INDEPENDENCE__

Document Sample
INDEPENDENCE__ Powered By Docstoc
					INDEPENDENCE!!

    Chapter 4
       Stamp Act
• George Grenville, King George‟s
  Prime Minister, was tasked
  with raising money to replenish
  a nearly empty British
  treasury.
• The British were already taxed
  to the max to pay for almost
  100 years of British wars.
    Stamp Act -
        1765
• Grenville persuaded
  Parliament to pass the Stamp
  Act.
• This stamp proved that a tax
  was paid on most paper
  goods: wills, deeds, legal
  papers, newspapers, etc.
      Stamp Act
• When the Act would go into
  effect, violators would be
  tried in vice-admiralty courts
• Colonists were furious that
  Parliament passed a
  tax on the colonists
  that was not approved
  in America
     Stamp Act
• The Sons of Liberty
  and other patriots
  resisted the Act. Patrick Henry
  sent the king the Virginia
  Resolves – only Virginians could
  be taxed by their assembly
     Stamp Act
     Congress
• Representatives
  issued a Declaration of Rights
  and Grievances, Parliament did
  not have the right to tax people
  that did not have the right to
  vote them into their position
  Stamp Act
  Congress
• Colonists
  boycotted British
  goods and
  harassed the tax
  collectors

      Political Cartoon
       by Paul Revere
  Stamp Act Repealed - 1766
• In March 1766, Parliament
  backed down and repealed this
  direct tax
• The same day, however, they
  passed the Declaratory Act,
  which gave Parliament the
  authority to “bind the colonies
  and people of America…in all
  cases whatsoever.”
 Townshend Acts - 1767
• Under the Declaratory Act,
  Parliament passed the
  Townshend Acts.
• An indirect tax, it levied
  taxes on paint, glass, lead,
  paper and tea.
Townshend Acts - 1767
• Colonists boycotted
  British goods again.
• The Daughters of Liberty found
  ways to make home-made goods
  rather than buy imports
• „Tea‟ was made from
  other sources
     Townshend Acts
• In 1768, British customs
  officers seized the ship, Liberty,
  owned by John Hancock
• They charged him with smuggling
  wine without paying taxes
• The British ordered troops to
  MA to put down the colonial riots
   Boston Massacre
• The “redcoats” stayed in Boston
  enraging the people of MA
• They took jobs because they
  could work for less money
• They lived in private homes
  where the owners
  had to supply them
  with food                   and
  drink
Boston Massacre - 1770
• On a snowing March day, a
  group of rowdy young men began
  taunting and throwing snowballs
  (filled with rocks) at the
  soldiers.
• When they began closing in on
  them, the soldiers
  fired,
  killing 5
 Boston Massacre - 1770
• News of
  the
  “massacre”
  was
  published
  throughout
  the colonies
  in print and
  pictures
          1770-1772
• Britain relaxed some of the
  restrictions and boycotts eased
  but tension remained.
• The Committees of
  Correspondence was the first
  communication link between
  colonies.
   Boston Tea Party - 1773
• Prime Minister North needed to
  keep the British East India Tea
  Company solvent
• He authorized the company to sell
  tea to the colonies directly,
  circumventing the colonial tea
  merchants
Boston Tea Party - 1773
 • The price of tea was
   lowered to assist the East
   India Company, on the back
   of colonial trade
Boston Tea Party - 1773
• To prevent the tea from being
  off-loaded in Boston,
  colonists dumped the 342
  chests of tea into the harbor.
• Any that floated, were
  punctured and sunk
     Britain Reacts
• King George III
  urged Parliament
  to pass a series
  of acts, the
  Coercive Acts
• Colonists called
  them the
  Intolerable Acts
     Intolerable Acts
• 1. Close Boston harbor until
  the tea paid for
  – Put sailors, dock workers etc
    out of work
  – Cut Boston off from needed
    food and supplies
   Intolerable Acts


• 2. Quartering Act made
  colonists house additional
  British soldiers in Boston,
  putting citizens under martial
  law
   Intolerable Acts
• 3. General Gage
  appointed new royal
  governor of MA
• 4. Required all British officials
  accused of committing a crime
  to be tried in Britain
     Colonies Unite
• At the same time, Parliament
  passed the Quebec Act which
  took control of Quebec from
  MA
• The Committees of
  Correspondence agreed to meet
• The First Continental Congress
  met in Philadelphia in
  September 1774
 Effects of Coercive Acts
• Unified the colonies to work
  together
• Unified the colonies to assist
  Boston
• Unified the colonies to urge
  Parliament to relax their
  interference in colonial affairs
Lexington and Concord
• The First Continental Congress
  urged colonies to get ready for
  military action
• Minutemen began stockpiling
  guns, balls and gunpowder
• Gen. Gage heard about these
  activities and decided to act.
The British are Coming???
• Colonist knew that the British
  were going to march about 15
  miles west of Boston towards
  the stockpiles of ammunition in
  Concord
• They did not know the route and
  used the steeple in the Old
  North Church to relay
  the information
The Regulars are Coming

 • “One if by land, two
   if by sea…”
 • Paul Revere, William
   Dawes and Samuel Prescott
   were waiting on the opposite
   side of the Charles River to
   spread the word that
   soldiers were on their way.
     The Regulars are
         Coming
• Prescott was the only one that
  made it all the way to
  Concord, but the minutemen
  were ready
    Shot Heard ‘Round the
           World
• April 19, 1775
• 70 minutemen lined
  up on the common
  in Lexington
• They refused to leave
• Someone fired – 15 minutes
  later, 8 minutemen were
  killed and 10 injured
     Shot Heard ‘Round the
            World
• When the soldiers got to
  Concord, between 3,000 and
  4,000 minutemen were waiting
• The patriots did not wear red
  coats or line up in formation.
• They fired on the
  troops from behind
  fences and trees.
   Shot Heard ‘Round the
          World
• Totally disorganized, British
  troops ran back to the
  safety of Boston
• They were shot at the entire
  way
     Comments from that
          day…
• John Adams, “This is a
  glorious day for America.”

• King George III (from his
  diary) “Nothing of
  importance happened today.”
INDEPENDENCE
   Chapter 4
   Section 2
  Second Continental Congress
• After the battles in Lexington
  and Concord in April, delegates
  from all 13 colonies meet in
  Philadelphia
• Both sides prepare
  for war but not all
  colonists favored war
   Second Continental Congress

• One of their
  first decisions
  was selecting a
  military
  commander
• George
  Washington was
  chosen
    Battle of Bunker Hill

• Just across the
  water from Boston
  were the elevated
  areas of Bunker
  and Breed‟s Hills.
• The British, in their red,
  wool uniforms marched in
  formation, sweating in the
  June heat.
    Battle of Bunker Hill
• The patriots held the hill, under
  the instructions, “Don‟t fire
  until you see the whites of their
  eyes” to save precious
  ammunition.
• By the 3rd British
  assault the
  patriots ran out
  of ammo and
  retreated.
     Battle of Bunker Hill
• Whoever takes the land, wins
  the battle.
• Under this logic,
  the British won
• In terms of
  soldiers lost, over
  1,000
  British soldiers were killed to
  only about 450 patriots
Olive Branch Petition
• Many Americans still wanted
  peace with Britain
• The Second Continental
  Congress sent a petition for
  peace
• King George III
  rejected it
• The war went
  on
       Common Sense

• Thomas Paine, a
  recent emigrant from
  England, wanted
  Americans to
  begin thinking about
  fighting a war for
  independence from
  England, not just
  additional freedoms
      Common Sense
• Common Sense was a 50
  page pamphlet explaining
  the reasons America
  should achieve
  independence
• 50,000 copies were
  distributed
Declaration of Independence
       • The following year,
         1776, the Continental
         Congress asked each
         colony to write their
         own constitutions.
       • Thomas Jefferson
         wrote the Declaration
         of Independence
 Declaration of Independence
       –Jefferson took some ideas
         from John Locke‟s natural
         rights of life, liberty and
         pursuit of
         property/happiness
• The majority of the document
  is a list of grievances
  against King George III
Declaration of Independence


• Beginning with, “
  ….. are endowed by their
  creator with certain
  unalienable rights..” and
  “…all men are created equal.”
• It was approved July 4, 1776
Declaration of Independence

• By signing the Declaration of
  Independence, the signers
  were committing treason,
  punishable by death should
  America lose the war.
            Signers
• John Hancock – wealthy
  merchant
• John Adams – 2nd President of
  US
• Samuel Adams - attorney
• Elbridge Gerry – VP under James
  Madison (gerrymandering)
   Loyalists and Patriots
• Many Americans remained
  loyal to the king.
• Some served in official
  positions under the king
• Patriots saw economic
  opportunity as independent
  American citizens
  Loyalists and Patriots

• Loyalists
  were tarred
  and
  feathered
  Loyalists and Patriots

• Quakers, being
  pacifists, did
  not join either
  side
INDEPENDENCE
      !!
   Chapter 4
   Section 3
        Strengths

• British      • Colonists
     Weaknesses

• British   • Colonists
           The War
• British soldiers devised a plan
  to return through New York,
  a loyalist stronghold
• From there, they could go
  north and divide America in
  two.
   The War in New York
• The British had the colonists
  in NY outnumbered and out-
  powered.
• The Redcoats pushed the
  Americans back into New
  Jersey
WAR 1776-1777
      The War in Trenton

• Britain‟s mercenaries,
  Hessians, celebrated the
  Christmas season by
  drinking, and drinking and
  drinking
• They were drunk and
  hungover
          The War in Trenton
 • Washington planned a
   surprise attack
 • Crossing the Delaware
   before a storm, Americans
   defeated the Hessians
Emmanuel Leutze's 1851

  This painting is not true
and was completed about
  75 years after the day it
                 occurred.
     Victory at Saratoga
• The Plan: 3 British
  generals would converge on
  Saratoga, defeat the
  Americans and divide the
  colonies for the ultimate
  demise of the uprising
     Victory at Saratoga
• The Reality: 1 British general
  (Howe) went to Philadelphia,
  avoiding Saratoga
• 1 British general (St. Leger)
  was held up in western NY
• 1 British general (Burgoyne)
  traveled like a „gentleman‟
       Gen. Burgoyne
• “Gentleman Johnny” came
  from Canada with wagons of
  personal items, slowing the
  troops so much that food
  rations were running low
• Without the other armies, his
  defeat was inevitable.
• France becomes our ally
         Valley Forge
• During the winter of 1776-77
  both sides rested
• The Redcoats stayed in warm
  homes in Philadelphia
• Americans camped with little
  clothing and food – 2000 died
     American Economy
• Without gold currency,
  Americans printed paper
  currency.
• Too much paper money caused
  prices to rise (inflation)
• Some officials began
  profiteering – selling goods for
  personal profit
     Women in the War
• Managed farms and businesses
• Helped with war effort by
  sewing, cooking, nursing, etc
• Some followed their husbands
  into battle and assisted
• Some dressed as men and
  became soldiers
• Some were spies
      Blacks in the War
• African-Americans were
  offered freedom for joining
  the British army.
• The Continental Army had no
  choice but offer the same
• It was problematic for
  southern slave owners.
INDEPENDENCE
      !!
   Chapter 4
   Section 4
           Allies Help
• While spending a frigid winter
  at Valley Forge, a Prussian
  military leader, Friedrich von
  Steuben, began training the
  American militia into the
  American Army.
• Thadeus Kosciusko
  of Hungary
  assisted Gen.
  Washington
     Benedict Arnold
• Arnold was a heavy gambler
  and had much debt
• He wanted more recognition
  for his leadership abilities and
  higher rank (pay raise)
• After being found guilty of
  misusing public funds, Arnold
  sided with the British
     Benedict Arnold
• Arnold agreed to allow the
  British to take West Point, a
  fort north of New York City
• His plan was discovered before
  he was able to complete the
  task.
• He escaped to London, where
  he died.
     Britain in the South
• Britain changed strategy
  after their loss at Saratoga
  and decided to attack the
  South, where they expected
  opposition to be weak
• They were wrong again
        Allies Help

• Frenchman, Marquis de
  Lafayette, joined
  Washington‟s troops in Valley
  Forge
• He will assist the American
  Army for the duration of the
  war.
    Britain in the South

• Britain was only able to take
  two towns on the coast.
• As they moved inland, they
  ran low on supplies and faced
  devastating losses.
    Morgan’s Rifles
• Crack shot soldiers (Morgan‟s
  Rifles) under Daniel Morgan
  led Tarleton‟s troops to
  Cowpens, SC.
• Although outnumbered,
  Morgan defeated the British
          WAR 1778-1781
War 1778-1781
    Nathanael Greene

• Greene faced Cornwallis at
  Guilford Court House, NC
• Greene lost the battle but
  the British lost almost 25% of
  their men, 400 wounded and
  26 missing
   Britain in the South

• After 2 losses in SC,
  Cornwallis headed north.
• Needing supplies, he had to
  return to the coast before
  heading to Virginia
      Britain in the South

• Cornwallis
  headed for
  Yorktown,
  VA for
  needed
  supplies and
  replacement
  soldiers
     Britain in the South

• French and American
  troops trapped Cornwallis
  at Yorktown
• The French Navy
  blockaded British relief
  from entering the harbor
   Britain in the South

• Cornwallis had no choice but
  to surrender.
• But he sent an underling to
  do the „dirty‟ work
• His band played, “The World
  Turned Upside Down”
  Independent at Last

• Refusing to outfit another
  army, Britain surrendered
• After 6½ years, the war
  was over
      Peace of Paris

• France had asked America to
  not make any agreements with
  Britain until they had ended
  their war with them and
  Spain.
• Americas met with Britain
  independently.
     Peace of Paris

• Room was left to add in the
  British delegates, but they
  refused to sit for the
  portrait
Peace of Paris - Results

• America received
  – Independence
  – England‟s land claims south
    of the Great Lakes and
    west to the Mississippi
Peace of Paris - Results

• Spain received –
  – Return of Florida
• France received –
  – Less restrictions in European
    trade
    Impact on America

• After all social classes fought
  for and received independence,
  all people perceive themselves
  as equal
• The rise of egalitarianism,
  equity for all, was an
  American virtue
   Impact on America
• White men made strides in
  the 1780s
• The seeds for equality for
  women and minorities will be
  planted during this decade,
  but it will be many more
  years before any progress
  occurs
   Governing America
• The Second Continental
  Congress served as the
  American government during
  the war years
• America needs a permanent
  government to take care of
  its new problems of debt,
  slavery, currency, trade……..
   Governing America
• Americans do not know what
  kind of government they
  want, only that they do not
  want a king or any branch
  which has too much power
• They will use the ideas of
  John Locke again when
  planning