Recent GE Field Test Experience

• Fault tolerance
        Zero Voltage Ride Through (ZVRT) tests
• Voltage regulation/VAR management
        WECC model validation tests




                                                 2
ZVRT Tests

• Zero Voltage Ride-Through (ZVRT)
  requirements standard in most North American
  systems, and much of the rest of the world
• Staging faults on operating grids is problematic
  - expensive, disruptive, non-trivial risk to grid
• WINDTEST K-M-K GmbH Independent tester
  (certified Non-GE entity) for operating WTG in
  controlled environment
     – Bexten Wind Plant
     – 3-phase and 2-phase faults, of various depth and duration,
       at different wind power levels


                                                                    3
3-Phase, 200ms, Zero Voltage Fault




                   Medium voltage
                   bus drops to 0.0




                                         From WINDTEST report WT5491/06
                                                                  4
          Faulted Bus (Medium Voltage)
3-Phase, 200ms, Zero Voltage Fault




                             Power recovers to pre-
                          disturbance level in <200ms




     Active Power (delivered to Medium Voltage bus)
                                             From WINDTEST report WT5491/06
                                                                      5
3-Phase, 200ms, Zero Voltage Fault


                        Terminal voltage >0 due
                        to delivery of Q current




           Q current




        Terminal (Low Voltage) Quantities     From WINDTEST report WT5491/06
                                                                       6
2-Phase, 1500ms, Voltage <50% Fault

                                             S
                                                    P




                             Q




                                         From WINDTEST report WT5491/06
                                                                  7
         Terminal (Low Voltage) Quantities
2-Phase, 1500ms, Voltage <50% Fault




                                             Positive
                                            Sequence




          Terminal (Low) Voltages   From WINDTEST report WT5491/06
                                                             8
2-Phase, 1500ms, Voltage <50% Fault




           Reactive Current Delivery
                                       From WINDTEST report WT5491/06
                                                                9
Volt/Var Tests

•   Individual WTG
•   Wind plant
•   WECC model validation requirement
•   Response to
    – control test probes
    – local grid events
• 47 GE 1.5sle WTGs
• GE WindCONTROL supervisory controller




                                          10
Why Model Validation?
• Good models of wind plants are more important as wind
  penetration increases
• Development of stability models is on-going
• Grid codes are driving increased functionality in wind plants
• Continuously evolving equipment and models create on-
  going need for validation




                                                                  11
Plant Equivalent
                              Vmeas
                              Imeas
               VPOI                    WindCONTROL

                                             nQcmd




                   Shunt Bank(s):
                   Manually switched
                   for test stimulus



         P PLANT
         Q PLANT

                        VTerm

                                            Qcmd i
                      Pwtg Qwtg




                                                     12
Volt/Var Control
                                Slower Refined Plant-Level Control
                      WindVAR Emulation
                          Vrfq
                              (vref)
                                                                               Qmax
                                                         Kiv/s
      Vreg                          +                                 +
               1                                               s4                          1
                                        1/fN                                                              Qord
             1+ sTr       -                                           +         Qwv      1+ sTc
                                                          Kpv
                s3                                                                           s5
                                                         1+ sTv              Qmin
                                                                    s2




                        Slower WTG                               Fast Initial WTG
                         Q Control                               Voltage Control
                          Qgen
                                                              Vterm
                                           Vmax                          Vterm + XIQmax
                                -                         -
                      +                           Vref
                                                                                              Eq"cmd
                                       KQi / s                            KVi / s
                Qcmd                                                                s1
                                            s0
                                                         +                                        (efd)
                                 Vmin                          Vterm + XIQmin




                                                                                                                 13
Individual WTG Test

   • Test fast response of individual turbine
   • 3% positive step, slow reset


             Qgen
                                            Vterm
                          Vmax                      Vterm + XIQmax
                -                       -
         +                       Vref
                                                                     Eq"cmd
                      KQi / s                        KVi / s
      Qcmd                                                     s1
                           s0
                                        +                            (efd)
                Vmin                         Vterm + XIQmin

       Voltage Step
           Stimulus



                                                                              14
      WTG Reactive Power Response
                                   Unit Internal Voltage Reference Step Test
                      Unit Internal Voltage Reference Step Test                              P
      1600
                                                                                                  Pwr
                                                                                                  QPwrGrid
                                                                                                  Q PSLF



      1200




                                                                               Q
kVA




       800




       400



                                              Q - Model
         0
             0   10   20     30       40             50             60             70   80       90          100
                                           Seconds (50ms sample)




                                                                                                             15
      Detail - WTG Reactive Power Response
                                      Voltage Reference Step Test
                       Unit Internal Unit Internal Voltage Reference Step Test
      1500
                                                                                 P
                                                                                           Pwr
                                                                                           QPwrGrid
                                                                                           Q PSLF
      1200




       900
kVA




                                                                        Q
       600




       300
                                                 Q - Model

         0
             25   26   27       28        29            30             31   32       33   34          35
                                               Seconds (50ms sample)


                                     Full response in ~200 ms                                         16
WTG Voltage Response
                                Unit Internal Voltage Reference Step Test
                                           Unit Internal Voltage Referenc e Step Test
                                                                                                    V
                1.05
                                                                                                   Model
                                                                                                  VregCmd
                                                                                                  S_VabRmsInst pu
                                                                                                  Vt PSLF
                1.04
                                                                                                  Vref PSLF




                1.03
 Voltage (pu)




                1.02
                                                          V
                                                      (filtered
                1.01
                                                                                             Vreg
                  1

                           Vreg Model
                0.99
                       0   10   20    30       40            50             60          70   80         90          100
                                                    Seconds (50ms sample)




                                                                                                                          17
Plant Level Volt/Var Test
                                        Vmeas
                                        Imeas
                         VPOI                    WindCONTROL

                                                       nQcmd

   Switch Off 10
   MVAr Shunt
    Capacitor                Shunt Bank(s):
                             Manually switched
                             for test stimulus



                   P PLANT
                   Q PLANT

                                  VTerm

                                                      Qcmd i
                                Pwtg Qwtg




                                                               18
Volt/Var Control
 Switching                                        Slower Refined Plant-Level Control

 operation causes                       WindVAR Emulation
                                            Vrfq
 POI and WTG                                    (vref)
                                                                        Kiv/s
                                                                                              Qmax
                                                    +                               +
 voltages to step   Vreg
                               1
                                                         1/fN
                                                                              s4                        1
                                                                                                                  Qord
                             1+ sTr         -                                                  Qwv    1+ sTc
 down                              s3
                                                                         Kpv        +
                                                                                             Qmin            s5
                                                                        1+ sTv
                                                                                   s2




                                  Slower WTG                           Fast Initial WTG
 Both fast WTG                     Q Control                           Voltage Control
 and slower                       Qgen
                                                                    Vterm
                                                 Vmax                       Vterm + XIQmax
 supervisory                 +
                                        -
                                                         Vref
                                                                -
                                                                             KVi / s                 Eq"cmd
 controls respond          Qcmd
                                            KQi / s
                                                  s0
                                                                +                       s1
                                                                                                     (efd)
                                        Vmin                         Vterm + XIQmin




                                                                                                                         19
WTG and Plant Reactive Power Response
                                  Switch Off 10 MVAr Shunt
                                         Capacitor


                                    Voltage Dip




Fast Initial
  WTG
Response
                                 WTG Q
                                                  Slow Coordinated
                                                     Wind Plant
                                                     Response

                                                                 20
               Multi-modal response is grid friendly
       Field Test vs. Simulation – Reactive Power




                    Model closely replicates field response
                                   Test 6 PSLF

       11000

       9000

       7000
MVAr




       5000

       3000

       1000

       -1000
               0   10        20           30              40   50   60
                                         Time
                                   Qg   Q plant   Q cmd                  21
Field Test vs. Simulation – Voltage


25200




24500
        0                             60




                                           22
Field Test - Voltage Regulation
 ant
Pl RealPow er
                           ant    i
                          Pl Reactve Pow er
  nd      m s)
W i Speed ( /




         t
    POIVolage




                 i
         W TGs onlne                         i
                                     W TGs onlne


                         ON  TH        NE
           BETTER REGULATI W I W TG ONLI
                                                   23
Summary


• ZVRT and Volt/Var tested on operating WTGs
• ZVRT performance meets grid requirements
• Volt/Var response of WTGs is extremely fast and stable
   – Response to significant grid disturbances will produce maximum
     (or minimum) reactive power output within about 200ms
   – Supervisory control more slowly trims plant response for stable
     coordination with other power system components and for response
     to ISO commands
• Available stability models closely replicate plant
  performance
                                                                        24
GE
Energy




  Thank you!

								
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