Basketball Study Guide History Dr. James Naismith introduced the game of basketball in 1891 at Springfield College in Springfield, Massachusetts. This game was devised to give students an opportunity to play indoors during the long winter months. The original game was played using peach baskets for goals, which gave us the name “basket” ball. When the game was first introduced, each team used seven players and the forwards did the majority of the scoring. With various rule changes throughout the years, the number of players on each team has been reduced to five, and all members of the team are scoring. Today, basketball is played throughout the world. It was adopted into the Olympics in 1936 when the U.S. defeated Canada nineteen to eight. In 1976, basketball was also introduced into the Olympics as a women’s sporting event. Equipment/Dimensions 1. Ball A. Men: 30 inches in circumference B. Women: 28.5 inches in circumference 2. Court A. Amateur: 74 – 94 feet long x 50 feet wide B. Professional: 94 feet long x 50 feet wide 3. Backboard (can vary) A. 6 feet wide B. 4 feet high C. 9 feet above floor D. 4 feet from end line 4. Basket A. 18 inches in diameter B. 6 inches from backboard C. 10 feet above floor The Game A tip-off decides who gets the ball and the opposite team gets the ball after half-time or on a jump-ball. At halftime, teams exchange courts. The ball is passed thrown, or bounced between players of one team with the intent of scoring. A basic team has two forwards, two guards, and one center (can change depending on strategy). The game begins with a jump ball at center court using any two opponents (usually the center). After a field goal is made, the opponent must take the ball out-of-bounds (behind the basket that the score was made), to put the ball back in play. One exception is when the basket is a result of a technical foul at which time the ball is taken out of bounds at mid-court by the scoring team. The ball may be thrown in by any player, but must be done within five seconds. Scoring Field goal: two points will be awarded for each shot made inside the three-point line Three point field goal: three points will be awarded for each field gal made outside the three-point line Free throw: one point will be awarded for each free throw (foul shot) made from the free throw (foul shot) line Rules Violations (ball will be put into play on sideline): Traveling Stepping out-of-bounds Three seconds Five seconds Ten seconds Double-dribble Over-and-back Jump ball violations Kicked ball Goal tending Fouls Charging Blocking Pushing Holding Tripping Hacking or kneeing Unsportsmanlike conduct Intentional delay of game A player is out of the game after five fouls Technical fouls are counted as personal fouls *Fouls mainly involve people *Violations involve boundaries and handling the ball infractions Free Throws If a player is fouled while shooting and the basket is not made, the player gets two free throws If a player is fouled while shooting and the basket is made, the player gets one free throw If a player is fouled behind the three point line while shooting and the basket is not made, the player gets three free throws If a player is fouled behind the three point line while shooting and the basket is made, the player gets one free throw A free throw must touch the rim of the basket If it fails to hit the rim, the opposing team puts the ball into play from out-of-bounds When lining up for a free throw, each player stands across from a teammate, with the team committing the foul (X) occupying the two positions closest to the basket and alternating with the shooting (O) team The players may not cross the lines, nor the person taking the free throw until the ball leaves the shooter’s hands If the line is violated either basket is repeated or doesn’t count if made (depends on who caused the violation Example at end of study guide Terminology Three Seconds – the offensive players cannot take position in the free throw lane (key) for more than three seconds Five Seconds – the offensive team has five seconds to throw the ball in from out-of-bounds; the offensive player with the ball also has only five seconds to move the ball when being closely guarded Ten Seconds – the offensive team must bring the ball across the mid-court line within ten seconds after gaining possession Alternate Possession – when a jump ball situation occurs during a game, each team will alternately get possession of the ball, beginning with the team that was not in control after the jump ball at the beginning of the game Assist – a pass or handoff resulting in a basket by a teammate Back Court – the half of the court away from the scoring basket Blocking – a foul in which the defensive player blocks the legal path of the offensive player. A defensive player must give the offensive player three feet. A foul may also be called when the defensive player’s arms are extended horizontally Center – the player playing on the block offensively Charging – an offensive foul in which the offensive player runs into a defensive player who has as established position when he is within three feet of his opponent Dead Ball – whenever the whistle is blown Double Dribble – using two hands to dribble the ball, or dribbling, picking up the ball, and attempting to dribble again Double Violation – a violation is called upon opposing players at the same time Field Goal – a basket scored from the floor Free Throw – (15 feet from basket) an unobstructed shot from the foul line, awarded as a penalty of an opposing player’s foul. The player has ten seconds to shoot the ball and the basket is worth one point. The other players on the court cannot step over the line until the ball leaves the shooter’s hand. Free Throw Lane – the area on the floor in front of each basket extending to the free throw line Front Court – the half of the court where the scoring basket is Goal Tending – a player interfering with the ball or the basket while the ball is in a downward flight toward or above the basket Jump Ball – a method of putting the ball in play at the beginning of the game. The referee tosses the ball between opposing centers as they attempt to “tip” it to their own team Out-of-Bounds – any space outside the designated playing area Over-and-Back – moving the ball to the back court once it has been advanced to the front court Pick/Screen – a legal maneuver in which an offensive player provides his teammate room to shoot, by taking a position that blocks a defensive player Pivot – the player holding the ball steps one or more times in any direction with the same foot. The opposite foot must stay in contact with the ground in its initial position Rebound – a shot coming off of the backboard or basket that may be recovered by either team Steal – taking the ball from the hands of an opposing player Technical foul – a foul for unsportsmanlike conduct in which the opposing team receives a free throw and possession Traveling – moving your feet while holding the ball. A player must dribble when moving with the ball Turnover – a loss of possession without attempting a field goal Violation – a minor infraction which results in the ball being put into play by the opposing team on the sideline of the opposing team Types of Passes Chest Pass – the ball is releases and received at the chest level Bounce Pass – the ball bounces once on the floor before being caught Two-Hand Overhead Pass – uses two hands to throw the ball over the head Baseball Pass – uses one hand to throw the ball like a baseball is thrown Hook Pass – the pass is made from the side using one or two hands Length of Games High School Varsity – eight minute quarters College – two twenty minute halves Professional – twelve minute quarters QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Un compressed) decompre ssor are neede d to see this picture.