"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE MILITARILY CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES LIST SECTION PROCESSING"
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE MILITARILY CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES LIST SECTION 12: PROCESSING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY September 2007 Under Secretary of Defense, Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Pentagon, VA PREFACE A. THE MILITARILY CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM (MCTP) The MCTP supports the development and promulgation of the congressionally mandated Militarily Critical Technologies List (MCTL) and the Developing Science and Technologies List (DSTL). Congress assigns the Secretary of Defense the responsibility of providing a list of militarily critical technolo- gies (the MCTL) and of updating this list on an ongoing basis. The MCTL identifies technologies crucial to weap- ons development and has been a key element in evaluating U.S. and worldwide technological capabilities. The MCTP has provided the support for a wide range of assessments and judgments, along with technical justifications for devising U.S. and multilateral controls on exports. The DSTL, another MCTP product, identifies technologies that may enhance future military capabilities and provides an assessment of worldwide science and technology (S&T) capabilities. The MCTP process is a continuous analytical and information-gathering process that refines information and updates existing documents to provide thorough and complete technical information. It covers the worldwide tech- nology spectrum and provides a systematic, ongoing assessment and analysis of technologies and assigns values and parameters to these technologies. TWGs, which are part of this process, provide a reservoir of technical experts who can assist in time-sensitive and quick-response tasks. TWG chairpersons continuously screen technologies and nominate items to be added or removed from the list of militarily critical technologies. In general, TWG members are drawn from about 1,000 sub- ject matter experts (SMEs) from the military Services, DoD and other federal agencies, industry, and academia. A balance is maintained between public officials and private-sector representatives. TWGs collect a core of intellec- tual knowledge and reference information on an array of technologies, and these data are used as a resource for projects and other assignments. Working within an informal structure, TWG members strive to produce precise and objective analyses across dissimilar and often disparate areas. Currently, the TWGs are organized to address 20 technology areas: Aeronautics Information Systems Armament and Energetic Materials Lasers, Optics, and Imaging Biological Processing and Manufacturing Biomedical Marine Systems Chemical Materials and Processes Directed Energy Systems Nuclear Systems Electronics Positioning, Navigation, and Time Energy Systems Signature Control Ground Systems Space Systems Information Security Weapons Systems B. THE MILITARILY CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES LIST (MCTL) The expanded MCTL provides a coordinated description of existing goods and technologies that DoD assesses would permit significant advances in the development, production, and use of military capabilities by potential adversaries. It includes goods and technologies that enable the development, production, and employment of weap- ons of mass destruction (WMD) and their means of delivery. It includes discrete parameters for systems; equipment; MCTL-12-iii subassemblies; components; and critical materials; unique test, inspection, and production equipment; unique soft- ware, development, production, and use know-how; and worldwide technology capability assessments. C. LEGAL BASIS FOR THE LIST OF MILITARILY CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES The Export Administration Act (EAA) of 1979 assigned responsibilities for export controls to protect tech- nologies and weapons systems. It established the requirement for DoD to compile a list of militarily critical tech- nologies. The EAA and its provisions, as amended, were extended by Executive Orders and Presidential directives. D. USES AND APPLICATIONS The MCTL is not an export control list. Items in the MCTL may not appear on an export control list, and items on an export control list may not appear in the MCTL. The document is to be used as a reference for evaluating potential technology transfers and for reviewing technical reports and scientific papers for public release. Technical judgment must be used when applying the information. It should be used to determine if the proposed transaction would result in a transfer that would give potential adversaries access to technologies whose specific performance levels are at or above the characteristics identified as militarily critical. It should be used with other information to determine whether a transfer should be approved. This document, MCTL Section 12: Processing and Manufacturing Technology supersedes MCTL Section 12, Processing and Manufacturing Technology, March 2004. MCTL-12-iv INTRODUCTION A. ORGANIZATION OF the militarily critical technologies list (MCTL) The MCTL is a documented snapshot in time of the ongoing MCTP militarily critical technology process. It includes text and graphic displays of technical data on individual technology data sheets. Each section contains subsections devoted to specific technology areas. The section front matter contains the following: Scope identifies the technology groups covered in the section. Each group is covered in a separate subsection. Highlights identify the key facts in the section. Overview discusses the technology groups identified under “Scope.” Background provides additional information. Each technology group identified under Scope has a subsection that contains the following: Highlights identify the key facts found in the subsection. Overview identifies and discusses technologies listed in data sheets that follow. Background provides additional information. Technology Data Sheets, which are the heart of the MCTL, present data on individual militarily critical technologies. B. TECHNOLOGY DATA SHEETS The technology data sheets are of primary interest to all users. They contain the detailed parametric informa- tion that managers, R&D personnel, program managers (PMs), and operators need to execute their responsibilities. Critical Technology Parameter(s) includes the parameter, data argument, value, and level of the technology where its technical performance would permit significant advances in the development, production, and use of the military capabilities of potential adversaries. Critical Materials are those materials that are unique or enable the capability or function of the technology. Unique Test, Production and Inspection Equipment includes that type of equipment that is critical or unique. Unique Software is software needed to produce, operate, or maintain this technology that is unique. Major Commercial Applications addresses commercial uses of this technology. Affordability Issues are those factors that make this technology an affordability issue. Export Control References indicate international and U.S. control lists where this technology is controlled. Note: Export control references are: WA ML 2 (Wassenaar Arrangement Munitions List Item) WA Cat 1C (Wassenaar Dual Use List Subcategory) MTCR 17 (Missile Technology Control Regime Item) NTL B3 (Nuclear Trigger List Subitem – Nuclear Suppliers Group) NDUL 1 (Nuclear Dual Use List Item – Nuclear Suppliers Group) MCTL-12-v AG List (Australia Group List) BWC (Biological Weapons Convention) CWC (Chemical Weapons Convention) USML XII (United States Munitions List Category – ITAR) CCL Cat 2B (Commerce Control List Subcategory – EAR) NRC A (Nuclear Regulatory Commission Item) Background provides a description of the technology. MCTL-12-vi SECTION 12—PROCESSING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY Scope 12.1 Advanced Fabrication and Processing ........... MCTL-12-5 12.2 Bearings........................................................ MCTL-12-21 12.3 Metrology ..................................................... MCTL-12-31 12.4 Non-Destructive Inspection Equipment ....... MCTL-12-39 12.5 Production Equipment.................................. MCTL-12-47 12.6 Coating Equipment and Technology ............ MCTL-12-67 Highlights • Various fabrication technologies are critical in the manufacture of military hardware; e.g., - Fabricating aircraft and missile parts; - Anti-armor weapons; and - Nuclear applications. • Various types of bearings are used in engines, gyroscopes, drive trains, tracking systems, etc. • Measuring and inspection equipment are necessary for the performance and reliability of hardware, as well as for the interchangeability of parts. • Non-destructive test and evaluation equipment is necessary to maintain a high level of quality control. • Equipment for the subtractive manufacture of military equipment (e.g., turning, milling and grinding machines) is essential to the manufacture of most military equipment, as well as equipment for joining and the application of additive techniques. • Coating equipment and technologies improve the capabilities of a wide range of military hardware. OVERVIEW This section describes the technologies required for the production of important military equipment. In most cases, the technologies, the equipment and the know-how are dual-use and impact on civil applications where considerations of costs, flexibility, competitiveness, etc., have become major concerns. In some cases, these technologies are not state of the art; in others, the United States is not the world leader in the technology. All countries engaged in the production of military weapons, munitions and systems possess, to some degree, the know- how in the technology areas indicated in the above box. The level of the technology possessed by a country directly affects the quality of military hardware that can be produced, as well as its cost and reliability. The concerns of the United States are directed at preventing exports to countries, or areas, where the receipt of such equipment could cause destabilization of the area or could assist countries in producing weapons of mass destruction. A number of different technologies, associated with a modern industrial base, are addressed in this section; many types of machine tools and processing equipment, certain non-destructive evaluation and inspection equipment and bearings. Computer-aided design, manufacture, test and maintenance (CAD, CAM, CAT and CAM, respectively) for manufacturing technology are addressed in Section 10 (Information Systems Technology) of the MCTL. MCTL-12-1 BACKGROUND Manufacturing and fabrication equipment has, for years, been a mainstay of industrial societies. They were instrumental in bringing about the Industrial Revolution in the 18th Century, the continued development of a wider range of machines in the 19th Century and the development of the concept of automation in the early part of the 20th Century. The mid-to-late 20th Century witnessed a rapid expansion, with the introduction of both automatic- control of the machining axes and the incorporation of additional axes of motion. Indeed, one can trace the development of our present industrial society, as well as the sophistication of military hardware, to the development of manufacturing and fabrication equipment. While rudimentary machines have been used throughout history, machines, as we know them today, were first developed in England and the United States. In England, in 1775, J. Wilkinson invented a precision horizontal- boring machine to bore out cylinders for the newly invented steam engine. In the 1840s, at the Robbins and Lawrence Armory in Windsor, Vermont, machinery was invented to produce muskets with truly interchangeable parts. The 19th Century saw the development of milling and turning machines (for rifle stocks), both in 1818, gear cutting machines, sewing machines, harvesters, grinding machines and automatic screw machines. The early part of the 20th Century witnessed the development of automation. This, coupled with the existing machines, opened the world to mass production. As a result, products could be manufactured in higher volume and at much lower cost and the world experienced the mass-market appeal of automobiles and numerous other consumer products. Consumer products now became affordable to a much wider range of the populations. At the same time, this capability was utilized by the military during the Second World War to produce tanks, planes and ships in unprecedented numbers and at costs previously unheard of. Such machines were critical for the manufacture of engine parts and nuclear weapons. However, automation, alone, was not sufficient to meet some of the post World War II military needs, as more sophisticated weapons were developed that required not only high accuracy, but high repeatability. From this need came the development, in 1952, of a three-axis machine with the rudiments of numerical control (tape instructions). Development continued, with the introduction of automatic tool changing, four- and five-axis machines and computer numerical controllers. Most subsequent improvements involved materials, better cutting tools, more accurate guideways and faster and more stable spindle assemblies. At the same time as these later developments were being introduced, composite materials were developed. To make best use of these new materials, new machines were developed, e.g., tape laying and filament winding machines. This revolutionized the production of a wide range of commercial and military products, e.g., strong and lighter aircraft assemblies, automobile and tank parts, etc. Along with these continued improvements in manufacturing technology came an increased awareness of the importance of quality and reliability. Quality was addressed in many aspects of manufacture and equipment was developed to measure the final product in order to verify it met the design parameters. Much of this equipment was also computer controlled to allow for accurate and rapid measurement. The coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is a prime example of such equipment. The issue of reliability was addressed with the development on non- destructive test and measurement equipment, i.e., equipment that could measure various characteristics of the final product, without affecting the operational capability of the end item. The technology for coating various substrates has also experienced rapid growth and development during this century. In earlier centuries, coatings were mainly applied for surface protection and the most common media were paints or similar coatings. With the perfection of equipment to produce vacuum environments, the range of coating materials and technologies increased rapidly. Technologies moved from simple vacuum evaporation to chemical vapor deposition, plasma spraying, sputter deposition, ion implanting, etc. The refinement of these various technologies resulted in faster, more reliable jet aircraft (improved gas turbine engines); improved canopies for aircraft; longer-life bearings for applications in jet engines, machine tools, drive-trains of automobiles, trucks and tanks; specially designed dielectric layers and wear coatings for optical systems and sensors; and coatings for low observability of weapon systems. Bearings have experienced similar developments. While bearings, in their simplest concept, have been used for many years, it was not till the 19th Century, with the introduction of machine tools, they were recognized as MCTL-12-2 individual, important components. In the early 20th Century, the development of tapered bearings, high-speed bearings and miniature bearings were instrumental in the improvement of automotive drive-trains; high-speed machine tool spindles; navigation systems and gyroscopes, respectively. MCTL-12-3 SECTION 12.1—ADVANCED FABRICATION AND PROCESSING Highlights • Fabrication equipment includes equipment that changes the shape of a material to form the desired shape for a specific application (e.g., nose cones, missile skins, engine fan blades, etc. • Processing equipment includes: - High temperature furnaces used to produce graphite, high temperature alloys, titanium and single crystal turbine blades and - Technologies used to produce composite structures for military hardware, e.g., filament winding machines, tape laying machines, etc. OVERVIEW This section includes equipment for manufacturing structures by means of various advanced manufacturing techniques, e.g., fabrication of structures using spin, flow and shear forming machines; and superplastic forming/diffusion bonding; processing of final product using high temperature furnaces and heaters; and stretch forming machines that involve such actions as bending and/or stretching finished material to form a desired shape or rolling material over mandrels to form curvilinear or cylindrical cross-section parts. BACKGROUND Some of the technologies addressed in this section that have been developed in recent years had their roots in the past. Technology to fabricate composite structures began in the early 1940s, with work on propeller blades, and composite structures for space applications were developed in the early 1960s. Since then, refinements in processes and equipment have resulted in some of the equipment addressed in this section. Various forms of casting had their beginnings in antiquity. Gold objects were cast in 5000 BC and copper sometime later. From these beginnings, the technologies developed further during the Second World War. These applications, using harder metals, depended on the development of new mold materials that could handle the newer metals. Vacuum and environmental furnaces, as we know them today, developed from the furnaces used in the early 20th Century to harden the bearings and gears used in commercial applications. Other applications followed, ranging from bicycle and automotive parts to engine and weapon’s parts. MCTL-12-5 LIST OF MCTL TECHNOLOGY DATA SHEETS 12.1. ADVANCED FABRICATION AND PROCESSING 12.1-1 Spin-, Flow- and Shear-Forming Machines............................................................................... MCTL-12-9 12.1-2 Technology for Superplastic Forming/Diffusion Bonding/Friction Stir Welding (SPF/DB/FSW) ........................................................................................................ .MCTL-12-10 12.1-3 Vacuum or Controlled Environment Induction Furnaces........................................................ MCTL-12-11 12.1-4 Vacuum or Controlled Atmosphere Metallurgical Melting and Casting Furnaces.................. MCTL-12-12 12.1-5 Hot Isostatic Presses (HIP) ...................................................................................................... MCTL-12-13 12.1-6 Single Crystal Alloy Casting Equipment................................................................................. MCTL-12-14 12.1-7 Pyrolytic Deposition Equipment.............................................................................................. MCTL-12-15 12.1-8 Automated Composite-Material Placement Equipment........................................................... MCTL-12-16 12.1-9 Composite Weaving, Interlacing or Stitching Equipment ....................................................... MCTL-12-17 12.1-10 Additive Manufacturing .......................................................................................................... MCTL-12-19 CHANGES FROM LAST MCTL Items added to the list: 1. Technology for friction stir welding. 2. Additive manufacturing (Title of data sheet changed from “Rapid Prototyping”). 3. Data Sheet 12.1-8 (Automated Composite-Material Placement Equipment) (combined composite filament winding (fiber placement) equipment and composite tape-laying equipment and changed parameter to 5 axes vice 3 and 2). Items deleted from the list: 1. Systems to prevent contamination (Considered to be incorporated into normal furnaces). 2. Equipment for the manufacture of MEMS devices (Equipment is identical to that in the Electronics Section). 3. Equipment for Producing Prepregs by the Hot Melt Method. 4. Composite Filament Winding (Fiber Placement) Equipment (combined into Data Sheet 12.1-8). 5. Composite Tape Laying Equipment (combined into MCTL Data Sheet 12.1-8. MCTL-12-7 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.1-1. SPIN-, FLOW- AND SHEAR-FORMING MACHINES These processes form parts with rotational symmetry: Spin forming—the material is formed on a spinning mandrel with no change in the thickness of the original blank. Flow forming—this process involves rotating the object on a mandrel and using a forming tool, moving metal from one location on the object to another, which results in variable thickness of the object. Shear forming—the deformation is carried out by a roller on the spinning mandrel and the thickness of the part is dependent on the angle and pressure of the roller. Critical Technology Having the following characteristics: Parameter(s) Equipped with numerical or computer controls; Having > 2 axes (active or guiding) that have contouring control; and Capable of applying a roller force > 60 kN. Critical Materials Mandrel, computer numerical control. Unique Test, Production, Non-destructive test equipment to evaluate the end product. Inspection Equipment Unique Software Finite element methods for the determination of the manufacturing program and software algorithms for the control of the rollers and mandrels to obtain the desired shape. Major Commercial Used in the manufacture of cookware, wheels for automobiles, electrical fixtures, Applications seamless cylinders, pipe fittings, turbine shafts, etc. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2B; MTCR 3; NDUL 1.1; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND These techniques can produce seamless parts, in a wide range of shapes, with precise control of the material thickness. Materials that can be shaped by this type of equipment include stainless steel inconnel, aluminum and titanium. MCTL-12-9 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.1-2. TECHNOLOGY FOR SUPERPLASTIC FORMING/DIFFUSION BONDING/FRICTION STIR WELDING (SPF/DB/FSW) SPF—This technology uses the superplasticity properties of certain materials to produce parts of complex shape in a mold at high temperatures. It allows one to form unique, complex shapes and to fabricate components from a single piece of material. SPF/DB—This is a manufacturing option for joining dissimilar superplastic materials and for making the components with critical property continuity requirements. Unlike other joining processes, the DB process preserves the base metal microstructure at the interface. More importantly, no localized thermal gradient is present to induce distortion or to create residual stresses in the component. 1 FSW—This is a process that utilizes local friction heating to produce continuous solid state seams. It allows butt and lap joints to be made without the use of filler metals. The solid-state low distortion welds produced are achieved with relatively low cost, using simple and energy-efficient mechanical equipment. 2 Critical Technology SPF and DB—Capable of bonding certain alloys (primarily titanium, nickel, aluminum Parameter(s) and titanium aluminides) in a single heat cycle. FSW—Solid state joining process combining elements of forging and extrusion (primarily used for alloys of aluminum, nickel, titanium, copper and stainless steel) (primarily alloys of aluminum, nickel, titanium and copper, stainless steel, etc.) Critical Materials Not applicable. Unique Test, Production, • The cylindrical, shouldered tool, having a profiled pin. Inspection Equipment • Inspection and non-destructive test equipment to evaluate the end product. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the parameters. Major Commercial Structural panels, bridge structures, aircraft landing gears, turbine engine fan blades, Applications etc. Affordability Issues SPF results in both weight and cost savings in comparison with more conventional manufacturing methods, such as machining of the solid. FSW allows the joining of dissimilar materials in a cost effective manner. Export Control WA Cat 1B; CCL Cat 1B for SPF and DB. References BACKGROUND These techniques address several technologies that are critical in advanced manufacturing. SPF provides a technique to produce complex shapes by forcing a sheet of superplastic material into a complex mold, using air pressure. SPF/DF is a process for selectively bonding sheets of materials together. It uses high temperature and pressure. FSW is a recent development and is being used to form solid state seams in large metal plates. It is finding increased use in aircraft structures. 1 http://www.llnl.gov/IPandC/technology/profile/manufacturing/HighStrainRateSuperplasticMetalForming/index.php 2 http://www.ewi.org/technologies/resistance/frictionstir.asp MCTL-12-10 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.1-3. VACUUM OR CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT INDUCTION FURNACES Vacuum or controlled environment induction furnaces are used in the melting, casting and forging of high- grade steel, superalloys, titanium, as well as other metals. Critical Technology Induction coils having a diameter ≤ 600 mm; Parameter(s) Capable of operating at temperatures >850 °C; and Designed for power inputs of 5 kW or greater. Critical Materials Vacuum system or controlled atmosphere. Unique Test, Production, • Temperature and environmental controllers. Inspection Equipment • Inspection and non-destructive test equipment to evaluate the end product. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the temperature, power and vacuum. Major Commercial Used in the manufacture of high-grade steels (many commercial applications) and Applications depleted uranium for use in counterweights, isotope shields and radiographic cameras. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control NDUL 1.4; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Heating metal parts in a vacuum or a controlled environment is common practice wherever the prevention of surface oxidation or removal of surface contaminants (such as traces of lubricant) produces a justifiably improved surface. MCTL-12-11 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.1-4. VACUUM OR CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE METALLURGICAL MELTING AND CASTING FURNACES Vacuum or controlled atmosphere metallurgical melting and casting furnaces are furnaces in which the item to be melted or cast, is kept either in a vacuum or a specified atmosphere. Critical Technology Arc melt and casting furnaces with consumable electrode capacities >1,000 cm3 and Parameter(s) <20,000 cm3 and operating at temperatures >1,700 °C. Electron beam melting and plasma beam and melting furnaces with power ≥ 50 kW and temperature >1,200 °C. Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, • Beam and torch controls for EB melting and plasma melting, respectively. Inspection Equipment • Vacuum or controlled atmosphere systems. • Inspection and non-destructive test equipment to evaluate the end product. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the temperature, atmosphere, melting rates and power. Major Commercial These furnaces are used in the production cycle for a very wide range of civil Applications applications, including engine parts (automotive and aeronautic), cookware, bridge beams, etc. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control NDUL 1.8; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Consumable electrode furnaces are used in the melting, casting and forging of high-grade steels, nickel superalloys, titanium alloys as well as other metals. These techniques are critical for the production of high quality rotating grade billet material. These remelting techniques are also used to reduce impurities and inclusions in metals. This equipment is used in the casting of components for gas turbine engines, structural castings for engines and airframes. They can produce metal stock free from extraneous gases and other unwanted elements, and prevent the formation of unwanted oxides and nitrides. They are used with a wide range of metals ranging from stainless steel, superalloys to copper and titanium. MCTL-12-12 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.1-5. HOT ISOSTATIC PRESSES (HIP) Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) is a forming process combining simultaneously heat and pressure to consolidate metal and/or ceramic powders. Critical Technology A chamber cavity whose inside diameter ≥406 mm; and having: working pressure >204 Parameter(s) MPa; thermal environment >1,500 K; or hydrocarbon impregnation and removal of gaseous products. Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, None identified. Inspection Equipment Unique Software None identified. Major Commercial Forming metallic and ceramic powders into billets or near-net shapes. Applications Densification of castings and weld joints to improve radiographic quality mechanical properties and pressure-tightness after machining. Diffusion bonding of metals and ceramics. Rejuvenation of service-affected components. Affordability Issues None identified. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is utilized to densify parts fabricated by cold isostatic pressing or by more conventional methods, to heal casting defects and voids, to bond similar or dissimilar materials, and to form net or near-net shapes from metal, ceramic, cermet and graphite powders. Hot isostatic pressing primarily uses temperature and pressure to eliminate voids in sintered ceramics and metals, making a more structurally sound unit. The pressurizing medium is typically a gas, and the process is carried out at elevated temperatures for specific time periods. HIP has proven to be a generally recognized process for improving metallic and non-metallic materials. MCTL-12-13 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.1-6. SINGLE CRYSTAL ALLOY CASTING EQUIPMENT Single crystal alloy casting is a manufacturing process in which molten material is poured or injected into a mold (or cavity) and allowed to freeze so as to take form of the mold. The cooling rate must be carefully controlled in order to produce single crystals. Critical Technology Capable of producing cooled turbine blades with stress rupture life exceeding 400 hours Parameter(s) at 1273 K (1,000 °C) at a stress of 200 MPa. Critical Materials Nickel alloys. Unique Test, Production, Investment casting equipment, X-ray equipment for examination of the final product. Inspection Equipment Unique Software CAD programs to design turbine blade shape. Software programs to control the time, temperature, pressure of the melt. Major Commercial Commercial jet aircraft engines and industrial gas turbines. Applications Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 9B; CCL Cat 9B. References BACKGROUND Directionally-solidified (DS) multigrain and single crystal (SC) airfoils have been used in aircraft gas turbines for many years and are also found in aircraft engine-derivative gas turbines used for power generation. MCTL-12-14 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.1-7. PYROLYTIC DEPOSITION EQUIPMENT Pyrolytic deposition involves the decomposition of a gas and/or gases in a high temperature furnace and its densification into a solid form on a mandrel or mould. It is often used for the formation of graphite. Critical Technology Ability to produce pyrolytically derived materials (e.g., pyrolytic graphite), from precursor Parameter(s) gases which decompose in the 1300° to 2900 °C range, at pressures of 1 mm Hg to 150 mm Hg. Critical Materials Specific gases for the desired end product. Unique Test, Production, Each part of be fabricated requires special mandrels and flow nozzles. The deposition Inspection Equipment gases and rates of delivery are also specific to the part being produced. This is a very proprietary area that is closely controlled by the manufacturer. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the parameters. Major Commercial Sputtering targets, ion beam grids, crucibles for high vacuum, ion implant hardware, Applications etc. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control MTCR 6; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Pyrolytic deposition is a high-temperature process used to deposit a thin, dense coating of metal or ceramic onto a mold or mandrel in order to form a part. It also can be used to coat another material in order to achieve strong adhesion and bonding between the coating material and the underlying surface. The purpose of these processes is to improve the ability of the coated or densified items to survive the extreme environments to which many military parts are exposed. The critical aspect of the production of pyrolytic graphite is the “know-how” to produce it. The equipment is generally high temperature, vacuum furnaces that have been modified by the user to suit his needs. MCTL-12-15 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.1-8. AUTOMATED COMPOSITE-MATERIAL PLACEMENT EQUIPMENT Automated composite-material placement equipment can place material with extreme precision along curved paths on a tool to create complex geometries. The material is usually managed through the application of tension and temperature throughout the process. Critical Technology Five or more coordinated positioning axes, controlled so that the fibrous or filamentary Parameter(s) material can be laid on the tool surface in their pre-described patterns. The equipment can be filament winding, fiber placement or contour tape lay-up machines. Critical Materials Continuous fibers, prepregs, slit tapes, resins such as bismaleimides, thermoplastics, polyamides, polyesters, vinyl esters, epoxies, and phenolics. Unique Test, Production, NDI and NDT equipment to evaluate the end product. Inspection Equipment Unique Software Software algorithms for controlling the machine axis and material lay-up parameters. Major Commercial Fiber placement and contour tape lay-up machines are used to produce commercial Applications aircraft fuselages, wing skins, control surfaces, engine cases, engine nacelles, launch system adapters, and payload shrouds. Filament winding machines are used for Indus- trial piping, compressed natural gas tanks, oilfield drill equipment, and various com- mercial pressure vessels. Affordability Issues Products manufactured with this equipment are less expensive to produce than if fabri- cated using manual labor. Export Control WA Cat 1B; MTCR 6; CCL Cat 1B; NSG 3.B.4. References BACKGROUND Automated equipment capable of placing composite material has been used since the late 1950s, primarily to reduce fabrication costs. Early equipment was limited to three positioning axes and thus could only effectively produce symmetric bodies of revolution such as cylinders. By the late 1980s, equipment had been developed to enable the fabrication of complex structures using five or more positioning axis. This equipment is capable of producing complex, nonsymmetrical parts. In general, the equipment falls into three basic categories: 1. Filament winding. This equipment uses either dry fiber that is passed through a resin bath or narrow width prepreg material. Tension to the material is usually supplied by “pulling” against the tool geometry. Filament winding is still best suited for symmetric bodies of revolution (e.g., cylinders). The equipment is widely used for the fabrication of industrial piping and pressure vessels. On the military side, filament winding is used for the production of rocket motor cases and launch tubes. 2. Contour tape lay-up. This equipment uses prepreg material in widths usually ranging from ~ 25.4 mm to 305 mm. Movement and control of the material is accomplished within the machine’s placement head, which follows along the contour of the tool. Contour tape lay-up is best suited for gentle contoured parts such as wing skins and control surface skins. 3. Fiber placement. This equipment uses prepreg material in widths usually ranging from ~ 3 mm to 25.4 mm. Movement and control of the material is accomplished within the machine’s placement head, which follows along the contour of the tool. Fiber placement is best suited for complex contouring of parts such as full barrel fuselage skins, inlet duct skins, spars, and nacelle skins. The equipment is numerically controlled using various offline programming methods. MCTL-12-16 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.1-9. COMPOSITE WEAVING, INTERLACING OR STITCHING EQUIPMENT These machines are used in the first step in the manufacture of composite structures. Fabrics (e.g., carbon- tow materials) are weaved or interlaced into the desired shape and then stiffening elements are stitched into the skin. When the stitching is complete, the resin is added and autoclaved to form the final composite structure. Critical Technology Ability to perform multi-directional and multi-dimensional weaving, interlacing or Parameter(s) stitching. Critical Materials Glass and quartz fibers, vectran fibers, ceramic fibers and performs and boron fibers. Unique Test, Production, • Infusion equipment. Inspection Equipment • Inspection and non-destructive test equipment to evaluate the end product. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the parameters. Major Commercial Composite structures manufactured using these technologies are used in automotive, Applications civil aircraft, boats and other commercial applications. Affordability Issues Products manufactured with this equipment are less expensive than product machined from metal. Composite weaving and interlacing is one of the most efficient techniques to produce high quality, complex composite structures. Export Control WA Cat 1B; MTCR 6; CCL Cat 1B. References BACKGROUND Weaving and interlacing are used to create a preform on which to build the material, while stitching is used to join performs and reinforce joints. This is important to prevent the growth of interlaminar cracks, to improve handleability of dry fibers and to reduce the number of plies requiring placement. Multi-directional (Ref. 1), multi-dimensional weaving machines are used to interlink fibers to make complex composite structures. Braiding machines provide a general method of producing multi-directional material preforms. The purpose is to systematically lay down fibers along anticipated lines of stress in complex preform configurations and thereby make the parts stronger and lighter than otherwise possible. Stitching is important for integrated structures because co-cured parts often have a joint that can benefit from secondary reinforcement such as stitching or z-pinning. Weaving, interlacing and stitching technology is becoming increasingly important as more infusion 3 techniques are used, as infusion requires woven or interlaced preforms. In one system, a weaving mandrel is first installed onto the machine. As the mandrel assembly rotates, circumferential fibers are continuously laid down at the weaving site by a tubular fiber delivery system, which includes fiber-tensioning devices and missing-fiber sensors. At each pie-shaped corridor formed by the weaving network, a radial knitting needle traverses the corridor, captures a radial fiber at the inside of the port, and returns to the outside of the port, where it makes a locking stitch that prevents movement of the radial fiber during subsequent operations. This process is continued and completed by final lacing. Braiding machines intertwine two or more systems of fibers in the bias direction to form an integrated structure instead of lacing them only in a longitudinal direction as in weaving. Thus, braided material differs from woven and knitted fabrics in the method by which fiber is introduced into the fabric and in the manner by which the fibers are interlaced (Ref. 1). 3 Infusion is a technique of forming composite structures by using a vacuum to “infuse” the resin into formed fiber preforms. MCTL-12-17 REFERENCE Missile Technology Control Regime, Equipment, Software and Technology Annex, Item 6. MCTL-12-18 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.1-10. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process that automates the manufacture of 3-D, solid objects from raw materials. It is carried out through an “additive process” in which layers of the product are built up one layer at a time. Critical Technology Production and repair of metal structures; Parameter(s) Capable of producing 3-D and freeform shapes; 3 3 Vol. ≥ 800 in (0.013 m ); Build rate ≥ 0.02 mm/s; Layer thickness ≥ 20 µm. Critical Materials The materials depend on the procedure used, including steel, super-alloys, aluminum, ceramics and titanium. Unique Test, Production, Laser, e-beam system computers (for CAD). Inspection Equipment Unique Software Simulation, modeling and CAD programs. Major Commercial The direct manufacture of aerospace product that is produced in small volume. Applications Moulds for items produced in large volume (e.g., automotive applications. Moulds for prototype parts or requiring short delivery time. Superior materials for applications requiring improved mechanical properties (e.g., engine parts). Affordability Issues 1. Allows for a quick fabrication of 3-D prototypes of a design to allow evaluation of the design prior to the beginning of production. 2. Allows rapid production of small volume products, spare parts, etc. Export Control None identified. References BACKGROUND Additive manufacturing includes at least three techniques; the deposition of a liquid that is solidified by light; the deposition of a metal that is hardened by either a laser, an electron-beam (e-beam) or a sintering process; or building up of the structure by the use of an adhesive backed material. However, the technique of main importance is where the metal is melted by a laser (selective laser melting (SLM)) or an e-beam. The other techniques are primarily used for the manufacture of prototypes (often plastic). “In the SLM (Ref) process, metal powders are completely molten, yielding good mechanical properties and a low degree of porosity. Since the properties are comparable to those of the bulk material, a wide range of applications is possible. AM can be used to manufacture individual parts (e.g., an internal structure for an engine) as well as moulds for the manufacture of high volume applications. Compared with conventional production of parts by material removal techniques, these material growth techniques offer unlimited possibilities of geometrical complexity. Examples of complex geometries include internal holes, cooling channels in injection mould inserts, patient specific prostheses, etc.” REFERENCE Material Growth Technologies—Rapid Prototyping, Rapid Tooling and Rapid Manufacturing KATHOLIEKE UNIVERSITEIT LEUVEN. MCTL-12-19 GENERAL REFERENCE WTEC Panel Report on: ADDITIVE/SUBTRACTIVE MANUFACTURING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE http://ftp.wtec.loyola.edu/additive/welcome.htm. MCTL-12-20 SECTION 12.2—BEARINGS Highlights • High-speed bearings are essential in gas turbine engines and auxiliary equipment in ships, tanks and aircraft. • Anti-friction bearings are necessary components of guidance equipment and other equipment where smoothness of motion is essential. • Solid tapered roller bearings are used in applications requiring radial and thrust load capacity; e.g., helicopter, tank and truck drive trains. • Active magnetic bearings are used in applications where reduced friction and mechanical wear are essential, e.g., inertial wheels, weapon tracking and pointing systems. • Aerostatic and hydrostatic bearings are used in applications where extremely low friction and/or high accuracy is required OVERVIEW This section covers various types of bearings and the technology required for their development and manufacture. Bearing types have proliferated as the applications for their use have developed, particularly in advanced machines where the relative motion between two parts must occur smoothly, quietly, reliably and with a long time-between-failures. In general, bearings can be categorized as either sliding surface, rolling element or magnetic. Sliding bearings may incorporate self-lubricating materials or introduce a lubricant between the moving parts. When load capacity is obtained as a result of the dynamic motion within the bearing, it is known as a hydrodynamic bearing. Rolling bearings, however, may use balls, cylindrical rollers, tapered rollers, spherical rollers or needle roller elements. The lubricant, bearing design, materials and operating environment are usually important parameters in the development of a thin lubricant film between the rolling elements and the mating surfaces within the bearing. Magnetic bearings are manufactured using magnetic materials and operate in a mode in which the surfaces do not physically slide or roll on each other but are separated by the strength of the magnetic field. Bearings addressed in this section include the following types: • sliding bearings—fluid film, gas film and fabric-lined. • rolling element bearings—precision, hostile environment element anti-friction, low torque anti-friction, and extreme precision. • magnetic bearings—active. • aerostatic bearings—extremely low friction bearings. • hydrostatic bearings—extremely low friction bearings. BACKGROUND Bearings had their beginnings in ancient times. The Egyptians moved heavy stones and statues by sliding them on wooden planks. The planks were lubricated with water or some oil. This technique is known as friction bearings and is commonly used today in spindles and car engines. The more common roller bearings also had their start in antiquity when logs were placed under heavy loads, allowing the loads to move over the rolling logs. Later, wood rollers were used in the axles of carts. These were very effective in reducing the effort to pull the cart, but the wood MCTL-12-21 rollers could not handle heavy loads. The advent of metal rollers and the further development of the techniques to produce spherical balls led to the rapid development of bearings. Recent developments have been the development of bearings where there is little or no friction (e.g. magnetic, hydrostatic and aerostatic bearings). MCTL-12-22 LIST OF MCTL TECHNOLOGY DATA SHEETS 12.2. BEARINGS 12.2-1 High-Speed Bearings, Ball or Solid Roller, Except Tapered................................................... MCTL-12-25 12.2-2 Low-Torque, Anti-Friction Bearing, Ball or Solid Roller, Except Tapered ............................ MCTL-12-26 12.2-3 Precision Ball Bearings and Solid Roller Bearings ................................................................. MCTL-12-27 12.2-4 Bearings, Active Magnetic ...................................................................................................... MCTL-12-28 12.2-5 Aerostatic Bearings.................................................................................................................. MCTL-12-29 12.2-6 Hydrostatic Bearings ............................................................................................................... MCTL-12-30 CHANGES FROM LAST MCTL Additions: None Deletions: 1. Solid taper roller bearings—No longer considered militarily critical. They were deleted from the Wassenaar Arrangement List of Dual Use items. 2. Needle roller bearings—No longer considered militarily critical. They were deleted from the Wassenaar Arrangement List of Dual Use items. 3. Gas lubricated foil bearings—No longer considered militarily critical. They were deleted from the Wassenaar Arrangement List of Dual Use items. MCTL-12-23 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.2-1. HIGH-SPEED BEARINGS, BALL OR SOLID ROLLER, EXCEPT TAPERED High speed bearings are bearings that operate at a high DN value. Ball bearings are bearings where the rolling element is a sphere. Roller bearings are bearings where the rolling element is a cylinder. Critical Technology • Having tolerances of ABEC 7. ABEC 7P, ISO Standard Class 4, or better. Parameter(s) • Having lubrication elements or modifications that enable operation at speeds >2.3 million DN. Critical Materials Tungsten carbide, synthetic sapphire, Monel, beryllium, M50 NiL steel, Stellite, Inconel, beryllium copper or silicon nitride, lubricant. Unique Test, Production, Grinding, lapping and honing machines and fixtures; gaging and metrology equipment Inspection Equipment for curved geometry measurement to 1-µ inch accuracy. Unique Software None identified. Major Commercial Hard drives, engine transmissions, machine tool spindles, fans, motors, etc. Applications Affordability Issues None identified. Export Control None identified. References BACKGROUND The main components of a rolling bearing are the inner ring, the outer ring, the rolling elements, the cage and the seals. The inner ring is mounted on the shaft of the machine and is in most cases the rotating part. The outer ring is mounted in the housing of the machine and in most cases it does not rotate. The cage separates the rolling elements preventing contact between them during operation that would increase friction and heat. Seals are essential for a long and reliable life of the bearing. They protect the bearing from contamination and bearings with integral seals are becoming increasingly popular. DN is a figure of merit where D is the diameter of the bore in mm and N is speed in rpm. MCTL-12-25 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.2-2. LOW-TORQUE, ANTI-FRICTION BEARING, BALL OR SOLID ROLLER, EXCEPT TAPERED These bearings are designed to have lower friction and resistance within the bearing, resulting in lower torque. Critical Technology For 0.5 inch-pitch-diameter bearings with 5 × 10–4 radial play, operate at slow speed (1– Parameter(s) 4 RPM) 400 gram thrust load friction torque <0.6 gm cm; For other sizes, loads or clearances, a starting torque <4,500 mg-mm. Critical Materials Stainless steel, super alloys, beryllium copper, ceramics, lubricant, etc. Unique Test, Production, Grinding, lapping and honing machines and fixtures; gaging and metrology equipment Inspection Equipment for curved geometry measurement to 1-µ inch accuracy. Unique Software None identified. Major Commercial Gyroscopes, tachometers, vacuum cleaners, etc. Applications Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control None identified. References BACKGROUND The main components of a rolling bearing are the inner ring, the outer ring, the rolling elements, the cage and the seals. The inner ring is mounted on the shaft of the machine and is in most cases the rotating part. The outer ring is mounted in the housing of the machine and in most cases it does not rotate. The cage prevents contact and rubbing between the rolling elements that would increase friction and heat. Seals are essential for a long and reliable life of the bearing. They protect the bearing from contamination and bearings with integral seals are becoming increasingly popular. 4 4 http://www.skf.co.uk/Products/products1.htm MCTL-12-26 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.2-3. PRECISION BALL BEARINGS AND SOLID ROLLER BEARINGS Precision ball bearings are used whenever operating conditions require superior accuracy, very high speed, quiet operation and long life. Critical Technology Having tolerances of ABEC 9. ABEC 9P, ISO Standard Class 2 or 2A, or better. Parameter(s) Critical Materials Tungsten carbide, synthetic sapphire, Monel, beryllium, M50 NiL steel, 52100 steel Stellite, Inconel, beryllium copper or silicon nitride, lubricant. Unique Test, Production, Grinding, lapping and honing machines and fixtures; gaging and metrology equipment Inspection Equipment for curved geometry measurement to 1-µ inch accuracy. Unique Software None identified. Major Commercial Aerospace, precision machine tools, sensitive measuring equipment, etc. Applications Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2A; CCL Cat 2A. References BACKGROUND The main components of a rolling bearing are the inner ring, the outer ring, the rolling elements, the cage and the seals. The inner ring is mounted on the shaft of the machine and is in most cases the rotating part. The outer ring is mounted in the housing of the machine and in most cases it does not rotate. The cage separates the rolling elements preventing contact and rubbing between them during operation that would increase friction and heat. Seals are essential for a long and reliable life of the bearing. They protect the bearing from contamination and bearings with integral seals are becoming increasingly popular. 5 Bearings with a rating of ABEC 9 are precision bearings and the term ABEC 9 refers to the tolerance standard of the bearing. ABEC 9 is the highest tolerance standard of the Annular Bearing Engineering Committee (ABEC). 6 5 http://www.skf.com/portal/skf_gb/home 6 http://www.pacamor.com/abectolerances.php MCTL-12-27 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.2-4. BEARINGS, ACTIVE MAGNETIC An active magnetic bearing has two surfaces whose separation is controlled by the application of a magnetic field. Critical Technology Having flux densities of 2.0 Tesla, or greater and yield strengths > 414 MPa; Parameter(s) Having all electromagnetic 3-D homopolar bias designs for actuators; or Having high temperature position sensors [450 K (177 °C) or higher]. Critical Materials High-saturation flux-density magnetic materials, e.g., Vanadium Permandur, Hiperco 27. Unique Test, Production, Grinding, lapping and honing machines and fixtures; gaging and metrology equipment Inspection Equipment for curved geometry measurement to 1-µ inch accuracy. Unique Software None identified. Major Commercial Turbomachinery, auxiliary power units, machine tools, vacuum systems, trains, gas Applications turbine engines, etc. Affordability Issues Magnetic bearings are more expensive than more conventional bearings. Export Control WA Cat 2A; CCL Cat 2A. References BACKGROUND Magnetic bearings are bearings in which the rotating element does not contact the stator during operation. The rotor (ferromagnetic) is levitated by the action of a series of electromagnets such that the rotor is free to rotate in free-space, thus reducing friction and mechanical wear. MCTL-12-28 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.2-5. AEROSTATIC BEARINGS An aerostatic bearing has two bearing surfaces that are separated by a thin film of pressurized air, so that the rotor is floating on a thin layer of air Critical Technology Stiffness < 100 N/µ; Parameter(s) Spindle run-out < 0.5 µ. Critical Materials Gas to maintain pressure within the bearing structure. Unique Test, Production, None identified. Inspection Equipment Unique Software CAD of bearing structure. Major Commercial Machine tools, linear aerostatic bearings for use in positioning systems, inspection Applications equipment (e.g., CMMs), etc. Affordability Issues High-speed spindles for machine tools. Export Control None identified. References BACKGROUND In aerostatic bearings, gas is supplied through an opening in the bearing case and into the bearing gap. The pressure inside the gap creates the load carrying properties that maintain a spacing between the rotating bearing and the bearing case. As a result, aerostatic bearings do not suffer from friction-induced wear and there is no starting and stopping friction. Their primary application is in precision machines. Their application in some areas is limited because of their inherent low stiffness and low load bearing capacity, e.g., they are used in diamond turning machines, microgrinders and coordinate measuring machines, but have limited use in standard milling and turning machines. Much effort is being expended worldwide to solve the stiffness limitation. If the research is successful and the product reaches the machine tool industry (aerostatic bearings are in competition with hydrostatic bearings for this application), their use would result in higher speed spindles. MCTL-12-29 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.2-6. HYDROSTATIC BEARINGS A hydrostatic bearing has two bearing surfaces that are separated by a thin film of pressurized liquid, so that the rotor is supported by the liquid. Critical Technology Stiffness < 10 N/nm; Parameter(s) Spindle run-out < 0.2 µ. Critical Materials Liquid (usually oil or water) to maintain pressure within the bearing structure. Unique Test, Production, None identified. Inspection Equipment Unique Software CAD programs for 2-D and 3-D designs that incorporate the pressure in the recess. Major Commercial Applications include machine tools, turbo-pumps, air-conditioners, telescope mounts, Applications gear systems in helicopters, engines, etc. Affordability Issues Reduced maintenance and the application to high-speed spindles for machine tools. Export Control None identified. References BACKGROUND In hydrostatic bearing systems, a fluid, usually oil, is pumped into the bearing case and the pressure of the fluid centers the rotating shaft within the bearing structure. As a result, there is no wear on internal parts. In addition, because of the inherent high damping ratio of the oil, hydrostatic bearings can be used in applications where the ability to support large weights is important (large telescope mounts) and where better surface finishes are required in a machining operation. These spindles also have a very high stiffness, so they can be used in milling and turning machine tools. Use (Ref. 1) of hydrostatic bearings, a class of fluid film bearings for rotor support in cryogenic turbopumps, has advantages over conventional rolling element bearings. One advantage is the elimination of rolling element bearing speed limits, which allows for higher rotating speeds, smaller diameter, and thus, lighter weight housings for a given turbopump discharge pressure. This freedom from bearing speed limits also gives the designer greater freedom to place the bearings at positions most beneficial for optimum rotor dynamic performance. Additionally, larger diameter shafts are allowed and greater orders of magnitude for bearing damping are available, which further benefit rotor dynamic performance. A second advantage of hydrostatic bearings is that no bearing wear takes place during main stage operation because the bearings are separated by a high-pressure fluid film. In cryogenic propellant turbopumps, conventional rolling element bearings experience their greatest loads and wear at main stage operation, significantly limiting the life of today’s cryogenic turbopumps. In these applications, hydrostatic bearings experience wear at the startup, or transient operation conditions, prior to main stage operation where loads are smaller and of very short duration. REFERENCE 1. Hydrostatic Bearings Demonstrated in High Speed Hydrogen Turbopumps AFRL’s Propulsion Directorate, Rocket Propulsion Division, Engine Branch, Edwards AFB CA http://www.afrlhorizons.com/Briefs/0006/PR9902.html MCTL-12-30 SECTION 12.3—METROLOGY Highlights • Coordinate measuring machines provide the capability to inspect not only standard shapes and sizes, but also a wide range of irregular shapes, such as gears, camshafts, etc. • Linear and angular displacement equipment is critical for the measurement of small, very precise parts prior to their assembly into hardware. • Equipment for the measurement of the optical properties is essential for such applications as laser mirrors, IR guidance systems where the spectral characteristics are important. OVERVIEW This section covers technologies for dimensional measuring systems and equipment needed for precise determination of the dimensions of manufactured parts, machine tools and inspection machines. Included are systems for in-process measurement, as well as post-manufacture inspection. This technology area is of paramount importance for the construction of systems incorporating mechanical or electrical components built to exacting tolerances, whether such hardware is military or civil. This technology area is highly dependent on sensors, positioners, feedback systems, digital computers and associated components and hardware. Included in the list of metrology equipment are coordinate, linear and angular measurement machines, using laser, standard light, photogrammetry and non-contact techniques. The tolerances of parts measured range from ±1 nm (corresponding to an optical surface finish prepared by diamond turning, with ion beam polishing) to ±10 µm (corresponding to more traditional metal machining). BACKGROUND The reliability of military hardware is dependent on the quality of the manufacturing processes producing the hardware. Sophisticated equipment has been developed to inspect hardware, both during the manufacturing process and on finished hardware. Such inspections are critical to guarantee not only the delivery of a usable, reliable product, but also to guarantee that spare parts will have the proper fit-and-function as the original equipment. MCTL-12-31 LIST OF MCTL TECHNOLOGY DATA SHEETS 12.3. METROLOGY 12.3-1 Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) ................................................................................. MCTL-12-35 12.3-2 Linear and Angular Displacement Measuring Equipment....................................................... MCTL-12-36 12.3-3 Metrology Equipment for Spectral Characterization of Reflectance, Transmission, Absorption and Scatter ............................................................................................................ MCTL-12-37 12.3-4 Laser Location Systems ........................................................................................................... MCTL-12-38 CHANGES FROM LAST MCTL Additions: None. Deletions: None. MCTL-12-33 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.3-1. COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE (CMM) A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is a programmable robotic device, with a sensor, that accurately records dimensional data at predetermined points on a manufactured part. The sensor can be a “touch-probe,” non-contact probe or a laser. Critical Technology Having ≥2 axes and a one-dimensional length measurement uncertainty 1.25 μm. Parameter(s) Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Granite base, computer numerical control of coordinating axes, slides and rails and Inspection Equipment feedback systems Laser interferometer measuring equipment with accuracies <1 μm. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the measuring tool and comparison of measured values with design values. Major Commercial Metrology equipment is used in the manufacture of most civil hardware, either on every Applications piece or on a sample basis. Affordability Issues The use of metrology equipment reduces the probability of “out-of-spec” material being incorporated into hardware. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Both military and commercial specifications for hardware have gotten tighter. Tolerances have become smaller and smaller, whether for a turbine engine of an automobile engine, an airplane fuselage, of an automobile surface. CMMs have become the most popular piece of equipment for this extremely wide range of operations. It allows very precise measurement of an objects surface and is used both by the manufacturer of a producer, during manufacture or prior to shipment, and by the user, as a part of incoming inspection. MCTL-12-35 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.3-2. LINEAR AND ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT MEASURING EQUIPMENT Linear and angular displacement measuring machines are ones that measure displacement along a length (e.g., movement of a piece in q machine tool) or the rotation of a body (e.g., the rotation of a rotary axis in a machine tool). Critical Technology 1. Non-contact type with a resolution ≥ 0.2 μm within a measuring range of 0.2 mm. Parameter(s) 2. Having a linear voltage differential transformer system with both of the following: a. linearity of 0.1% or better within a range of up to 5 mm; b. drift of 0.1% or better per day at a test temperature of ±1 K. 3. Having all of the following and laser: a. maintaining for at least 12 hours, over a temperature range of ±1 K around a standard temperature and a standard pressure, both of the following: – a resolution over their full scale of 0.1 μm or less; and – a measurement uncertainty equal to or less than (0.2 + L/2000):m (L is the measured length in mm). Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Computer numerical control of coordinating axes, slides and rails and feedback Inspection Equipment systems. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the measuring tool and comparison of measured values with design values. Major Commercial Metrology equipment is used in the manufacture of most civil hardware, either on every Applications piece or on a sample basis. Affordability Issues The use of metrology equipment reduces the probability of “out-of-spec” material being incorporated into hardware. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Linear and angular displacement equipment is critical for the measurement of small, very precise parts prior to their assembly into hardware. “The last decade has seen the proliferation of mechanical, electronic and optical linear displacement transducers with sub-nanometer and even sub-tenth-nanometer displacement sensitivities (Ref). These transducers have been developed to cater for the requirements in ultra-precision engineering, optics, electronics and micro- mechanical design. The increasing trend towards miniaturization has made the requirements for traceable sub- nanometer measurements more frequent and the use of such transducers more widespread.” This is also an accurate explanation of the importance of angular displacement measurement. REFERENCE National Physical Laboratory; Displacement (http://www.npl.co.uk/length/projects/pt9934.html). MCTL-12-36 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.3-3. METROLOGY EQUIPMENT FOR SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF REFLECTANCE, TRANSMISSION, ABSORPTION AND SCATTER Spectral characterization is the determination of the optical properties of the light reflected from, transmitted through or absorbed in a coating. Critical Technology Capable of measuring reflectance/transmission to better than 1 part in 1,000 absolute Parameter(s) accuracy or absorption/scatter to better than 1 part in 100,000. Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Ellipsometers, spectrophotometers, photospectrometers, etc. Inspection Equipment Unique Software Most equipment with these capabilities requires computer control with specific algorithms to control their performance. Major Commercial Non-military space optics, laser mirrors, telescope optics, semiconductor wafers, etc. Applications Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control None identified. References BACKGROUND Coatings are used on a wide range of military hardware, including space surveillance optical elements, laser mirrors, domes, IR guidance systems, coatings for laser eye protection, etc. Coatings are also an intricate part of semiconductor manufacture. The metrology equipment necessary to maintain quality control of these coatings is critical. MCTL-12-37 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.3-4. LASER LOCATION SYSTEMS Laser triangulation position sensors use waves from each point on a surface to pinpoint position and displacement. A sensor detects the reflected beam and provides an output that varies with the distance. Critical Technology Automated, laser measuring system that uses optical triangulation to achieve high Parameter(s) accuracy of 3-D positions, with the capability to measure ≥15 points per second. Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Laser, optical mirrors, etc. Inspection Equipment Unique Software Most equipment with these capabilities requires computer control with specific algorithms to control their performance. Major Commercial Inspection of automotive, tractor and airplane parts, reverse engineering, etc. Applications Affordability Issues None identified. Export Control None identified. References BACKGROUND Optical triangulation requires three parts, a light source (here, a laser), sensors and electronic instrumentation. The laser light is projected onto an object at a known angle and is reflected back to the sensors. It then is sent to a signal processor. As the source and sensors are spatially changed relative to the object, the output is a 3-D presentation of the object. MCTL-12-38 SECTION 12.4—NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION EQUIPMENT Highlights • Non-destructive inspection equipment can analyze material properties, locate and characterize flaws within materials, fabricated parts and assemblies. • Non-destructive inspection of material and hardware results in an increase in the quality and reliability of delivered hardware and can reduce the cost of delivered product. OVERVIEW This section covers technologies for the non-destructive detection and characterization of flaws, such as cracks, porosity, inclusions and delaminations, as well as the non-destructive measurement or prediction of mechanical properties, such as bond strength or elastic-moduli in materials, components or structures. The technologies also involve the means for interpreting the significance of detected flaws so that either an immediate accept/reject decision can be made, or changes made to correct a flawed or out-of-control process. In many instances, they provide the basis for the design, determination of reliability and maintenance requirements for military systems, including ordnance, vehicles, ships, submarines, aircraft and missiles. BACKGROUND The optimal utilization of structural materials, as well as the introduction of high-performance systems for military applications, is dependent on the ability to detect and characterize strength limiting flaws and defects. The technologies addressed in this section are used in the development of new materials as well as in the manufacture of hardware. They are unsurpassed in detecting problems in design and manufacture and in minimizing latent failures in delivered hardware systems, i.e., they minimize the risk of structural failure by permitting rapid, accurate and cost effective testing. The technology makes possible the calculation of fracture residual-life prediction and, on occasion, the life extension of mechanically critical components in aircraft, ships and vehicles, thus enhancing military readiness. MCTL-12-39 LIST OF MCTL TECHNOLOGY DATA SHEETS 12.4. NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION EQUIPMENT 12.4-1 Digital Shearography............................................................................................................... MCTL-12-43 12.4-2 Ultrasound Nondestructive Testing ......................................................................................... MCTL-12-44 12.4-3 Digital Holographic Nondestructive Testing (HNDT) ............................................................ MCTL-12-45 12.4-4 Computed Tomography (CT) .................................................................................................. MCTL-12-46 CHANGES FROM LAST MCTL Additions: None. Deletions: None. MCTL-12-41 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.4-1. DIGITAL SHEAROGRAPHY Digital Shearography is a laser technique which directly measures strain data in real time. Critical Technology Provides a large area, quantitative analysis of stress concentrations due to cracks or Parameter(s) delaminations, either resulting from the vibration of a structure or existing in composite materials in aging aircraft. Inspection speed of an order of magnitude higher than conventional ultrasonic techniques; Capable of inspecting areas larger than 500 cm2; and Capable of detecting delaminations, voids cracks, etc., larger than 1 cm2. Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Laser system, CCD camera and image processor. Inspection Equipment Unique Software Software algorithm to process information. Major Commercial Useful in a wide range of commercial hardware, particularly aging aircraft. Applications Affordability Issues Improved shearography would result in reduced costs for performing some NDI tests. Export Control None identified. References BACKGROUND Many types of NDI equipment were developed to inspect for defects in metal metals and are not suitable for inspecting composite materials. As materials used in both military and commercial hardware used more and more composite materials, a better inspection tool was needed. Digital shearography was developed for that use. It is a laser based digital interferometry system that uses full-field observation (i.e., does not require scanning) over a limited field size and is used to detect stress concentrations caused by anomalies in materials, both metallic and composites. MCTL-12-43 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.4-2. ULTRASOUND NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING Ultrasonic testing uses the transmission of high frequency sound waves into a material in order to detect imperfections within the material. Critical Technology Ultrasonic testing equipment, capable of detecting defects larger than 1 mm, and Parameter(s) having contouring capability to move the transducers and receivers over the contour of the object under test. Critical Materials Sound transmitter and sensors. Unique Test, Production, None identified. Inspection Equipment Unique Software Software algorithm to process information and contouring software. Major Commercial Similar to the military, but in commercial hardware (e.g., composite structures: quality Applications control of commercial aircraft, automobiles, tires, concrete, etc.; bearings: pumps, machine tool spindles, etc.). Affordability Issues Improved quality and reliability is an indirect cost savings. Export Control WA Cat 1B; CCL Cat 1B. References BACKGROUND Ultrasonic non-destructive (Ref) “…testing evaluates material properties and conditions by probing the material with high-frequency sound waves. Pulses of ultrasonic waves are radiated into the material and subsequently detected using specially-designed transducers. The sound waves are altered as they travel into and through material, and therefore provide a change to the detected pulse which is then displayed, processed, and interpreted.” Ultrasonics are usually applied to detect thickness and search for flaws in composites and metals, such as cracks and voids; however, ultrasonics can also be applied to ascertain grain size, measure residual stress, and determine bond quality. REFERENCE Best Practice: Nondestructive and Mechanical Evaluation (http://www.bmpcoe.org/bestpractices/internal/llnl/llnl_8.html) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, Original Date: 01/27/1997, Revision Date: 04/14/2003. MCTL-12-44 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.4-3. DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (HNDT) Optical holography is an imaging technique that records the amplitude and phase of laser light reflected from an object as an interferometric pattern, thus allowing a 3-D image of the object. Critical Technology 1. Real time processing of information (less than 5 microseconds); Parameter(s) 2. Resolution (in plane) 0.1 mm; and 3. Resolve stress strain of less than 2,000 psi. Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Laser light source and sensors. Inspection Equipment Unique Software Software algorithm to process information. Major Commercial Stress measurement of bolting two parts together (engine block); Applications Identification of disbonding, cracks or delamination flaws in composites, tires, etc.; Vibrational analysis of automotive disk brakes and jet engine turbine wheels); Determination of corrosion; and Turbine blades. Affordability Issues Improved quality and reliability is an indirect cost savings. Export Control None identified. References BACKGROUND Optical holography is an imaging method which records the amplitude and phase of light reflected from an object as an interferometric pattern on film. It thus allows reconstruction of the full 3-D image of the object. In HNDT, the test sample is interferometrically compared in two different stressed states. Stressing can be mechanical, thermal, vibrational etc. The resulting interference pattern contours the deformation undergone by the specimen in between the two recordings. Surface, as well as sub-surface, defects show distortions in the otherwise uniform pattern. In addition, the characteristics of the component, such as vibration modes, mechanical properties, residual stress etc. can be identified through holographic inspection. Applications in fluid mechanics and gas dynamics also abound. MCTL-12-45 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.4-4. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) CT is an imaging technique where digital processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the interior of the object being inspected. Critical Technology Resolution—less than 5 μm; Parameter(s) Capable of imaging steel objects up to 8 inches thick. Critical Materials X-ray source, sensors. Unique Test, Production, None identified. Inspection Equipment Unique Software Software algorithms to process information. Major Commercial Medical applications (X-ray scans of the human body); Applications Mapping voids in castings; Inspection of composite material for impact damage; Measurement of variations in density of solid objects; Inspection of high explosives; and Inspection of pressure vessels for cracks and voids around welds. Affordability Issues Improved quality and reliability is an indirect cost savings. Export Control WA Cat 1B; CCL Cat 1B. References BACKGROUND Computed Tomography (CT) was first used, and is still extensively used, in the medial profession and is normally referred to as a “Cat-Scan.” CT inspection produces a two-dimensional density map of a cross-sectional slice of an objects interior. To accomplish this, a beam of penetrating radiation (X-ray) is projected through an object, and is detected by multiple detectors that count photon interaction between the radiation and the object matter. This scan data, taken in small electronic slices, is then reconstructed into a 3-D representation and information of the internal part of the object under study can be determined. CT provides important benefits for industrial non-destructive testing (NDT) and non-destructive evaluation (NDE). MCTL-12-46 SECTION 12.5—PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT Highlights • The equipment and software in this section are the workhorses in reducing raw material, metals, composites and ceramics, into final product. • Ultra-precision machine tools are critical for the manufacture of military items requiring the greatest precision. • Multitasking machines can reduce costs and increase accuracy of final product. OVERVIEW This section addresses machine tools used for the production of military systems and components. The individual machine tools provide the foundation of a manufacturing base. The equipment includes both computer numerically controlled (CNC) and non-CNC machines. CNC machines are computer controlled so that the motions of the various axes are simultaneously and continually coordinated, thereby maintaining a predetermined (programmed) path. This includes turning, milling and grinding machines, electric discharge machines (EDM), single point diamond and fly-cutting machines and water and liquid jet machines, and electron beam and laser cutting machines. BACKGROUND Modern weapon systems require a variety of production equipment to manufacture necessary components. For example, turning, milling and grinding machines are required for the fabrication of a range of items, from large structures to small parts for gyroscopes, engine parts, etc. This equipment has matured over the years, moving from manual machines to computer controlled machines, from low speed spindles to high speed machining and from machines with rather coarse accuracy to machines with accuracies in the low micrometer range. MCTL-12-47 LIST OF MCTL TECHNOLOGY DATA SHEETS 12.5. PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 12.5-1 Milling Machine, with Five or More Axes, for Removing or Cutting Metals, Ceramics or Composites .......................................................................................................... MCTL-12-51 12.5-2 Milling Machine, with Three Linear Axes and Either One Rotary Axis or a Rotating Table, for Removing or Cutting Metals, Ceramics or Composites ........................ MCTL-12-52 12.5-3 Turning Machine, with Two or More Axes, for Removing or Cutting Metals, Ceramics or Composites .......................................................................................................... MCTL-12-53 12.5-4 Ultra-Precision Machine Tools, Single Point Diamond Turning Machines (SPDT), Fly-Cutting Machines and Microgrinders................................................................................ MCTL-12-54 12.5-5 Grinding Machine, with Three or More Axes, for Removing or Cutting Metals, Ceramics or Composites .......................................................................................................... MCTL-12-55 12.5-6 Electrodischarge Machining (EDM) of Wire-Feed Type ........................................................ MCTL-12-56 12.5-7 Electrodischarge Machining (EDM) of Non-Wire Type ......................................................... MCTL-12-57 12.5-8 Machine Tools for Removing Metals, Ceramics or Composites, by Means of Water, Other Liquid Jets, E-Beam or Laser Beam .............................................................................. MCTL-12-58 12.5-9 Spindle Assemblies, Consisting of Spindles and Bearings, Specially Designed for Machine Tools ......................................................................................................................... MCTL-12-60 12.5-10 Linear Position Feedback Units (e.g., Inductive Type Devices, Graduated Scales, or Laser Systems) .................................................................................................................... MCTL-12-61 12.5-11 Rotary Position Feedback Units (e.g., Inductive Type Devices, Graduated Scales, or Laser Systems) .................................................................................................................... MCTL-12-62 12.5-12 Linear Guide Assemblies for Machine Tools and Inspection Equipment ............................... MCTL-12-63 12.5-13 Software for Electronic Devices that have Four or More Axes for Simultaneous Contouring Control.................................................................................................................. MCTL-12-65 12.5-14 Multi-Task Machine Tools ...................................................................................................... MCTL-12-66 CHANGES FROM LAST MCTL Additions: None. Deletions: 1. Deep hole drilling machines (no longer considered militarily critical, as their military application has been superseded by modern weaponry). 2. Diamond cutting tools (no longer considered militarily critical, as they are readily available throughout the world and are not the critical component of the equipment). 3. Cubic Boron Nitride grinding wheels (not considered militarily critical, as they are readily available throughout the world and are not the critical component of the equipment). 4. Equipment for the manufacture of MEMS devices (Equipment is identical to that in the MCTL Electronics Section). MCTL-12-49 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-1. MILLING MACHINE, WITH FIVE OR MORE AXES, FOR REMOVING OR CUTTING METALS, CERAMICS OR COMPOSITES Milling is the process of producing machined surfaces by progressively removing a predetermined amount of material from the work piece, using a rotating cutting tool. In this case the milling machine has a combination of five, or more, independently controlled axes. Critical Technology Five, or more, axes which have simultaneous contouring control, including rotary axes. Parameter(s) Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Computer numerical control of coordinating axes, rotary axis, rotary table, slides and Inspection Equipment rails and feedback systems. Circular and irregular path measuring equipment and ballbar to measure positioning accuracy of machine tool. Unique Software Software for computer numerical control. Major Commercial Used in the manufacture of a very wide range of civil items, e.g., commercial aircraft, Applications automobiles, farm equipment, etc. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue in itself. However, the use of four- and five-axes machines can often reduce the costs of machining parts with three-axis machines. Export Control WA Cat 2B; NSG 1B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND In modern milling machines, both the work piece and the cutting tool can be moved in a number of directions (axes). The work piece is situated on a table that may be capable of being rotated or tilted. The cutting tool is mounted in a spindle that has X, Y and Z coordinate motion and may be capable of being tilted in one or two perpendicular directions. MCTL-12-51 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-2. MILLING MACHINE, WITH THREE LINEAR AXES AND EITHER ONE ROTARY AXIS OR A ROTATING TABLE, FOR REMOVING OR CUTTING METALS, CERAMICS OR COMPOSITES Milling is the process of producing machined surfaces by progressively removing a predetermined amount of material from the work piece, using a rotating cutting tool. In this case the milling machine has a combination of four independently controlled axes. Critical Technology Three linear axes (X, Y, Z), plus either one rotary axis or a rotating table, which have Parameter(s) simultaneous contouring control and either: 1. A positioning accuracy of better than 6.0 μm (ISO 230/2); or 2. An aerostatic spindle. Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Computer numerical control of coordinating axes, rotary axis, rotary table, slides and Inspection Equipment rails and feedback systems. Circular and irregular path measuring equipment and ballbar to measure positioning accuracy of machine tool. Unique Software Software for computer numerical control. Major Commercial Used in the manufacture of a very wide range of civil items, e.g., commercial aircraft, Applications automobiles, farm equipment, etc. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2B; NSG 1B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Milling is the process of producing machined surfaces by progressively removing a predetermined amount of material from the work piece. The material is removed by a rotating cutting tool and, in modern milling machines, both the work piece and the cutting tool can be moved in a number of directions (axes). The work piece is situated on a table that may be capable of being rotated or tilted. The cutting tool is mounted in a spindle that has X, Y and Z coordinate motion and may be capable of being tilted in one direction. MCTL-12-52 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-3. TURNING MACHINE, WITH TWO OR MORE AXES, FOR REMOVING OR CUTTING METALS, CERAMICS OR COMPOSITES A lathe is a machine tool a part is rotated against a stationary tool that removes material for parts that have a circular cross section. When used with a third axis, parts with elliptical cross section can be manufactured. Critical Technology Two or more axes which have simultaneous contouring control and a positioning Parameter(s) accuracy or better than 6.0 μm (ISO 230/2). Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Computer numerical control of coordinating axes, slides and rails and feedback Inspection Equipment systems. Circular and irregular path measuring equipment and ballbar to measure positioning accuracy of machine tool. Unique Software Software for computer numerical control. Major Commercial Used in the manufacture of a very wide range of civil items, e.g., commercial aircraft, Applications automobiles, farm equipment, etc. Affordability Issues Most CNC two and three axis machines have the ability for automatic tool changing. This significantly reduces the machining time. Export Control WA Cat 2B; NSG 1B; CCL 2B. References BACKGROUND The turning machine (lathe) can be designed to operate as either a horizontal or a vertical machine. The part is rotated against a tool that can be moved along the axis of the part, cutting to a computer programmed depth. The lathe is primarily used to cut parts with a circular cross section; however, with the addition of live tooling and a third axis, it is possible to cut flat sections. There is a wide variety of turning machines, designed for specific operations; e.g., T-base (vertical machine) machines are used for machining hemi-shells for nuclear weapons and single point diamond turning machines (addressed in a separate data sheet) are used for the production of precision optical components. MCTL-12-53 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-4. ULTRA-PRECISION MACHINE TOOLS, SINGLE POINT DIAMOND TURNING MACHINES (SPDT), FLY-CUTTING MACHINES AND MICROGRINDERS Ultra-precision machine tools are ones that can machine objects with a greater accuracy and precision than conventional machine tools. Critical Technology SPDT—capable of producing a surface finish of 0.01 μm Ra, or better. Parameter(s) Fly-cutting machines—capable of producing a surface finish of 0.01 μm Ra, or better. Microgrinders—capable of producing a surface finish of 0.01 μm Ra, or better. Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Computer numerical control of coordinating axes, aerostatic or hydrostatic spindles and Inspection Equipment feedback systems. Circular and irregular path measuring equipment and ballbar to measure positioning accuracy of machine tool. Unique Software Software for computer numerical control. Major Commercial Used in the manufacture of lasers, lenses for lithographic equipment, civil space Applications systems, etc. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2B; NSG 1B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND This entry describes three different types of machines, the single point diamond turning machine (SPDT), the fly-cutting machine and the microgrinder. The SPDT can operate as either a horizontal or a vertical machine. The substrate rotates under the diamond point. The diamond point is moved up and down as it moves across the rotating surface, resulting in a preprogrammed surface. The diamond turning machine can cut spherical or aspherical shapes. It is not usable on glass. It is used to machine non-ferrous materials, crystals and polymers, as well as producing precision moulds. The fly-cutting machine operates as a vertical machine and it is used to impart extremely smooth surfaces on flat surfaces (i.e., it does not do contouring). The microgrinder uses a deterministic approach to produce spherical or aspherical surfaces on optical substrates. The migrogrinders can be used on glass. There are a number of different approaches to this technology, including magnetorheological electrorheological finishing machines, and energetic particle beam finishing. MCTL-12-54 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-5. GRINDING MACHINE, WITH THREE OR MORE AXES, FOR REMOVING OR CUTTING METALS, CERAMICS OR COMPOSITES Grinders are power-operated machines designed with abrasive wheels or discs for grinding metals, ceramics or composites. Critical Technology Two or more axes which have simultaneous contouring control and a positioning Parameter(s) accuracy <4 μm. Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Computer numerical control of coordinating axes, rotary axis, rotary table, slides and Inspection Equipment rails and feedback systems. Circular and irregular path measuring equipment and ballbar to measure positioning accuracy of machine tool. Unique Software Software for computer numerical control. Major Commercial Most parts created by a machining process have, as one of the final steps, a grinding Applications operation. This includes parts for commercial aircraft, automobiles and trucks, impellers for pumps, ship propellers, etc. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2B; NSG 1B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Grinding machines are used as a final operation to produce parts with superior finishes and precision. “The shapes that can be produced by machine grinding depend on the shapes that can be cut with a diamond or other “dresser” on the sides and edge of the grinding wheel and the manner in which the work piece is moved relative to the wheel (Ref). To grind a cylindrical form in a work piece, the piece is rotated as it is fed against the grinding wheel. To grind an internal surface, a small wheel is so mounted that it can move back and forth inside the hollow of the work piece, which is gripped in a rotating chuck. On a surface grinder, a flat magnetic plate or a vise holds the work piece in place on a table that moves back and forth under the rotating abrasive wheel. At the end of each traverse the table is moved automatically a short distance at right angles to the direction of travel. ” REFERENCE “grinding machine.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006, Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service, 16 June 2006, http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9038142. MCTL-12-55 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-6. ELECTRODISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM) OF WIRE-FEED TYPE Electrodischarge machining (EDM) is a high precision metal removal process that uses an electrical discharge from a thin wire to vaporize and achieve fine cuts through hard metal parts. Critical Technology Five or more axes for contour control. Parameter(s) Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Computer numerical control of coordinating axes and feedback systems. Inspection Equipment Unique Software Software for computer numerical control. Major Commercial Turbine discs, gears, dies, motor components, medical devices, molds, stamping dies, Applications extrusion dies, tool fixtures and gauges. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND In wire EDM, a thin single-strand metal wire is fed through the work piece. The wire can be moved in the x and y direction, as well as in a continuous angle with the work piece. Both the work piece and the wire are immersed a non-conductive liquid. The wire does not come in contact with the work piece, but a potential is applied between the wire and the work piece. The cutting action results from a sparking action, repeated at more than 200,000 times per second. This sparking erodes the work piece in a very controlled manner. Wire Electrical discharge machining (or EDM) is a machining method primarily used for hard metals that are difficult to machine with traditional turning and milling machines. MCTL-12-56 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-7. ELECTRODISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM) OF NON-WIRE TYPE Electrodischarge machining (EDM) is a high precision metal removal process that uses an electrical discharge from a custom-made electrode whose shape is impressed into the work piece. Critical Technology Two or more rotary axes that can be coordinated simultaneously for contour control. Parameter(s) Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Computer numerical control of coordinating axes, and feedback systems. Inspection Equipment Unique Software Software for computer numerical control. Major Commercial Aircraft part production, medical parts, molds, stamping dies, extrusion dies, forging Applications dies, tool fixtures and gauges. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a high precision metal removal process that uses thermal energy from a fine, accurately controlled electrical discharge (spark) to erode (vaporize) metals from the work piece. In the EDM plunge, or ram, process, an inverted image of the tool electrode is gradually impressed in the work piece, as material is removed by the sparking process. The tool electrodes are made from several types of conductive materials such as graphite, copper and tungsten. EDM is particularly effective in machining very hard materials. MCTL-12-57 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-8. MACHINE TOOLS FOR REMOVING METALS, CERAMICS OR COMPOSITES, BY MEANS OF WATER, OTHER LIQUID JETS, E-BEAM OR LASER BEAM These machines use narrow beams of liquid (under high pressure), e-beams or lasers to machine remove material from a work piece. Critical Technology Two or more rotary axes, that can be coordinated simultaneously, and a positioning Parameter(s) accuracy of better than 0.003o. Critical Materials Water jet machining: high-pressure water source and abrasive material. Unique Test, Production, Circular and irregular path measuring equipment and ballbar to measure positioning Inspection Equipment accuracy of machine tool. Unique Software Software for computer numerical control. Major Commercial Automotive, aerospace, pump components, etc. Applications Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND A “water jet” cutting system utilizes a narrow stream of water, combined with an abrasive, under extremely high pressure to “erode” a precise and narrow path through material to be cut. A cutting table located over a capture/recycling tank holds the work piece in place while a cutting nozzle directs a water stream which impacts material at speeds faster than the speed of sound. The entire cutting assembly travels along a Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) track that is controlled by various Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. Nonmetals and relatively soft materials can be cut using pure water. For harder materials such as metals and stone, a garnet abrasive is added to the water to augment its cutting ability (Ref. 1). In an e-beam cutting tool, electrons are accelerated to a high velocity and focused on the substrate to be machined. The heat generated by the e-beam melts the target removing small amounts of the substrate. E-beams must be used in a vacuum and, as a result, are limited to the machining of small items (Ref. 2). The electron beam processing melts and evaporates the material. Any shape can be fabricated by scanning the beam or changing the irradiating positions by moving the work material. However, its application is limited to small-lot production, implying that it can only be useful in limited fields of application, such as prototyping. Niche military applications presently exist in guidance systems, accelerometers and biological/chemical detection systems. A laser beam is a high-intensity beam of light that can be tightly focused onto a spot only 0.005 inches in diameter. Laser light is produced by passing electrical energy through a lasing medium. For effective machining, the laser pulse must be quite short, in the range of a picosecond, or shorter. Otherwise, heat diffusion will reduce the efficiency of the machining and can damage the structure of the workpiece (Ref. 3). Laser processing systems are made of five basic components: the laser, beam-focusing optics, material-handling system, heat exchanger and the control computer. The heat exchanger cools the laser and optical components (Ref. 3). Cutting is material removal in one or more axes to produce material separation. Many machines of this type have only X, Y and Z axes and are used, to a great extent, in cutting plate or drilling holes in plates. However, some equipment has an additional rotary axis, giving it five-axis capability. This facilitates the manufacture of 3-D structures. MCTL-12-58 REFERENCES 1. Waterjet Web Reference, waterjets.org: http://www.waterjets.org/index.html 2. Electron Beam Machining; http://www.engr.ku.edu/~rhale/ae510/websites_f03/ebeam/uses.htm. 3. Introduction to Micromachining Handbook, Chapters 3 & 5; http://www.cmxr.com/Industrial/Handbook/Introduction.htm MCTL-12-59 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-9. SPINDLE ASSEMBLIES, CONSISTING OF SPINDLES AND BEARINGS, SPECIALLY DESIGNED FOR MACHINE TOOLS Spindles are the mechanism that both holds a cutting tool in a machine tool and rotates it, thus imparting a cutting (machining) capability to the machine. Spindles can use ball bearing, aerostatic or hydrostatic bearings. Critical Technology Run-out or camming <0.0006 mm (0.6 μm) in one revolution of the spindle. Parameter(s) Critical Materials ABEC 9 Bearings, aerostatic bearings, hydrostatic bearings, lubricant. Unique Test, Production, None identified. Inspection Equipment Unique Software None identified. Major Commercial Very accurate machine tools, coordinate measuring machines, astronomical telescope Applications movements. Affordability Issues None identified. Export Control CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Spindles are the heart of any machine tool and significant improvements have been made in spindles over the past 10–15 years. Run-out and camming (the axial and radial displacement of the spindle) have been improved and the high speed capability of spindles has been markedly increased. The bearings used in the spindles have also experienced considerable improvement. For many high speed applications (high speed spindles), hybrid bearings, using ceramic balls in a metal race, have been used in lieu of steel balls in many spindles. For high precision applications, aerostatic and hydrostatic bearings have been developed. In these two designs, the rotating shaft of the spindle in supported either by air pressure or liquid, thus reducing the friction of metal-on-metal contacts. Aerostatic and hydrostatic bearings are primarily used on very high precision machines such as diamond turning machines and fly-cutting machines. MCTL-12-60 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-10. LINEAR POSITION FEEDBACK UNITS (E.G., INDUCTIVE TYPE DEVICES, GRADUATED SCALES, OR LASER SYSTEMS) Linear encoders are part of a system both to precisely determine the linear position and to control the motion of either the spindle or work piece of a machine tool. Critical Technology An overall accuracy < [(800 + (600 × L × 10–3] nm, where L is the effective length in Parameter(s) mm. Critical Materials Accurately ruled substrates. Unique Test, Production, Equipment to make the scale masters and to measure the graduations. Inspection Equipment Unique Software None identified. Major Commercial Motion control of machine tools, inspection equipment, semiconductor manufacturing Applications equipment, radio and optical telescopes, radar pedestals, etc. Affordability Issues None identified. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND A linear encoder consists of a linear scale, made of glass or tape, a light source and a photoreceptor. It works on the principal of counting pulses as a series of graduations move past a detector. The encoders are constructed by depositing layers on various types of substrates and then ruling precise graduations into the deposited layers. The graduations, actually a grating, can range from intervals as small as 0.25 µm to as high as 10 µm. This device is used to convert linear position information into an electrical output signal that is used to control the movement and position an object. Linear encoders can be either sealed or exposed systems, the former used on machine tools, the latter on measuring equipment or semiconductor manufacturing equipment. MCTL-12-61 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-11. ROTARY POSITION FEEDBACK UNITS (E.G., INDUCTIVE TYPE DEVICES, GRADUATED SCALES, OR LASER SYSTEMS) Rotary position feedback units are part of a system that both precisely determines the linear position and controls the motion of either the spindle or work piece of a machine tool. Critical Technology An accuracy <0.00025o. Parameter(s) Critical Materials Accurately produced radial gratings. Unique Test, Production, Equipment to make the scale masters and to measure the graduations. Inspection Equipment Unique Software None identified. Major Commercial Motion control of machine tools and inspection equipment. Applications Affordability Issues None identified. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Rotary encoders are used in machine tools to measure the motion of the ball screw from the servo-drive and to measure the movement of a rotary head and in metrology equipment to measure the movement of the measuring apparatus, with the goal of providing a superior positioning accuracy of the machine. Rotary encoders are constructed by depositing several tracks of lines of opaque material, with high edge definition, on a transparent substrate. A collimated light source is modulated by the rotating disc and the transmitted light is detected by photovoltaic sensors. The encoder operates by converting the pattern on the rotary disc into an electrical signal that can be processed to determine angular position. MCTL-12-62 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-12. LINEAR GUIDE ASSEMBLIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS AND INSPECTION EQUIPMENT Linear guides are used in machine tools to control the movement of the machine body, with the goal of providing a superior positioning accuracy of the machine. Critical Technology Yaw, pitch or roll <2 sec. of arc total indicator reading (TIR); Parameter(s) Horizontal straightness <4 μm/300 mm length; and Vertical straightness <4 μm/300 mm length. Critical Materials Precision bearings. Unique Test, Production, Bearing manufacturing equipment, fine lapping and polishing machines. Inspection Equipment Unique Software None identified. Major Commercial Machine tools and precision inspection equipment. Applications Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control None identified. References BACKGROUND The purpose of linear guides is to provide smooth, low friction rolling motion, with added rigidity and interchangeable components. There (Ref) are a number of types of linear guides, box ways (Fig. 12.5-1), where the motion is along precision ground surfaces, ball bearing systems and hydraulic fluid systems (Fig. 12.5-2). The box ways have higher friction and less motion speed capability. The ball bearing systems have low friction and high motion speed. The hydraulic systems have the lowest friction and motion speed capability, but are considerably more complex and expensive. The main characteristics of linear guide assemblies are increased axis rigidity and stiffness, low co-efficient of friction, higher machine accuracy, reduction of maintenance, and high reliability. The low coefficient of friction allows for faster machine movements. Faster rapid rates and faster feed-rates are obtained without any sacrifice of repeatability or axis positioning. Linear guide technology is considered one the greatest contributors to long term machine accuracies. MCTL-12-63 Figure 12.5-1. Guiding Principles, CNC Machining Magazine, Volume 6, Issue 21, Spring 2002 (story by Patrick Scott) Figure 12.5-2. Guiding Principles, CNC Machining Magazine, Volume 6, Issue 21, Spring 2002 (story by Patrick Scott) REFERENCE Guiding Principles, CNC Machining Magazine, Volume 6, Issue 21, Spring 2002 (story by Patrick Scott). MCTL-12-64 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-13. SOFTWARE FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES THAT HAVE FOUR OR MORE AXES FOR SIMULTANEOUS CONTOURING CONTROL Software for manufacturing and measurement equipment that is capable of coordinating 4, or more, axes simultaneously for contouring control. Critical Technology The ability to control a machine tool having ≥4 axes, such that the movement on each Parameter(s) axis can be simultaneously contour controlled. Capability extends to as high as 8–9 axes. Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, None identified. Inspection Equipment Unique Software The software itself. Major Commercial Many commercial operations, including aircraft, automobiles, etc. Applications Affordability Issues None identified. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND This software is used for the numerical control of four-, and greater, axes machine tools and measuring equipment. The software allows the operation of advance equipment for the manufacture and measurement of complex parts (e.g., engine parts, propellers). The number of degrees of freedom of a piece of equipment is proportional to the number of coordinating axes. MCTL-12-65 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.5-14. MULTI-TASK MACHINE TOOLS Multi-task machine tools refer to machines that can perform more than one machining function, e.g., both turning and milling operations without physical intervention by the operator. Critical Technology Capability to perform turning and milling operations in the same machine; and Parameter(s) Having two or more axes which can be coordinated simultaneously for contouring control. Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Having two or more axes which can be coordinated simultaneously for contouring Inspection Equipment control. Computer numerical control of coordinating axes, slides and rails and feedback systems. Circular and irregular path measuring equipment and ballbar to measure positioning accuracy of machine tool. Unique Software Software for computer numerical control. Major Commercial Used in the manufacture of a very wide range of civil items; e.g., commercial aircraft, Applications automobiles, farm equipment, etc. Affordability Issues A reduction of total machines necessary to produce the same parts. Operations can be performed with less moving and set-up of the part, resulting in reduced cost and increased accuracy. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. (Only controlled if either the turning or milling characteristics References exceed the control parameters.) BACKGROUND The ability to perform more than one machining function on a machine tool significantly increases the value of the machine. It reduces the set-up time necessary when moving the part to another machine tool, thus improving overall accuracy of the final product and reducing costs. MCTL-12-66 SECTION 12.6—COATING EQUIPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY Highlights • Specific coatings can improve the high temperature capability of turbine engines and missile re-entry cones; • Specific coatings can improve the wear capabilities of engine parts, bearings, domes and IR windows; • Specific coatings can improve the corrosion resistance of hardware; and • Specific optical coatings can provide anti-reflection and band-pass filtering of light. OVERVIEW This section includes both equipment for applying coating materials and the technology for the development, refinement and production of non-organic coatings for non-electronic substrates. Such substrates include metal, ceramics, various composites and optical systems. The technologies cover all pertinent coating design features, such as coating formulation, substrate and source material preparation, and post-coating treatments. Of concern are coatings to: 1) protect substrate materials from oxidation, hot corrosion, wear, erosion and fatigue; 2) reduce heat input to the substrate; or 3) modify the reflectance or transmittance of light from or in the substrate material. BACKGROUND Coatings are the only means to alter substrates to meet specified military requirements. Mechanical coatings are required for 1) radiation hardening, 2) wear and corrosion resistance, and 3) extended-life requirements of items such as sensor systems, structures, power systems, gas turbine engines, bearings and other components operating in hostile environments. Optical coatings are used to tailor aircraft or missile surfaces as a means of avoiding radar detection. MCTL-12-67 LIST OF MCTL TECHNOLOGY DATA SHEETS 12.6. COATING EQUIPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY 12.6-1 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Equipment ...................................................................... MCTL-12-71 12.6-2 Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Equipment ........................................................................ MCTL-12-72 12.6-3 Ion Implantation Production Equipment.................................................................................. MCTL-12-73 12.6-4 Ion Assisted Resistive Heating Vapor Deposition (Ion Plating) Production Equipment ........ MCTL-12-74 12.6-5 Sputter Deposition Equipment................................................................................................. MCTL-12-75 12.6-6 Thermal Spray Equipment ....................................................................................................... MCTL-12-76 12.6-7 Technology for Corrosion and High Temperature Protection Coatings for Engine Parts ....... MCTL-12-77 12.6-8 Technology for Increased Wear Coatings for Engines............................................................ MCTL-12-78 12.6-9 Technology for Increased Wear Coatings for Domes and Missile Seeker Windows.............. MCTL-12-79 12.6-10 Technology for Wear Resistance Coatings and Surface Modification for Bearings ............... MCTL-12-80 12.6-11 Technology for Anti-Reflection Optical Coatings for Guidance Systems .............................. MCTL-12-81 12.6-12 Technology for Bandpass Coatings for Sensors ...................................................................... MCTL-12-82 CHANGES FROM LAST MCTL Additions: None. Deletions: None. MCTL-12-69 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.6-1. CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (CVD) EQUIPMENT Chemical Vapor Deposition is a type of coating process where the deposited species are formed as a result of chemical reaction between gaseous reactants, at elevated temperature, in the vicinity of the substrate. The solid product of the reaction is deposited on the surface of the substrate. Critical Technology Modified for pulsating CVD, controlled nucleation thermal decomposition (CNTD), or Parameter(s) plasma enhanced or assisted CVD; Having high vacuum rotating seals (≤ 0.01 Pa) or in situ coating thickness control; and Operating at temperatures less than 800 °C. Critical Materials Ultra pure gaseous form of material to be deposited. Unique Test, Production, Mass spectrometer to analyze decomposed gas in the deposition chamber; Scanning Inspection Equipment Electronic Microscope (SEM) equipment for defect detection, spectroscopic ellipsometer; spectrophotometer for measurement of film thickness and uniformity of deposited layer. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the temperature, atmosphere and deposition rate. Major Commercial Coatings deposited by CVD are used to improve the hardness and life of cutting tools, Applications drills, jet/nozzles, bearings, medical devices, sunglasses computer discs, metal matrix carbon-carbon composites, fibers or whiskers for composites materials, etc. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a coating or surface modification process wherein a metal, alloy, composite or ceramic is deposited on a substrate. The gaseous reactants are decomposed or combined in the vicinity of the substrate resulting in the deposition of the desired material on the substrate. MCTL-12-71 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.6-2. PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (PVD) EQUIPMENT Physical Vapor Deposition is a type of vacuum coating process where the source material is physically transferred to the substrate without any chemical reaction. Critical Technology Plasma assisted electron beam PVB (EB-PVD)—deposition rate on the order of 100 μm Parameter(s) /hour. Plasma assisted laser beam PVD—deposition rate >0.1 μm /pulse and capability of depositing >2 μm films. Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Mass spectrometer to analyze decomposed gas in the deposition chamber. Inspection Equipment Equipment to measure thickness of deposited layer. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the temperature, atmosphere and deposition rate. Major Commercial Engine parts, turbine blades on commercial aircraft, automobile bodies, and medical Applications devices. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Plasma assisted PVD is achieved by the ionization of the evaporated material with microwave, r.f., glow discharge or other excitation to achieve a better control over coating density, structure, hardness, adhesion and thickness uniformity. EB-PVD is an overlay coating process conducted in a vacuum with a pressure less than 0.1 Pa wherein a source of thermal energy (electron beam) is used to vaporize the coating material. This process results in the condensation, or deposition, of the evaporated species on to appropriately positioned substrates. Laser-PVD is an overlay coating process conducted in a vacuum with a pressure less than 0.1 Pa wherein a source of thermal energy (pulsed or continuous wave laser beam) is used to vaporize the coating material. This process results in the condensation, or deposition, of the evaporated species on to appropriately positioned substrates. MCTL-12-72 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.6-3. ION IMPLANTATION PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT Ion implant is a technique to modify the surface characteristics of a substrate by implanting other material into the surface area. Critical Technology Accelerating voltage >200 keV; Parameter(s) Beam current ≥5 mA for metal ions at 100 kV; Capable of high energy implant into a heated target; Positional control of the workpiece; and Stored program controlled. Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) equipment for defect detection. Inspection Equipment Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the temperature; atmosphere and deposition rate. Major Commercial Ion implantation has very wide commercial applications, including surface hardening of Applications tools, dies and molds, bearings, increased corrosion resistance of stainless steel, improved bio-compatibility of medical implants, etc. Affordability Issues Significant cost savings in both commercial and military machining operations by using cutting tools whose surface was modified by ion implantation. Cost savings estimates run as high as 400% for extended tool life, plus savings in time to machine end-product. Ion implant surface modification also extends the life of dies and molds. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Ion implantation is a surface modification process in which the element to be implanted is ionized, accelerated through a potential gradient and implanted into the surface of the substrate. MCTL-12-73 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.6-4. ION ASSISTED RESISTIVE HEATING VAPOR DEPOSITION (ION PLATING) PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT Ion plating is a coating technique in which vaporized particles are ionized by a plasma and deposited on a substrate by applying a negative bias voltage. Critical Technology Vacuum of 10-3 Torr, or better; Parameter(s) A substrate to plasma potential of 15 to 20 V; and An overall capability to deposit film with a uniformity of ±1.0 percent over the substrate surface. Critical Materials High purity source gases. Unique Test, Production, Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) equipment for defect detection, spectroscopic Inspection Equipment ellipsometer; spectrophotometer for measurement of film thickness and uniformity. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the temperature, atmosphere and deposition rate. Major Commercial Wide range of commercial applications, including diesel engine parts, gas turbine Applications engines, cutting tools, home appliances, jewelry, etc. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Ion plating is a form of physical vapor deposition in which a material vaporized from a source is transported through a vacuum or low pressure gaseous or plasma to the negatively biased substrate where it condenses. MCTL-12-74 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.6-5. SPUTTER DEPOSITION EQUIPMENT Sputtering is a coating technique in which a target material is bombarded with a charged gas that ejects atoms from the target and deposits the atoms on a nearby substrate. Critical Technology Capable of current densities ≥0.1 mA/mm5 at a deposition rate ≥15 mm/hr. Parameter(s) Critical Materials High purity source targets. Unique Test, Production, Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) equipment for defect detection, spectroscopic Inspection Equipment ellipsometer; spectrophotometer for measurement of film thickness and uniformity. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the temperature, atmosphere and deposition rate. Major Commercial Cutting tools for machine tools, knife edges, optical films for anti-glare characteristics, Applications corrosion protection for aircraft components, tribological applications, films to enhance visual characteristics (decoration), etc. Affordability Issues None identified. Export Control WA Cat 2B; CCL Cat 2B. References BACKGROUND Sputter deposition is an overlay process based on a momentum transfer phenomena, wherein positive ions are accelerated by an electric field towards the surface of the target (coating material). The kinetic energy of the impacting ions causes the target surface atoms to be released (sputtered) and deposited on an appropriately place substrate. MCTL-12-75 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.6-6. THERMAL SPRAY EQUIPMENT Thermal spraying is a coating technique in which molten or semi-molten particles are accelerated from a spray torch towards the substrate to be coated. Critical Technology Power levels >150 kW, gas velocities of 3,000 m/s and spray rates of >15 kg/h. Parameter(s) Critical Materials None identified. Unique Test, Production, Digitally controlled atomization of molten coating material and automatic rastering of Inspection Equipment mandrel. Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) equipment for defect detection, spectroscopic ellipsometer; spectrophotometer for measurement of film thickness and uniformity. Unique Software None identified. Major Commercial Jet engine compressor blades, combustor components in power generation plants, Applications drive rollers in commercial printers, EMI shielding coatings for ignition parts, medical prostheses, moulds, corrosion resistance for marine applications, diesel engine parts, etc. Affordability Issues Many thermal spray systems are portable so that the equipment can be taken to the object to be coated. This saves not only the time of transporting objects, but in the case of large articles (e.g., aircraft), the article may be able to be coated without the need of disassembly prior to coating. Thermal coating equipment is used in many commercial airline repair depots throughout the world. Export Control WA Cat 2B (Plasma spray only); CCL Cat 2B (Plasma spray only). References BACKGROUND Thermal spray is a process of applying coatings to a substrate in which the material to be deposited is heated to a molten or semi-molten state and propelled toward the substrate by either process gases or atomization jets. Thermal spraying includes plasma spray, flame spray, high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF), low-pressure plasma spray and electric wire arc spray. MCTL-12-76 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.6-7. TECHNOLOGY FOR CORROSION AND HIGH TEMPERATURE PROTECTION COATINGS FOR ENGINE PARTS Critical Technology Reduce temperature of underlying layer by 150 oC, or greater, or allow operation at Parameter(s) 2,000 oC. Critical Materials ZrO2 + Y2O2, silicides, ceramics (e.g. alumina and magnesia). Unique Test, Production, CVD, PVD, pack cementation, thermal spraying and sputter deposition for deposition of Inspection Equipment film. Spectroscopic ellipsometer; spectrophotometer for measurement of film thickness and uniformity. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the parameters. Major Commercial Commercial aircraft. Applications Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2E; CCL Cat 2E. References BACKGROUND High-temperature protective coatings make advanced heat engines more efficient, because the engine parts (e.g., turbine blades and pipes) can run at higher temperatures (for military aircraft, this can be as high as 1400 °C). The efficiency and power of the aircraft is increased at higher temperature operation. MCTL-12-77 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.6-8. TECHNOLOGY FOR INCREASED WEAR COATINGS FOR ENGINES Critical Technology Hardness ≥ 9,000 kg/mm2. Parameter(s) Critical Materials Chromium, nitrides, cubic boron nitride (CBN), diamond, diamond-like-carbon (DLC), carbides and transition metal borides and oxides. Unique Test, Production, CVD, thermal vapor deposition, sputtering, cathodic arc equipment, ion implantation Inspection Equipment and slurry deposition for deposition of film. Spectroscopic ellipsometer; spectrophotometer for measurement of film thickness and uniformity. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the parameters. Major Commercial Commercial aircraft. Applications Affordability Issues Extends the life of an engine, which decreases cost. Export Control WA Cat 2E; CCL Cat 2E. References BACKGROUND Moving parts generally result in wear of the surfaces. This wear increases gaps between the moving parts and result in the decrease in the operating efficiency of the product. Certain hard coatings can minimize the wear. MCTL-12-78 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.6-9. TECHNOLOGY FOR INCREASED WEAR COATINGS FOR DOMES AND MISSILE SEEKER WINDOWS Critical Technology Hardness ≥9,000 kg/mm2. Parameter(s) Critical Materials Diamond like carbon (DLC), diamond. Unique Test, Production, CVD, PVD, sputtering and cathodic arc equipment for deposition of film. Inspection Equipment Spectroscopic ellipsometer; spectrophotometer for measurement of film thickness and uniformity. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the parameters. Major Commercial Optical scopes, IR lenses, eyeglasses, sunglasses, etc. Applications Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2E; CCL Cat 2E. References BACKGROUND Domes and missile seeker windows are not made of hard materials and, thus, are subject to deterioration due to the high speeds of the aircraft or missile through the atmosphere. In many applications, for example, a missile seeker window, the surface quality is important to the operation of the seeker system. Hard coatings are applied to these surfaces to protect them from wear. In some applications, the optical absorption of the coating is important (e.g., in an IR seeker, it is critical that the coating not absorb IR radiation). MCTL-12-79 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.6-10. TECHNOLOGY FOR WEAR RESISTANCE COATINGS AND SURFACE MODIFICATION FOR BEARINGS Critical Technology Increase of 300% in surface hardness, with concurrent reduction in sliding friction by a Parameter(s) factor of 3. Critical Materials TiC, carbon, diamond, diamond-like carbon (DLC), chromium, tantalum, tin, borides, carbides and TiN. Unique Test, Production, CVD, RF plasma coating, spray coating, cathodic vacuum arc deposition, ion implant Inspection Equipment and ion beam assisted deposition for deposition of the film. Spectroscopic ellipsometer; spectrophotometer for measurement of film thickness and uniformity. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the parameters. Major Commercial Jet engines, automotive engines, machine tools, solar panels, radar antennae, Applications gyroscope platforms, etc. Affordability Issues Coated bearings should extend the life of the bearings and the equipment using the bearings. Export Control WA Cat 2E; CCL Cat 2E. References BACKGROUND Moving parts generally result in wear of the surfaces. This wear increases gaps between the moving parts and result in the decrease in the operating efficiency of the product. Certain hard coatings can minimize the wear. MCTL-12-80 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.6-11. TECHNOLOGY FOR ANTI-REFLECTION OPTICAL COATINGS FOR GUIDANCE SYSTEMS Critical Technology Anti-reflection films that resist rain, sand, erosion and oxidation at temperatures Parameter(s) >700 °C and reduce reflection to 2–3%. Critical Materials MgF2 is most often used for single layer anti-reflection coating. Multi-layer coatings are more common and the specific layer make-ups are proprietary. Unique Test, Production, CVD, EB-PVD, ion assisted resistive heating-PVD, laser evaporation, and sputter Inspection Equipment deposition for deposition of the film. Spectroscopic ellipsometer; spectrophotometer for measurement of film thickness and uniformity. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the parameters. Major Commercial Anti-reflection films are used extensively on camera lenses, mirrors, laser optics, optical Applications systems for lithographic equipment, etc. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2E; CCL Cat 2E. References BACKGROUND Anti-reflection films are used to reduce the amount of light lost to reflection at the surface of optical transmission elements. This is particularly important in compound lenses where there are many interfaces from one lens element to another. In compound lenses, the amount of light lost by reflection can be reduced from 10–15 percent to 2–3 percent by using high-efficiency, multilayer antireflection coatings. MCTL-12-81 MCTL DATA SHEET 12.6-12. TECHNOLOGY FOR BANDPASS COATINGS FOR SENSORS Critical Technology Filters, with selectable or variable bandpass in 0.2–20 μm spectral range. Parameter(s) Critical Materials Oxides, fluorides and sulfides. Unique Test, Production, CVD, EB-PVD, ion assisted resistive heating-PVD, laser evaporation, and sputter Inspection Equipment deposition for deposition of the film. Spectroscopic ellipsometer; spectrophotometer for measurement of film thickness and uniformity. Unique Software Software algorithms for the control of the parameters. Major Commercial Laboratory equipment, motion sensors, robotic control, temperature measurement, Applications automotive IR systems, etc. Affordability Issues Not an affordability issue. Export Control WA Cat 2E; CCL Cat 2E. References BACKGROUND Optical coatings for sensors either allow selective wavelength to be transmitted to the sensor or reject unwanted wavelengths, depending on the wavelength of concern and the sensor wavelength response. MCTL-12-82