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INDEPENDENCE__ Powered By Docstoc

    Chapter 4
       Stamp Act
• George Grenville, King George‟s
  Prime Minister, was tasked
  with raising money to replenish
  a nearly empty British
• The British were already taxed
  to the max to pay for almost
  100 years of British wars.
    Stamp Act -
• Grenville persuaded
  Parliament to pass the Stamp
• This stamp proved that a tax
  was paid on most paper
  goods: wills, deeds, legal
  papers, newspapers, etc.
      Stamp Act
• When the Act would go into
  effect, violators would be
  tried in vice-admiralty courts
• Colonists were furious that
  Parliament passed a
  tax on the colonists
  that was not approved
  in America
     Stamp Act
• The Sons of Liberty
  and other patriots
  resisted the Act. Patrick Henry
  sent the king the Virginia
  Resolves – only Virginians could
  be taxed by their assembly
     Stamp Act
• Representatives
  issued a Declaration of Rights
  and Grievances, Parliament did
  not have the right to tax people
  that did not have the right to
  vote them into their position
  Stamp Act
• Colonists
  boycotted British
  goods and
  harassed the tax

      Political Cartoon
       by Paul Revere
  Stamp Act Repealed - 1766
• In March 1766, Parliament
  backed down and repealed this
  direct tax
• The same day, however, they
  passed the Declaratory Act,
  which gave Parliament the
  authority to “bind the colonies
  and people of America…in all
  cases whatsoever.”
 Townshend Acts - 1767
• Under the Declaratory Act,
  Parliament passed the
  Townshend Acts.
• An indirect tax, it levied
  taxes on paint, glass, lead,
  paper and tea.
Townshend Acts - 1767
• Colonists boycotted
  British goods again.
• The Daughters of Liberty found
  ways to make home-made goods
  rather than buy imports
• „Tea‟ was made from
  other sources
     Townshend Acts
• In 1768, British customs
  officers seized the ship, Liberty,
  owned by John Hancock
• They charged him with smuggling
  wine without paying taxes
• The British ordered troops to
  MA to put down the colonial riots
   Boston Massacre
• The “redcoats” stayed in Boston
  enraging the people of MA
• They took jobs because they
  could work for less money
• They lived in private homes
  where the owners
  had to supply them
  with food                   and
Boston Massacre - 1770
• On a snowing March day, a
  group of rowdy young men began
  taunting and throwing snowballs
  (filled with rocks) at the
• When they began closing in on
  them, the soldiers
  killing 5
 Boston Massacre - 1770
• News of
  the colonies
  in print and
• Britain relaxed some of the
  restrictions and boycotts eased
  but tension remained.
• The Committees of
  Correspondence was the first
  communication link between
   Boston Tea Party - 1773
• Prime Minister North needed to
  keep the British East India Tea
  Company solvent
• He authorized the company to sell
  tea to the colonies directly,
  circumventing the colonial tea
Boston Tea Party - 1773
 • The price of tea was
   lowered to assist the East
   India Company, on the back
   of colonial trade
Boston Tea Party - 1773
• To prevent the tea from being
  off-loaded in Boston,
  colonists dumped the 342
  chests of tea into the harbor.
• Any that floated, were
  punctured and sunk
     Britain Reacts
• King George III
  urged Parliament
  to pass a series
  of acts, the
  Coercive Acts
• Colonists called
  them the
  Intolerable Acts
     Intolerable Acts
• 1. Close Boston harbor until
  the tea paid for
  – Put sailors, dock workers etc
    out of work
  – Cut Boston off from needed
    food and supplies
   Intolerable Acts

• 2. Quartering Act made
  colonists house additional
  British soldiers in Boston,
  putting citizens under martial
   Intolerable Acts
• 3. General Gage
  appointed new royal
  governor of MA
• 4. Required all British officials
  accused of committing a crime
  to be tried in Britain
     Colonies Unite
• At the same time, Parliament
  passed the Quebec Act which
  took control of Quebec from
• The Committees of
  Correspondence agreed to meet
• The First Continental Congress
  met in Philadelphia in
  September 1774
 Effects of Coercive Acts
• Unified the colonies to work
• Unified the colonies to assist
• Unified the colonies to urge
  Parliament to relax their
  interference in colonial affairs
Lexington and Concord
• The First Continental Congress
  urged colonies to get ready for
  military action
• Minutemen began stockpiling
  guns, balls and gunpowder
• Gen. Gage heard about these
  activities and decided to act.
The British are Coming???
• Colonist knew that the British
  were going to march about 15
  miles west of Boston towards
  the stockpiles of ammunition in
• They did not know the route and
  used the steeple in the Old
  North Church to relay
  the information
The Regulars are Coming

 • “One if by land, two
   if by sea…”
 • Paul Revere, William
   Dawes and Samuel Prescott
   were waiting on the opposite
   side of the Charles River to
   spread the word that
   soldiers were on their way.
     The Regulars are
• Prescott was the only one that
  made it all the way to
  Concord, but the minutemen
  were ready
    Shot Heard ‘Round the
• April 19, 1775
• 70 minutemen lined
  up on the common
  in Lexington
• They refused to leave
• Someone fired – 15 minutes
  later, 8 minutemen were
  killed and 10 injured
     Shot Heard ‘Round the
• When the soldiers got to
  Concord, between 3,000 and
  4,000 minutemen were waiting
• The patriots did not wear red
  coats or line up in formation.
• They fired on the
  troops from behind
  fences and trees.
   Shot Heard ‘Round the
• Totally disorganized, British
  troops ran back to the
  safety of Boston
• They were shot at the entire
     Comments from that
• John Adams, “This is a
  glorious day for America.”

• King George III (from his
  diary) “Nothing of
  importance happened today.”
   Chapter 4
   Section 2
  Second Continental Congress
• After the battles in Lexington
  and Concord in April, delegates
  from all 13 colonies meet in
• Both sides prepare
  for war but not all
  colonists favored war
   Second Continental Congress

• One of their
  first decisions
  was selecting a
• George
  Washington was
    Battle of Bunker Hill

• Just across the
  water from Boston
  were the elevated
  areas of Bunker
  and Breed‟s Hills.
• The British, in their red,
  wool uniforms marched in
  formation, sweating in the
  June heat.
    Battle of Bunker Hill
• The patriots held the hill, under
  the instructions, “Don‟t fire
  until you see the whites of their
  eyes” to save precious
• By the 3rd British
  assault the
  patriots ran out
  of ammo and
     Battle of Bunker Hill
• Whoever takes the land, wins
  the battle.
• Under this logic,
  the British won
• In terms of
  soldiers lost, over
  British soldiers were killed to
  only about 450 patriots
Olive Branch Petition
• Many Americans still wanted
  peace with Britain
• The Second Continental
  Congress sent a petition for
• King George III
  rejected it
• The war went
       Common Sense

• Thomas Paine, a
  recent emigrant from
  England, wanted
  Americans to
  begin thinking about
  fighting a war for
  independence from
  England, not just
  additional freedoms
      Common Sense
• Common Sense was a 50
  page pamphlet explaining
  the reasons America
  should achieve
• 50,000 copies were
Declaration of Independence
       • The following year,
         1776, the Continental
         Congress asked each
         colony to write their
         own constitutions.
       • Thomas Jefferson
         wrote the Declaration
         of Independence
 Declaration of Independence
       –Jefferson took some ideas
         from John Locke‟s natural
         rights of life, liberty and
         pursuit of
• The majority of the document
  is a list of grievances
  against King George III
Declaration of Independence

• Beginning with, “
  ….. are endowed by their
  creator with certain
  unalienable rights..” and
  “…all men are created equal.”
• It was approved July 4, 1776
Declaration of Independence

• By signing the Declaration of
  Independence, the signers
  were committing treason,
  punishable by death should
  America lose the war.
• John Hancock – wealthy
• John Adams – 2nd President of
• Samuel Adams - attorney
• Elbridge Gerry – VP under James
  Madison (gerrymandering)
   Loyalists and Patriots
• Many Americans remained
  loyal to the king.
• Some served in official
  positions under the king
• Patriots saw economic
  opportunity as independent
  American citizens
  Loyalists and Patriots

• Loyalists
  were tarred
  Loyalists and Patriots

• Quakers, being
  pacifists, did
  not join either
   Chapter 4
   Section 3

• British      • Colonists

• British   • Colonists
           The War
• British soldiers devised a plan
  to return through New York,
  a loyalist stronghold
• From there, they could go
  north and divide America in
   The War in New York
• The British had the colonists
  in NY outnumbered and out-
• The Redcoats pushed the
  Americans back into New
WAR 1776-1777
      The War in Trenton

• Britain‟s mercenaries,
  Hessians, celebrated the
  Christmas season by
  drinking, and drinking and
• They were drunk and
          The War in Trenton
 • Washington planned a
   surprise attack
 • Crossing the Delaware
   before a storm, Americans
   defeated the Hessians
Emmanuel Leutze's 1851

  This painting is not true
and was completed about
  75 years after the day it
     Victory at Saratoga
• The Plan: 3 British
  generals would converge on
  Saratoga, defeat the
  Americans and divide the
  colonies for the ultimate
  demise of the uprising
     Victory at Saratoga
• The Reality: 1 British general
  (Howe) went to Philadelphia,
  avoiding Saratoga
• 1 British general (St. Leger)
  was held up in western NY
• 1 British general (Burgoyne)
  traveled like a „gentleman‟
       Gen. Burgoyne
• “Gentleman Johnny” came
  from Canada with wagons of
  personal items, slowing the
  troops so much that food
  rations were running low
• Without the other armies, his
  defeat was inevitable.
• France becomes our ally
         Valley Forge
• During the winter of 1776-77
  both sides rested
• The Redcoats stayed in warm
  homes in Philadelphia
• Americans camped with little
  clothing and food – 2000 died
     American Economy
• Without gold currency,
  Americans printed paper
• Too much paper money caused
  prices to rise (inflation)
• Some officials began
  profiteering – selling goods for
  personal profit
     Women in the War
• Managed farms and businesses
• Helped with war effort by
  sewing, cooking, nursing, etc
• Some followed their husbands
  into battle and assisted
• Some dressed as men and
  became soldiers
• Some were spies
      Blacks in the War
• African-Americans were
  offered freedom for joining
  the British army.
• The Continental Army had no
  choice but offer the same
• It was problematic for
  southern slave owners.
   Chapter 4
   Section 4
           Allies Help
• While spending a frigid winter
  at Valley Forge, a Prussian
  military leader, Friedrich von
  Steuben, began training the
  American militia into the
  American Army.
• Thadeus Kosciusko
  of Hungary
  assisted Gen.
     Benedict Arnold
• Arnold was a heavy gambler
  and had much debt
• He wanted more recognition
  for his leadership abilities and
  higher rank (pay raise)
• After being found guilty of
  misusing public funds, Arnold
  sided with the British
     Benedict Arnold
• Arnold agreed to allow the
  British to take West Point, a
  fort north of New York City
• His plan was discovered before
  he was able to complete the
• He escaped to London, where
  he died.
     Britain in the South
• Britain changed strategy
  after their loss at Saratoga
  and decided to attack the
  South, where they expected
  opposition to be weak
• They were wrong again
        Allies Help

• Frenchman, Marquis de
  Lafayette, joined
  Washington‟s troops in Valley
• He will assist the American
  Army for the duration of the
    Britain in the South

• Britain was only able to take
  two towns on the coast.
• As they moved inland, they
  ran low on supplies and faced
  devastating losses.
    Morgan’s Rifles
• Crack shot soldiers (Morgan‟s
  Rifles) under Daniel Morgan
  led Tarleton‟s troops to
  Cowpens, SC.
• Although outnumbered,
  Morgan defeated the British
          WAR 1778-1781
War 1778-1781
    Nathanael Greene

• Greene faced Cornwallis at
  Guilford Court House, NC
• Greene lost the battle but
  the British lost almost 25% of
  their men, 400 wounded and
  26 missing
   Britain in the South

• After 2 losses in SC,
  Cornwallis headed north.
• Needing supplies, he had to
  return to the coast before
  heading to Virginia
      Britain in the South

• Cornwallis
  headed for
  VA for
  supplies and
     Britain in the South

• French and American
  troops trapped Cornwallis
  at Yorktown
• The French Navy
  blockaded British relief
  from entering the harbor
   Britain in the South

• Cornwallis had no choice but
  to surrender.
• But he sent an underling to
  do the „dirty‟ work
• His band played, “The World
  Turned Upside Down”
  Independent at Last

• Refusing to outfit another
  army, Britain surrendered
• After 6½ years, the war
  was over
      Peace of Paris

• France had asked America to
  not make any agreements with
  Britain until they had ended
  their war with them and
• Americas met with Britain
     Peace of Paris

• Room was left to add in the
  British delegates, but they
  refused to sit for the
Peace of Paris - Results

• America received
  – Independence
  – England‟s land claims south
    of the Great Lakes and
    west to the Mississippi
Peace of Paris - Results

• Spain received –
  – Return of Florida
• France received –
  – Less restrictions in European
    Impact on America

• After all social classes fought
  for and received independence,
  all people perceive themselves
  as equal
• The rise of egalitarianism,
  equity for all, was an
  American virtue
   Impact on America
• White men made strides in
  the 1780s
• The seeds for equality for
  women and minorities will be
  planted during this decade,
  but it will be many more
  years before any progress
   Governing America
• The Second Continental
  Congress served as the
  American government during
  the war years
• America needs a permanent
  government to take care of
  its new problems of debt,
  slavery, currency, trade……..
   Governing America
• Americans do not know what
  kind of government they
  want, only that they do not
  want a king or any branch
  which has too much power
• They will use the ideas of
  John Locke again when