Internet File-Sharing Technology

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Group ICT-54B: Ta Quoc Viet, Tran Viet Anh, Pham Duy Hoan, Luc Quoc Quyen


Job Allocation
• Luc Quoc Quyen (20092161): Abstract (1) and Introduction (2)
• Tran Viet Anh (20090158): Technology (3)
• Pham Duy Hoan (20091134): Features (4)
• Ta Quoc Viet [editor] (20093262): Conclusion (5), Guide (6) and Reference (7)
1. ABSTRACT                                                                               between them. Part III discusses some
                                                                                          good and bad features of Direct
    Downloading is the most important                                                     Protocol and P2P Protocol. Part IV
thing when you are using the Internet. It                                                 explores how to use some popular
is the simple truth that everyone who                                                     download programs via each protocol
has experienced in it knows. In                                                           and provides a brief conclusion.
Vietnam, there are over 50,000,000
Gigabytes which were downloaded                                                           2.2.        HISTORY
from the Internet to computer each                                                            When the 8-inch floppy disk was
month [1]. At the early days of Internet,                                                 developed by IBM, sharing files was
computer scientists have focused on                                                       pretty easy – you copy the original data
creating a new technology to help                                                         files, and then borrow the disk.
people to share data with the best                                                        Obviously, there were only a few
benefit and the highest speed.                                                            computers around back then, but this
Nowadays, there are two technologies                                                      happened again almost two decades
which are the most popular in the                                                         later, when optical and flash media
world. They are Direct Protocol and                                                       became nothing out of ordinary.
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Protocol. This essay
                                                                                             A few years later, in 1978, CBBS
will provide a general knowledge of
                                                                                          becomes the first Bulletin Board
each technology and some suggestion
                                                                                          System (BBS) [2], but BBS access is
to choose the best Download Programs.
                                                                                          limited to phone lines until early 1990s.
2. INTRODUCTION                                                                           Anyway, almost two decades ago, BBS
                                                                                          was probably the most widely used file
2.1.      OVERVIEW
                                                                                          sharing method.
   The essay was divided into 4 main
                                                                                             In 1979, Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis
parts. Part I focuses on the History of
                                                                                          came up with Usenet. It is a network
File-Sharing Technology. Part II
                                                                                          that was initially based on the UUCP
addresses the definition of each
                                                                                          protocol for dial-up connections and
technology and explains the differences
                                                      INTERNET FILE­SHARING TECHNOLOGY

has, since being transported over the              loss in court Napster blocked all
Internet, used a specialized client-server         copyright   content  from   being
protocol, the Network News Transfer                downloaded.
Protocol (NNTP). Its main purpose was                  Gnutella, eDonkey2000, and Freenet
the exchange of text based messages,               were released in 2000, as and
but through attachments allowed users              Napster were facing litigation. Gnutella,
to encode files and distribute them to             released in March, was the first
participating subscribers of Usenet                decentralized file sharing network. In
Newsgroups. Usenet remains one of the              the Gnutella network, all connecting
largest carriers of file sharing and               software was considered equal, and
Internet traffic. Legal challenges to P2P          therefore the network had no central
systems have spurred a resurgence of               point of failure. In July, Freenet was
Usenet. Usenet itself has also been the            released and became the first
target of legal challenges pertaining to           anonymity network. In September the
its use in file-sharing.                           eDonkey2000 client and server
   In 1985, the FTP protocol becomes               software was released.
standardized, and in 1988, IRC is born.                In 2001, Kazaa and Poisoned for the
   In 1990, the real thing starts with the         Mac was released. Its FastTrack
formal proposal of the World Wide                  network was distributed, though unlike
Web, followed by the introduction of               Gnutella, it assigned more traffic to
the MP3 standard, at the end of 1991[3].           “super nodes” to increase routing
   In June 1999, Napster was released              efficiency. The network was proprietary
as a centralized unstructured peer-to-             and encrypted, and the Kazaa team
peer system, requiring a central server            made substantial efforts to keep other
for indexing and peer discovery. It is             clients such as Morpheus off of the
generally credited as being the first              FastTrack network.
peer-to-peer file sharing system. In the               In July 2001, Napster lost in court
case of Napster, an online service                 and was shut down. This drove users to
provider could not use the "transitory             other P2P applications and file sharing
network transmission" safe harbor in               continued its exponential growth. The
the DMCA if they had control of the                Audiogalaxy Satellite client grew in
network with a server. Many P2P                    popularity, and the LimeWire client and
products will, by their very nature,               BitTorrent protocol were released. Until
flunk this requirement, just as Napster            its decline in 2004, Kazaa was the most
did. Napster provided a service where              popular file sharing program despite
they indexed and stored file information           bundled malware and legal battles in
that users of Napster made available on            the Netherlands, Australia, and the
their computers for others to download,            United States. In 2002, a Tokyo district
and the files were transferred directly            court ruling shut down File Rogue and
between the host and client users after            an RIAA lawsuit effectively shut down
authorization by Napster. Shortly after            Audiogalaxy.
the A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc.
Group ICT­54B – Ha Noi University of Technology. Ha Noi May 30, 2010
                                                      INTERNET FILE­SHARING TECHNOLOGY

    From 2002 through 2003, a number               called servers, and service requesters,
of popular BitTorrent services were                called clients. [5]
established, including,               3.2. DIFFERENCES AND
isoHunt, TorrentSpy, and The Pirate                   SIMILARITIES
Bay. In 2002, the RIAA was filing
lawsuits against Kazaa users. As a                     In P2P, Peers are both providers and
result of such lawsuits, many                      consumers of data, in contrast to the
universities    added     file    sharing          traditional client-server model where
regulations      in     their      school          only servers upload, and clients
administrative codes (though some                  download. A similarity, Some P2P
students managed to circumvent them                systems have a central server that was
during after school hours). With the               connected with all nodes. But the
shutdown of eDonkey in 2005, eMule                 server only tracks, indexes peer’s IP
became the dominant client of the                  address and uses those data for expand
eDonkey network. In 2006, police raids             its network by sending IP address list to
took down the Razorback2 eDonkey                   peers. In fact, a pure P2P network
server and temporarily took down The               doesn’t have the connection of client –
Pirate     Bay.      Pro-file     sharing          server but only node-node that
demonstrations took place in Sweden in             functions as both ways upload and
response to the Pirate Bay raid. In 2009,          download on the network.
the Pirate Bay trial ended in a guilty                             Peer-to-peer was used in
verdict for the primary founders of the                            VoIP,     Real-time    chat,
tracker.                                                           HDTV        online,   etc…
3. TECHNOLOGY                                                      Especially,      it     was
                                                                   popularized by File-Sharing
3.1.   DEFINITION                                                  systems such as eDonKey,
  Those are clearly definition of 2                                BitTorrent, Gnutella.
most usual file sharing protocols:             Direct     download    use
   • A       peer-to-peer,    commonly         Client-server model to
abbreviated to P2P, is any distributed         request download and
network architecture composed of               transfer data from server
participants that make a portion of their      to client via FPT, HTTP.
resources (such as processing power,
disk storage or network bandwidth)                 3.3.   CATEGORIES
directly available to other network                       3.3.1.     Peer To Peer
participants, without the need for                             Networks
central coordination instances (such as
servers or stable hosts) [4].                         Some of the most popular options
                                                   for file sharing on the Internet are peer-
    • Client–server     model       of             to-peer networks, such as BitTorrent
computing is a distributed application             and eDonkey network.
structure that partitions tasks or
workloads between service providers,
Group ICT­54B – Ha Noi University of Technology. Ha Noi May 30, 2010
                                                      INTERNET FILE­SHARING TECHNOLOGY

   Users can use software that connects            example:,,
into a peer-to-peer network to search    , etc…
for shared files on the computers of                      3.3.2. File Hosting Services
other users (i.e. peers) connected to the
network.     Those      files  can     be              File hosting services are a simple
downloaded directly from other users               and traditional Client-server model
on the network. Typically, large files             method to download file, video, and
are broken down into smaller pieces,               any kind of data that is not webpage.
which may be downloaded from                       Internet users can download data
multiple peers and then reassembled by             directly from file hosting services by
the downloader. At the same time, the              using download links (http, ftp) that are
peer is uploading the pieces it already            provided by service sites. These sites
has to other peers. Even after download            allow web and FTP access for users to
completed, user can upload that data to            manage or get download link. They can
others to support their downloading                be optimized for serving many users
speed.                                             (hosting) or only for single-user
                                                   storage. Related services are video
    Nowadays, BitTorrent become the                sharing, photo sharing, virtual storage
Number.1 file sharing network on the               and remote backup.
internet. It has been estimated that it
may account for roughly 27-55% of all                 Two of the most popular file hosting
Internet     traffic  (depending    on             services:
geographical location) as of February
2009 [6].
             Programmer Bram Cohen
             designed this protocol in             MediaFire (i.e. MF)
             April 2001 and released a   
             first implementation on 2
             July 2001. [7]
    The reasons BitTorrent become
popular because of its convenient.                 MegaUpload (i.e. MU)
Users can publish their data or          
download other user data fast and easy                   A video sharing service is
by torrent client programs. They                   provided by MegaUpload that can
package all information of data in a               stream video files were stored at host:
torrent file (.torrent) and then publish it.
Other users download that torrent file
and run it by any torrent client to
download data piece by piece. In                    4. FEATURES
addition, there are many torrent tracker           4.1. PEER-TO-PEER NETWORK
(a kind of central server) support user to            (P2P)
find as many peers as possible which
                                                          4.1.1. Advantages
are downloading same data. For
Group ICT­54B – Ha Noi University of Technology. Ha Noi May 30, 2010
                                                      INTERNET FILE­SHARING TECHNOLOGY

       Because of the principle of peer            unwanted      pornographic    images   or
structure, this protocol has many                  movies.
advantages      compared     to     other          4.2. CLIENT-SERVER
commercial networks. In peer-to-peer                  NETWORK
network, all machines involved provide
resources,     which     may      include                 4.2.1. Advantages
bandwidth,      storage    space,     and                 User (client) also can only
computing power. So the more                       download files or programs directly
machines join the network, the stronger            from the servers through client-server
overall ability of the network becomes.            network. In this case, there are many
As nodes arrive and demand on the                  clients (users) but they just are the
system increases, the total capacity of            consumers. Servers are the suppliers.
the system also increases [8].                     All resources are stored in these servers
Decentralization of peer networks also             and users can download them from
helps the networks work well even                  servers or upload to servers. In contract
when some machines have problem.                   to P2P, users are not allowed to share
Thus, searching for and sharing                    resources directly with others one, it
resources become more quickly and                  means all computers must connect to
effective.                                         only one server. In this situation, users
       4.1.2. Disadvantage                         can download directly files or programs
                                                   from the servers and do not depend on
    But users who use P2P also have                the numbers of computer involved in
some problems when they join the                   the network. So that users may get the
networks. The most important problem               resources conveniently. And users may
is that consumers can be faced with a              not face some problems with viruses or
number of risks when they download                 personal files like P2P because with this
and use commercial P2P file-sharing                protocol, the security of data will be
software programs [9]. A file-sharing              higher than P2P.
program which users download and use
include other software, such as spy                       4.2.2. Disadvantages
ware or adware. So they may                            But this protocol has some
inadvertently share sensitive personal             disadvantages because of its principle.
files residing on their hard drives. Users         If there is only a fixed numbers of
can also receive dangerous viruses with            servers, while there are too many
files and programs when sharing files              clients participate in the network, the
using P2P programs [10]. And viruses               data transfer capability will be reduced.
can impair the operation of their                  The more client network has, the less
personal computers. So it’s very                   speed data will be transferred. In
dangerous that your computer may be at             addition, if the servers are crashed, the
risk at any time. Finally, because of the          whole system network will be stalled. It
way files are shared in network, users,            is the big problem that you try to
especially children may be exposed to              download a file while there are too
                                                   many users are downloading it, the
Group ICT­54B – Ha Noi University of Technology. Ha Noi May 30, 2010
                                                      INTERNET FILE­SHARING TECHNOLOGY

traffic congestion will occur. So you              large files easily, µTorrent would be a
should not use this protocol to                    reasonable choice.
download any big files because of the          IV.
slow speed.
   About the programs that can support
you download through these protocols;              IV.3.
there are many programs like that.                 5. CONCLUSION
   For example, with client-server, we                First, there is not a shadow of doubt
have many choices that are supported to            when we call file-sharing technology is
help users can download file more                  the essential factor of using the Internet.
quickly. We can mention the most                   It has been developing day by day
commonly used software like FlashGet,              throughout the history. From the very
Internet Download Manager (IDM),                   early day of information technology, it
Free Download Manager, Orbit                       had proved that it is very useful, handy,
Downloader, Download Accelerator                   and important.
Plus, Gigaget, and Wackget. All of
these programs can help users increase                 Next, it is very hard to say which
the download speeds. But nowadays,                 technology is better. But it seems to be
Internet Download Manager (IDM) is                 that we should use both of them. The
thought to be the most popular                     Client-Server Network is readily to
download programs, and the fastest                 download small files, and sometimes
download application. It can increase              safer than P2P Network; because the
download speeds by up to 5 times,                  data is more stable, unity and secure.
resume and schedule downloads, and                 Nevertheless, with the huge file, if you
more and more effective features                   want to download by the Client-Server
supported. It is really a good choice for          Network, in this case the ratio of getting
you to download file or program                    file corrupted is higher than using P2P
directly and quickly.                              Network; not including you have to
                                                   take too much time to download
    In P2P, we also have other choices             because of low speed and file split. That
to share resources.           They are             why both method of downloading are
Tranmission,     Azureus,       µTorrent,          still using commonly and independently
Bittorrent, FlashGet, etc… Today,                  on the Internet.
µTorrent is known as number one
download program to share resources                   Finally, I hope that you can figure
on Internet via P2P. Its activity is based         out the similarity and difference
on P2P network, so it has a huge                   between P2P Network and Client-
resource, and it can download large                Server Network. Nowadays, the two
files with maximum speed. It also                  main types of file-sharing technology,
occupies a very small capacity in your             peer-to-peer and client-server, are
system. So if you want to download                 applied widely and deeply everywhere
                                                   in the internet. Each has its own
Group ICT­54B – Ha Noi University of Technology. Ha Noi May 30, 2010
                                                      INTERNET FILE­SHARING TECHNOLOGY

properties and applications; thus, it will            -Drag and Drop: You can drag and
be very helpful if you understand                  drop links to download with IDM.
thoroughly. Then you can make an                      -Add URL button: You can add
effectively decision when you want to              downloads manually using Add URL
download files from the Internet.                  button.
6.GUIDE                                               -Copy Links to Clipboard: IDM can
6.1. Internet Download Manager                     catch download links in clipboard.
   (IDM)                                              -Command Line: IDM can work
       IV.1.1.       Getting IDM                   from a command line.
   Download source:                                  -Import Downloads: IDM can
http://www.internetdownloadmanager                 import download links from a file.
.com/download.html                                    • Configuration for IDM:
   You can try it in 30 days or buy it               On the main menu, look at
with ~400000VND.                                   Download tab, find and click the
   Purchase page:                                  Option button to open the option panel.
http://www.internetdownloadmanager                    Here are some explanations of tabs
.com/buy.html                                      options:
       IV.1.2.       Using IDM                        -General: can be used to change
   • The main window shows a list of               IDM System integration options
 downloaded files. This list includes              (automatic startup, integration options
 additional        information     about           into    browsers,    URL      clipboard
 downloaded files like file size,                  monitoring). IDM integrates into
 download status, estimated time to                Internet Explorer, Opera, Mozilla,
 complete, and current download speed              Netscape, and many other popular
 and downloads description. You can                browsers by default.
 sort the list by any column by clicking              -File types: can be used to change
 on a column header.                               the list of file types that will be taken
                                                   over from a browser and downloaded
  • There are several ways to start
                                                   by IDM.
 your downloads with Internet
 Download Manager.                                     -Save to: defines the default "save
                                                   to" directory for a selected category.
   -Automatic Mode: This mode is the
                                                   You can also change this directory by
easiest one. In this case you don't need
                                                   picking Properties item in the right
to do anything special, just browse the
                                                   click menu of a selected category in the
Internet as you usually do. IDM will
                                                   main IDM window. Downloaded file
catch your downloads and handle them.
                                                   will be saved to the default directory of
   -Right click in Browsers: You can               an appropriate category. But you can
right click on a link in your browsers,            change the directory to save the file
and select "Download with IDM".                    before downloading in Download File

Group ICT­54B – Ha Noi University of Technology. Ha Noi May 30, 2010
                                                      INTERNET FILE­SHARING TECHNOLOGY

Info dialog. If "Remember last save                   - Run µTorrent and click "Add
path" box is checked and you have                  Torrent..." from the File menu. Select
changed the directory in Download File             the *.torrent file you saved in the
Info dialog, then the default "save to"            previous step. The download item
directory will change for all subsequent           should appear in the main window.
downloads in this category.                        Once the program has found peers that
   -Download: In Dialogs group box                 are serving the file, it will begin
you can control how IDM dialogs are                downloading the file to your computer.
displayed. Select "Don't show" item in                 • Configurations for µTorrent: you
Download progress list box, if you don't           can press Ctrl + P in the main window
want to see "Download Progress"                    to open the preferences panel.
dialog at all. If you don't like to see
                                                      Here are some explanations of the
"Download Progress" dialog appearing
                                                      preferences tabs:
in front of all other windows, select
"Show minimized". You can disable                     -General: change the language,
"Download Complete" dialog using                   window integration, privacy…
"Show download complete dialog" box.                  -UI Setting: change display, system
   • For more detail of using IDM,                 tray icon, action for double click…
you can open its manual.                               -Directory: change the location of
6.2.    µTorrent                                   downloaded files, location of *.torrent
                                                      -Connection: change listening port
        IV.2.1.      Getting µTorrent              and proxy…
   Download source:                                   -Queuing: change queuing setting…                   -Scheduler: tell µTorrent to stop
   This is a free-ware so that you don’t           torrent jobs, use a different bandwidth
have to pay any money to use it.                   limit, or stop downloading entirely
        IV.2.2.      Using µTorrent                during specified times.

   • Starting download [11]:                         • For more detail of using
                                                   µTorrent, you can open its manual.
    -Browse to a site that serves torrent
files and peruse their list to find a file           7. REFERENCE
you want to download.                              [1]. Internet statistics of
                                                   Vietnam. VietNam National Internet Center.
    -Click the link that provides you              [Online] VietNam National Internet Center,
with the *.torrent file. This file type            April 2010. [Cited: May 30, 2010.]
will be recognized by µTorrent if        
you've set the option for it to do so. If it       dex.jsp.
is not opened automatically by                     [2]. File sharing. WikiPedia.
µTorrent, then you save the *.torrent              [Online] Wikimedia Foundation, Inc, May 29,
file to your hard drive.

Group ICT­54B – Ha Noi University of Technology. Ha Noi May 30, 2010
                                                      INTERNET FILE­SHARING TECHNOLOGY

2010.      [Cited:     May       30,     2010.]
[3]. Codrut Nistor. File Sharing – History. [Online] pctips3000, June 24,
2009.     [Cited:    May       30,     2010.]
[4]. Rüdiger Schollmeier, A Definition of
Peer-to-Peer Networking for the Classification
of     Peer-to-Peer    Architectures      and
Applications, Proceedings of the First
International Conference on Peer-to-Peer
Computing, IEEE (2002).
[5]. Reese, George. Database Programming
with JDBC and Java, Second Edition.
Database Programming with JDBC and Java,
Second Edition. November : Sun Develope
Network, 2000.
[6]. Ernest. BitTorrent Still King of P2P
Traffic. [Online] February
18, 2009. [Cited: May 30, 2010.]
[7].      Cohen,      Bram      (2001-07-02).
"BitTorrent — a new P2P app", Yahoo
eGroups,      Retrieved   2007-04-15,   link:
[8]. Peer-to-peer. [Online] Wikimedia
Foundation, Inc, May 25, 2010. [Cited: May
30, 2010.]

Group ICT­54B – Ha Noi University of Technology. Ha Noi May 30, 2010
                                                      INTERNET FILE­SHARING TECHNOLOGY

[9]. Mạng Đồng Đẳng.       [Online]     Wikimedia
Foundation, Inc, May 06, 2010. [Cited: May
30, 2010.]
[10]. Staff Report. Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing
Technology, Consumer Protection, And
Competition Issues. s.l. : Federal Trade
Commission, 2005.
[11]. eHow Contributing Writer. How to
Use uTorrent. [Online] eHow, Inc.
[Cited: May 30, 2010.]

Group ICT­54B – Ha Noi University of Technology. Ha Noi May 30, 2010