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RFID

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					RFID
The role of RFID technology in Supply Chain
What is RFID?
   Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is
    an automatic identification method, relying on
    storing and remotely retrieving data using
    devices called RFID tags or transponders.

   An RFID tag is a small object that can be
    attached to or incorporated into a product,
    animal, or person.
    Transponder: An automatic device that transmits a message in response to a
    received signal.
What is RFID?
   RFID tags contain silicon chips and antennas
    to enable them to receive and respond to
    radio-frequency queries from an RFID
    transceiver.

   Passive tags require no internal power source,
    whereas active tags require a power source.

Transceiver: a device which combines both transmission and reception capabilities
within a single housing. It is a semiconductor device designed to send and receive
digital data.
An RFID tag used for Wal-Mart
An RFID tag used for electronic toll
collection
Types of RFID tags

   RFID tags can be either passive, semi-passive
    (also known as semi-active), or active.
Passive RFID tags
   Passive RFID tags have no internal power supply.

   The electrical current induced in the antenna by the
    incoming radio frequency signal provides just
    enough power for the integrated circuit (IC) in the
    tag to power up and transmit a response.

   Most passive tags signal by backscattering the
    carrier signal from the reader.
Passive RFID tags
   Lack of an onboard power supply means that the
    device can be quite small.

   Commercially available products exist that can be
    embedded under the skin.

   As of 2006, the smallest such devices measured 0.15
    mm × 0.15 mm, and are thinner than a sheet of
    paper.
Semi-passive RFID tags
   Semi-passive RFID tags are very similar to
    passive tags except for the addition of a small
    battery.

   Semi-passive RFID tags are faster in
    response, though less reliable and powerful
    than active tags.
Active RFID tags
   Unlike passive tags, active RFID tags have their own
    internal power source which is used to generate the
    outgoing signal.

   Active tags transmit at higher power levels, allowing
    them to be more effective in "RF challenged"
    environments like water (including humans/cattle,
    which are mostly water), heavy metal (shipping
    containers, vehicles), or at longer distances.
Active RFID tags..
   Many active tags have practical ranges of
    hundreds of meters, and a battery life of up to
    10 years.

   Some active RFID tags include sensors such
    as temperature logging which have been used
    in concrete maturity monitoring or to monitor
    the temperature of perishable goods.
Active RFID tags..
   Companies have successfully used active tags
    to reduce logistics costs and improve supply
    chain visibility for more than 15 years.

   At present, the smallest active tags are about
    the size of a coin and sell for a few dollars.
The RFID system
   An RFID system may consist of several
    components: tags, tag readers, servers,
    middleware, and application software.

   The purpose of an RFID system is to enable
    data to be transmitted by a mobile tag, which
    is read by an RFID reader and processed
    according to the needs of a particular
    application.
The RFID system..
   The data transmitted by the tag may provide
    identification or location information, or specifics
    about the product tagged, such as price, color, date
    of purchase, etc.

   The use of RFID in tracking and access applications
    first appeared during the 1980s.

   RFID quickly gained attention because of its ability
    to track moving objects.
The RFID system..
   In a typical RFID system, individual objects are
    equipped with a small, inexpensive tag.

   The tag contains a transponder with a digital
    memory chip that is given a unique electronic
    product code.

   The interrogator, an antenna packaged with a
    transceiver and decoder, emits a signal activating the
    RFID tag so it can read and write data to it.
Electronic Product Code (EPC)
   The Electronic Product Code, (EPC), is a family of coding
    schemes for RFID tags.

   It is designed to meet the needs of various industries, whilst
    guaranteeing uniqueness for all EPC-compliant tags.

   EPC was the creation of MIT Auto-ID Center, a consortium
    of over 120 global corporations and university labs.

   The EPC system is currently managed by EPCglobal, Inc., a
    subsidiary of GS1, creators of the UPC barcode.
The RFID system..
   When an RFID tag passes through the
    electromagnetic zone, it detects the reader's
    activation signal.

   The reader decodes the data encoded in the tag's
    integrated circuit and the data is passed to the host
    computer.

   The application software on the host processes the
    data, often employing Physical Markup Language
    (PML).
Physical Markup Language
   Physical Markup Language (PML) is a markup
    language based on XML for communicating a
    description of physical environments and the objects,
    their relationships to you, each other and the space.

   Within a location the devices (RFID tags) controlled
    by the PML language act as parts of a browser.

   Each device contains a component that interprets the
    PML related to the devices’ capabilities.
Components of RFID System
RFID tags used in libraries: square book tag,
round CD/DVD tag and rectangular VHS tag.
Smart Key/Smart Start with RFID
   Starting with the 2004 model year, a Smart
    Key/Smart Start option became available to the
    Toyota Prius.

   The key uses an active RFID circuit which allows
    the car to acknowledge the key's presence within
    approximately 3 feet of the sensor.

   The driver can open the doors and start the car while
    the key remains in a purse or pocket.
RFID in inventory systems
   RFID technology has two values for inventory systems:

   First, the visibility provided by this technology allows an
    accurate knowledge on the inventory level by eliminating the
    discrepancy between inventory record and physical inventory.

   Second, the RFID technology can prevent or reduce the
    sources of errors.

   Benefits of using RFID include the reduction of labor costs,
    the simplification of business processes and the reduction of
    inventory inaccuracies.
RFID in Supply Chain
   Wal-Mart and the United States Department of Defense have
    published requirements that their vendors place RFID tags on
    all shipments to improve supply chain management.

   Due to the size of these two organizations, their RFID
    mandates impact thousands of companies worldwide.

   The deadlines have been extended several times because
    many vendors face significant difficulties implementing
    RFID systems.
RFID in Supply Chain..
   RFID tags are often envisioned as a replacement for
    UPC barcodes, having a number of important
    advantages over the older barcode technology.

   They may not ever completely replace barcodes, due
    to their higher cost.

   The new EPC, along with several other schemes, is
    widely available at reasonable cost.
RFID in Supply Chain..
   The unique identity is a mandatory requirement for
    RFID tags.

   RFID tag data capacity is big enough that any tag will
    have a unique code, while current bar codes are
    limited to a single type code for all instances of a
    particular product.

   The uniqueness of RFID tags means that a product
    may be individually tracked as it moves from location
    to location, finally ending up in the consumer's hands.
RFID in Supply Chain..
   Moreover, the tracing back of products is an
    important feature that gets well supported with RFID
    tags containing not just a unique identity of the tag
    but also the serial number of the object.

   This may help companies to cope with quality
    deficiencies and resulting recall campaigns, but also
    contributes to concern over post-sale tracking and
    profiling of consumers.
RFID in Supply Chain..
   It has also been proposed to use RFID for
    POS store checkout to replace the cashier
    with an automatic system which needs no
    barcode scanning.

   However this is not likely to be possible
    without a significant reduction in the cost of
    current tags and changes in the operational
    process around POS.
Meeting the Customer Order
Without RFID




   3 times we need to enter information to the computers.
Meeting the Customer Order
With RFID




   We need to enter information only once at the assembly.
Controversy
   The use of RFID technology has engendered
    considerable controversy and even product
    boycotts by consumer privacy advocates who
    refer to RFID tags as "spychips".

   How would you like it if, for instance, one day
    you realized your underwear was reporting
    on your whereabouts?
Controversy..
The main privacy concerns regarding RFID are:

   The purchaser of an item will not necessarily be aware of the
    presence of the tag or be able to remove it;
   The tag can be read at a distance without the knowledge of
    the individual;
   If a tagged item is paid for by credit card, then it would be
    possible to tie the unique ID of that item to the identity of the
    purchaser;
   The EPCglobal system of tags create, or are proposed to
    create, globally unique serial numbers for all products, even
    though this creates privacy problems and is completely
    unnecessary for most applications.
How does a computer act on
information about a product?
   The whole point of automatic identification is to take
    people out of the loop, to enable computers to gather
    information and act on it.

   For that to happen, computers must be able to not
    just identify a product, but also interpret some basic
    information about it.

   To make this possible, the Auto-ID Center started to
    develop a new computer language called the
    Physical Markup Language.
How does a computer act on
information about a product?..
   PML is based on the widely accepted
    eXtensible Markup Language (XML), which
    is used to describe common types of data
    (addresses, dates, invoice numbers and so on)
    and transactions (purchases, requests for
    quotes and so on) in a way computers running
    different proprietary applications can
    understand.
How does a computer act on
information about a product?..
   PML files will be stored in the EPC Information
    Service.

   EPC Information Service will reside on computers
    distributed across the Internet.

   Some information about each product will be stored
    in a PML file, such as a product's name and broad
    category (soft drink, auto part, clothing and so on),
    when it was made and where, its expiration date, its
    current location, even its current temperature, if
    that's important.
How does a computer act on
information about a product?..
   PML files will provide information to existing enterprise
    applications.

   The PML file could contain instructions for where a pallet
    should be shipped.

   It could contain instructions for a point-of-sale display to
    lower the price of an item when its expiration date
    approaches.

   Or it could contain instructions for how long your microwave
    needs to cook a particular brand of frozen pizza.
Use information in new and innovative
ways
   By making all this information available in a PML
    file, companies will be able to use information in
    new and innovative ways.

   A company could, for instance, set triggers so the
    price of a product falls as its expiration date
    approaches.

   Third party logistics providers could offer service-
    level contracts indicating that goods will be stored at
    a certain temperature as they are transported.
What is the Object Name Service?
   The Object Name Service (ONS) is an automated
    networking service similar to the Domain Name
    Service (DNS) that points computers to sites on the
    World Wide Web.

   When an interrogator reads an RFID tag, the
    Electronic Product Code is passed to middleware,
    which, in turn, goes to an ONS on a local network or
    the Internet to find where information on the product
    is stored.
What is the Object Name Service?
   ONS points the middleware to a server where
    a file about that product is stored.

   The middleware retrieves the file (after proper
    authentication), and the information about the
    product in the file can be forwarded to a
    company's inventory or supply chain
    applications.

				
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