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					    Chapter Fifteen:

In Search of Homeland
Defining Homeland
Defining Homeland Security
    Issues surrounding homeland security
      Issues surrounding homeland security
        are confused because the country is
        dealing with a new concept, a new
        meaning of conflict, and a change in
        the procedures used to defend the
        United States
    Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
      DHS is responsible for protecting the
        borders and the country’s interior
Defining Homeland Security
   Mission and understanding
     Mission and understanding mean the same
       thing, but there are many different
       understandings of homeland security because
       many agencies have differing missions
   Policy
     The policy guiding homeland security in the
       United States has not been fully developed,
       and executives are not quite sure of the way
       that all the missions of various agencies fit
Defining Homeland Security
   Civil defense
     Homeland security also involves civil
      defense, that is, citizens engaged in
      homeland security
     A major portion of security is a civic
Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, and
     Views of War
Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, and Views
              of War
     Democrats and Republicans
       Republicans tend to see terrorism as a
        military issue
       Democrats tend to see terrorism as a
        criminal act
Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, and Views
              of War
     Before the time of growing terrorism
       Before the time of growing terrorism,
        War was an extension of politics fought
        within the legal framework of the
       The Constitution states that only
        Congress has the power to declare war,
        and Congress declares whether
        America is in a state of war or of peace
       Terrorism is changing the nature of
Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, and Views
              of War
      Carl von Clausewitz
        Prussian general and military philosopher, Carl
         von Clausewitz, came to believe that the
         French Revolution created a new type of war
        The strength of the French came from their
         ability to place the nation in arms, that is, to
         rally the people to the belief that all citizens of
         a nation are potential soldiers or supporters of
         the military
        Clausewitz’s On War is a philosophical treatise
         on the nature of total, nationalistic wars
Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, and Views
              of War
      Victor Hanson’s criticism of Clausewitz
        Hanson criticizes Clausewitz and the
          Western way of battle, claiming the
          West is consumed with the way war
          was fought in Ancient Greece.
          According to this line of thought, the
          purpose of military action is to seek a
          decisive engagement.
        Terrorism is designed to produce the
          opposite effect, seeking to avoid direct
          confrontation with force
Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, and Views
              of War
      Sun Tzu
        Chinese philosopher, Sun Tzu,
         produced a treatise on the paradoxes
         of war
        Sun Tzu saw war and peace as two
         sides of the same coin
        War and politics were psychological
         forces held together by the belief in
Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, and Views
              of War
      Asymmetry
         Terrorism is based on Sun Tzu’s concept of strength-to-
         In modern military parlance this is called asymmetry-
          competing forces are out of balance
         Terrorists tend to be true believers who sacrifice lives,
          and they are willing to attack while avoiding social
          conventions and societal norms
         The purpose of terrorism is to give the impression that
          powerful economic, military, and political forces cannot
          protect ordinary people going about their daily routines
         Military forces must cope with this change, but criminal
          justice agencies become involved in homeland security
          precisely because terrorists fight outside the rules
Pearl Harbor and 9-11: Two
      Different Worlds
Pearl Harbor and 9-11: Two
        Different Worlds
   December 7, 1941
     The purpose of the Japanese attack on
      Pearl Harbor was to destroy U.S.
      military capabilities in the Pacific
Pearl Harbor and 9-11: Two
        Different Worlds
   September 11, 2001
     The 9-11 attacks were designed for drama.
      They were a tragedy performed on a
      subnational level, with the purpose of
      murdering thousands of people to create an
      aura of fear
     The goal of the September 11 terrorists was
      not one of conventional military strategy. Its
      purpose was to create so much feat that
      Western institutions would change their
     The terrorists of September 11 were attacking
      globalization while America was defending
      state power
Pearl Harbor and 9-11: Two
        Different Worlds
   The new style of conflict
     Jihadists are not attacking state power;
      they are attacking the idea of Western,
      and particularly American culture
     Modern terrorism is aimed at the
      infrastructure of everyday life and the
      symbols that define that structure
  Redefining Conflict,
Defense, and Intelligence
Redefining Conflict, Defense, and
      Clausewitz’s factors on the changing
       nature of military action
       Sometimes wars are fought on
         frontiers against irregular armies
       War is an extension of politics. The
         only reason a nation fights is to win a
         political victory
Redefining Conflict, Defense, and
      Preparing for the new type of war
       The Pentagon prepared to fight state-
         to-state battles during the 1990s
       Terrorists do not fight in field
         engagements; therefore, military
         forces must transform their structures
         to take the fight to terrorists
Redefining Conflict, Defense, and
      Vice admiral Arthur Cebrowsky
       Cebrowsky believes that America
         needs to create a new defense culture
         that permeates all levels of society and
         that breaks down barriers between
       The United States needs forces that
         thoroughly understand American
         culture and the cultures of our
         enemies and friends
Redefining Conflict, Defense, and
       Martin van Crefeld
         Crefeld argues that war has changed;
          violence is the purpose
         Crefeld illustrates his thesis by using
          the French-Algerian War as an
          example. The Algerian nationalists of
          the National Liberation Front (FLN)
          fought for the community’s survival. As
          long as they fought, they were
Redefining Conflict, Defense,
      and Intelligence
     Barnett’s thesis
       Barnett implies that military forces must
        change for future battles
       A force fighting to impose political will
        operates differently from a force fighting for
       The purpose of power is to create a new set
        of international rules in which all nations are
        included in economic development, prosperity,
        and peace
       When nations are excluded, violent terrorists
        have no incentive to play within the rules
The Role of Symbols
     and Structures
    The Role of Symbols and
   Symbolic targets
     Asymmetrical war is waged against
      symbolic targets, and homeland
      security is designed to secure symbols
     Attacks against symbols disrupt support
      structures and can have a high human
    The Role of Symbols and
   Grenville Byford
     Byford points out that symbolic attack
      may simply be designed to inflict
      massive casualties; that is, killing
      people has a symbolic value
     Rather than engaging in political
      rhetoric about morality, Byford
      concludes, it is more productive to
      understand that Americans represent
      symbolic targets of military value
    The Role of Symbols and
   Ian Lesser’s three forms of terrorism
     Symbolic terrorism is a dramatic attack to
       show vulnerability
     Pragmatic terrorism involves a practical
       attempt to destroy political power
     Systematic terrorism is waged over a period of
       time to change social conditions
     Terrorists use symbolic attacks or attacks on
       symbols to achieve pragmatic or systematic
    The Role of Symbols and
   The key to security
     Offer protection without destroying
      abstract meanings
     Enhance protection while maintaining
     The irony is that every added security
      measure increases the feeling of
Law Enforcement’s
    Special Role
Law Enforcement’s Special Role
     Preemptive, offensive policing
       If law enforcement simply responds, it
        will have little impact on the prevention
        of terrorism
Law Enforcement’s Special Role
     Results if state and local agencies shift to
      offensive thinking and action
       Police contact with potential terrorists
         will increase
           This, however, increases the
            possibility of negative stereotyping
            and the abuse of power
       Proactive measures demand increased
         intelligence gathering, and much of the
         information will have not relation to
         criminal activity
Law Enforcement’s Special Role
     Offensive action in the private sector
       Offensive action begins in the local
       The weakness in local systems occurs
        because state and local police
        departments do not frequently think
        beyond their jurisdictions, and they do
        not routinely take advantage of
        potential partnerships inside their
Building Intelligence
Building Intelligence Systems
     The most important aspect of security
       Information that guides security forces

       Information is crucial for day-to-day
Building Intelligence Systems
     Information gathering
       While academic in nature, information
        gathering is directly applicable to
        gathering intelligence
       Applied intelligence involves gathering
        basic information about a target and
        real-time information about current
       The practical application of this process
        comes through organizing structures
        aimed at collecting, analyzing, and
        forwarding information
Building Intelligence Systems
     President Jimmy Carter
       Carter wanted to protect Americans
        from their government
       The government began to limit the
        power of intelligence operations,
        unintentionally hampering their
Building Intelligence Systems
     Time magazine article
         The article stated: America needs to learn to
          spy again
         National security intelligence is crucial, but law
          enforcement has a role
         The authors of the article also censure
          bureaucratic structures for failing to share
          information, and they condemn the system for
          relying too heavily on machine and electronic
         Another weak point is the inability to analyze
          the information
Building Intelligence Systems
     New Jersey State Police (NJSP)
       The NJSP Intelligence Service Section is made
        up of three divisions
       The Intelligence Bureau is the largest division,
        composed of six units
          The Analytical Unit

          The Casino Intelligence Unit

          The Electronic Surveillance Unit

          The Liaison Computerized Services Unit

          The Service Unit

          The Street Gang Unit
Building Intelligence Systems
      The central security unit is responsible
       for New Jersey’s counterterrorist
       mission. It is a proactive organization
       designed to prevent terrorism through
      The Solid Waste Unit keeps an eye on
       organized crime
      Recently, NJSP linked its intelligence
       service with federal law enforcement,
       giving it the potential for greater
Building Intelligence Systems
     California Anti-Terrorism Information
      Center (CATIC)
       Formed after 9-11, the CATIC is a
        statewide intelligence system is
        designed to combat terrorism
       The center links federal, state, and
        local information services in one system
        and divides operational zones into five
        administrative areas
       CATIC combines public information with
        data on criminal trends and public
        terrorist activities
Building Intelligence Systems
     New York City Police Department (NYPD)
       Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly
        created two new units
         One for counterterrorism

         One for intelligence
Building Intelligence Systems
     Critics of the FBI and CIA
       The FBI and CIA have been criticized
        for failing to gather information before
        the September 11 attacks and
        ineffectively analyzing the information
        they did have
       Civil liberties groups fear growing
        power in agencies associated with
        homeland security, while others
        express concern over expanding
        executive authority
Planning for Homeland
Planning for Homeland Security
      Planning is essential
        Planning enhances the gathering,
          organizing, and analyzing of
Planning for Homeland Security
      The International Association of Chiefs of
       Police (IACP)
        The IACP believes planning can be
         guided by looking for threats inside
         local communities
        Indicators such as an increase in violent
         rhetoric, the appearance of extremist
         groups, and increases in certain types
         of crimes may demonstrate that a
         terrorist problem is on the horizon
Planning for Homeland Security
      Richard Best
        National security differs from law enforcement

        In police work, officers react to information
          provided voluntarily
        National security intelligence is used to
          anticipate threats
        Law enforcement should plan and develop two
          channels for information
            One should be aimed at law enforcement

            State and local police agencies should be
             prepared to pass such information along to
             defense sources
Creating a Culture of
  Information Sharing
Creating a Culture of Information
     The National Strategy for Homeland
      Security calls for increased information
      sharing among law enforcement agencies
Creating a Culture of Information
     Information sharing systems
       The Regional Information Sharing System
           The RISS is a six-part information network
            whose policies are controlled by its
       The High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas
       The El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC)

       The International Law Enforcement
         Intelligence Analysts (IALEIA)
       Weaknesses in the U.S. system
Creating a Culture of Information
     The National Criminal Intelligence Sharing
       The purpose of the plan is not only to
         create a culture of sharing, but to
         generate the structures and
         communications systems to make it
       All agencies will communicate in a
         single network
Creating a Culture of Information
     9-11 Commission Report
       Recommendations focused on defense,
        intelligence, information sharing,
        homeland security, and law
       The commission argued that the
        government was structured to fight the
        Cold War, not to counter terrorism
Creating a Culture of Information
     Critics of the 9-11 Commission Report
       The FBI’s record of combating terrorism
        was port, and there may be no reason
        to believe that restructuring will
        improve its capabilities

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