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                                       Unit One Book Two



                                 Unit One          Time-Conscious Americans

           Time Allotment: (4.5 periods)
           Section A language points (3 periods)
           Exercises and writing (1.5 period )


           Teaching Aims: The teaching of this text aims to enable students
           1. to master the new words and useful phrases;
           2. to learn about how Americans value time and culture differences between countries;
           3. to get acquainted with skills of starting a paragraph with a general statement that is supported by
             specific details;
           4. to get acquainted with skills of reading for main ideas;
           5. to practice what has been learned.


           I. Background Information
           1. The Definition of Culture
                Culture is a very broad term used to describe the arts, the beliefs, the values, the traditions, the
           customs, and the institutions that are considered to be the characteristic of a community, a people, a
           region, or a nation. Culture also includes the languages and dialects that people use to express their
           feelings and to communicate with each other. It is often difficult to dissociate language and culture
           since, in most cases, language is the main medium through which culture is transmitted. Most people
           feel that it is impossible to really know a culture without speaking the language. In some immigrant
           populations in North America, however, the original language (French, German, Chinese, Polish, etc. )
           has been lost but customs and traditions are still maintained.
           2. Cultural Difference
                What we perceive as a different culture varies as we grow. The more experience that a person has
           with one culture helps him understand another culture and think of them as not so different from his
           own. If some person lived with an American, for example, he might not think of their culture as new
           and different if he were to travel to the United States for a while. But, If a person didn't know anything
           about this different culture, he might think that going to this place would be an exotic adventure into
           the unknown.
           3. Cultural Conflicts
                Each nation has its own conventions. Different nations have different cultures. When two
           cultures clash, communication problems may occur. Some people with ethnocentric attitudes think it



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                                              Unit One Book Two



is the others’ responsibility to understand their own culture. In fact, knowing and understanding the
other’s culture is the responsibility of both sides. Both sides must work at rising above cultural
differences and be willing to compromise. but in both cases, most likely neither side has access to the
cultural conventions of the other. So educating rather than complaining and blaming is the best
solution to cultural conflicts.
4. Time Orientated Culture
     Past-orientated cultures believe strongly in the significance of prior events. History, established
religions, and tradition are extremely important to these cultures, so there is a strong belief that the
past should be the guide for making decisions and determining truth. We see this orientation in China,
which because of its long and splendid history countries to respect the past. Present-orientated cultures
hold that the moment has the most significance. For them, the future is vague, ambiguous, and
unknown and what is real exists in the here and now. Future-orientated cultures, such as the one found
in the United States, emphasize the future and expect it to be grander and nicer than the present.


II. Warm-up Questions
1. What are the two elements that Americans save carefully?
  The key answers are “time” and “labor”.
2. Why is time so important for the Americans?
  The key answers are because Americans believe no one stands still; if you are not moving ahead,
  you are falling behind.
3. How do the Americans treat time?
  The key answers are time is treated as if it were something almost real; they budget it, save it, waste
  it, steal it, kill it, cut it, account for it, also charge for it; time is a precious resource; they want every
  minute to count.


III. Text Structure Analysis
1. Outline of the Text
Part I
Introduction: American save two things, time and labor. (Para.1)
Question: What results in a nation of people committed to researching, experimenting and exploring?
Part II
Body: The ways of American saving time. (Paras. 2-7)
Questions:
1.What is the attitude of Americans towards time? And why?




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                                              Unit One Book Two



2. What is a foreigner’s first impression of the U.S. likely to be? And how do city people appear in the
  writer’s eyes?
3. What is the writer’s advice if you “miss smiles, brief conversations, small exchanges with
  strangers?” And why?
4. What examples does the writer give to show that Americans work hard at the task of saving time?
  And how do Americans view the impersonality of electronic communication?
5. Do you think it is right to get work done faster through electric devices?
Part III
Conclusion: The foreigners have different ideas from those of American. (Para.8)

2. Summary of the Text
     This passage shows the way of Americans regarding time. Americans are famous for their
time-consciousness. His/her belief is that no one stands still. No moving ahead means falling behind.
This results in a country that people of it devote themselves into researching, experimenting and
exploring. Time is the most important thing for Americans lives.
     On one hand, Americans try their best to save up time by different ways. They are in hurry to get
their destination, push the others in order to finish their shopping quickly. Racing through daytime
meals is part of the pace of life in America. People make full use of modern ways to communicate
with each other efficiently.
     On the other hand, people miss the relaxed way of living. They like the opening exchanges of a
business call. They miss the ritual interaction that is suitable for a welcoming cup of tea or coffee. The
people coming from different cultures have different ideas from those of American.


IV. New Words and Phrases
1. …no one stands still. (Para. 1)
    stand: v. keep or stay in a particular position or state
              For this sense, “stand” is followed by adjectives or adjective-like phrase and used as a
              linking verb.
               Stand firm—don’t let them tell you what to do.
               The old school still stands.
               How do things stand at the moment?
               They stood ready for battle.
    still: adj. not moving, motionless, calm, quiet
               The sea was calm and still.
               Keep still while I comb your hair.
               Still waters run deep.



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                                             Unit One Book Two



2. This attitude results in a nation of people committed to researching, experimenting and
    exploring. (Para. 1)
    result in: have as a result;
               His efforts resulted in failure.
               I hope it doesn’t result in tears!
               The accident resulted in the death of two people.
               syn.: cause; lead to; bring about; give rise to; achieve
    compare with the phrase of “result from”: be caused by
               Nothing has resulted from his efforts.
               What results from your interview?
    be committed to: be engaged in
               I am determined to be committed to the course of education.
3. Time is one of the two elements that Americans save carefully, the other being labor. (Para. 1)
    Notice here in this sentence we have a special type of adverbial clause: “ the other being labor”.
    The structure is: subject + v-ing /v-ed. This type of clause can also be put at the beginning of the
    whole sentence.
         独立主格结构小结:
         1) 逻辑主语+v-ing:
           Thorpe breezed through both events, his dark hair flopping, his smile flashing, his muscled
           body gliding along the track.
         2) 逻辑主语+v.- ed
           After a11,eighty was a special birthday, another decade lived Or endured just as you
           Chose to look at.
         3) 逻辑主语+to do sth.
           Here are the first two volumes,the third one to come out next month.
         4) 逻辑主语十 adj.
           She told the others,and soon all of them were in it,caught up in the approach of
           Brunswick, looking at the pictures Vingo showed them “his wife and three children—the
           woman handsome in a plain way, the children still uniformed in the much—handled
           snapshot.
         5) 逻辑主语+adv.
          1 went around to the front Of the house, sat down On the steps, and, the crying over, I
           ached.
         6) 逻辑主语+prep. phrase



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                                           Unit One Book Two



            Following them to the attic, she found a wounded Union soldier, with 3 rifles at his side.
4. We are slaves to nothing but the clock. (Para. 2)
    slave to/of sth. : a person who is completely influenced or dominated by something.
               a slave to drink /money/smoke
               slaves of fashion
    nothing but: only
               Don’t worry for my illness; what I need is nothing but a few days’ rest.
               The report contains nothing but lies.
               Considering the situation, we can do nothing but wait.
               According to the traditional rule, nothing is invariably treated as a singular, even when
               followed by an exception phrase containing a plural noun:
               Nothing but roses meets the eye
5. We budget it… (Para. 2)
     budget: v. to plan in advance the expenditure of:
               He saves a lot of money by careful budgeting.
               Sometimes we can say “budget one’s time”, which means “to arrange one’s time
               carefully”.
               As college students we should budget our time wisely.
               budget for: to plan to save enough money for
               He budgeted for the coming year/for a holiday/for (buying) a new house.
               The government budgeted for paying 50 new roads this year.
            n. 1) a plan of how to spend money
               a family/weekly/government budget
               2) the quantity of money stated in the plan
               a budget of $ 1,000
            adj.: appropriate to a budget; inexpensive; cheap:
               a budget car/dress
               budget meals
               Enjoy our budget prices now!
6. kill it… (Para. 2): kill time
    kill time: make time pass quickly by finding something to do; to pass (time) in aimless activity; to
              make free time pass by finding something to do
              While waiting for the train he killed time by going for a walk.
              He went shopping to kill a couple of hours.
7. account for it… (Para. 2)
    account for: 1) to give an explanation or reason for


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                                           Unit One Book Two



              He could not account for his foolish mistakes.
              How do you account for all the accidents in series?
                 2) to be the cause or origin of
              North Seal oil account for a high proportion of our trade.
    on account of: because of
    take into account: to take into consideration; allow for.
    on no account: by no means, in no case. Under/in no circumstances
8. We also charge for it. (Para. 2)
    charge for: ask in payment for
              How much did he charge you for repairing the bicycle?
              Do you charge for the use of the office telephone at off-duty time?
9. … a rather acute sense of … (Para. 2)
    acute: a. 1) (of the mind or the senses) able to notice small differences, as of meaning or sound;
                working very well; sharp
              Dogs have an acute sense of smell.
              She still has very acute hearing, though she is eighty years old.
              syn.: sharp, penetrating, quick, smart, subtle
              2) severe; strong; deep
              acute pain
              There was an acute lack of food.
             3) (of a disease) coming quickly to a dangerous condition
              SARS: Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome
              Antonym: chronic
    sense: appreciation or understanding of; consciousness of
              a sense of humor is a great quality of a person.
              A sense of sight (hearing, smell, taste, touch)
              a sense of duty
              the sense of place (direction)
              be lost (or: dead) to all sense of shame
10. … have run out of a person’s hourglass, … (Para. 2)
    run out of: 1) (of a person) to use all one’s supply of; have no more of
              We’re running out of time.
              I’m running out of patience.
              Syn.: use up
                 2)(of liquid or something like liquid)flow out of




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                                            Unit One Book Two



              Many rivers run out of the Himalayas.
    compare: run out of     run out     use up
              Our food soon ran out.
              We soon ran out of our food.
              Our food was soon used up.
              We soon ran out of our food.
11. … they cannot be replaced. (Para. 2)
    replace: vt. 1) put something back where it was before
              When you have finished using the axe, please replace it.
              Replace the book on the shelf.
                2) take the place of
              replace coal by /with gas
              Can anything replace a mother's love and care?
12. We want every minute to count. (Para. 2)
    count: to have a specified importance or value:
              Their opinions count for little.
              Every second counts.
13. …restlessly seeking attention in a store, or elbowing others… (Para. 3)
    elbow: vt. push others out of the way using elbows
              She elbowed her way through the crowd.
              He elbowed me out of the way.
14. Racing through daytime meals… (Para. 3)
    race through: do something in a hurry
              The child raced through his homework in order to watch the football match on TV.
15. You also find drivers will be abrupt… (Para. 3)
    abrupt: a. 1) (of behavior) rough
              an abrupt manner/ attitude
               2) sudden and unexpected
              an abrupt change in the weather
16. You will miss smiles, brief conversations, and small exchanges with strangers. (Para. 3)
    brief: concise
              He gave a brief account of the incident.
              His remarks were brief and to the point.
              (To) be brief (with you), I disagree.
    in brief: in as few words as possible
              In brief he says 'No'


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                                              Unit One Book Two



17. Don’t take it personally. (Para. 3)
    take … personally: If you take someone’s remarks personally, you are upset because you think
                            that they are being critical about you in particular.
                             You mustn’t take her negative comments of your plan personally.
18. They will miss the ritual interaction … (Para. 4)
    ritual: 1) n. one or more ceremonies or customary acts which are often repeated in the same form
                 She went through the ritual of warming the teapot before she put the tea in.
           2) adj. of or done regularly followed in exactly the same way each time
                 Every day the work begins with the ritual phrases of greeting.
    interaction: communication
                 informal interactions among adults
19. American don’t assess their visitors in such relaxed surroundings over extended small talk…(Para.
     4)
     assess: to calculate or decide the value or amount of: to judge the quality, importance, or worth
            of
                 Be careful to assess the speech at its true worth.
                 Damages in the blood were assessed at 10% million.
                 syn: appraise , evaluate, estimate, value
     extended: lasting for a long period of time(Para. 4)
                 The child has received formal education over an extended period.
20. … much less… (Para. 4)
    much less: not to mention; and even less likely
                 I can hardly walk, much less run.
                 “I didn't even see him, much less speak to him.”
21. Since we generally assess and probe professionally rather than socially, we start talking
    business very quickly. (Para. 4)
    probe: v. examine closely; investigate.
                 (Sometimes this verb can be used intransitively and then the preposition “into” is
                 needed. The use of the preposition is by choice.)
                 She tried to probe (into) my mind and discover what I was thinking.
                 probe a matter to the bottom
                 syn.: examine, explore, investigate
     compare: rather than other than
     rather than:in preference to (sb./sth.);instead of
                 Nuclear science should be developed to benefit the people rather than harm them.




                                                       8
                                            Unit One Book Two



                Rather than cause trouble,he left.
     other than:(esp. after a negative)except; different from; not
                He never speak to me other than to ask for something.
                I have never known his behave other than selfishly.
22. Consequently, we work hard at the task of saving time. (Para. 5)
    consequently: adv. as a result, so
                Mr. Foster has never been to China. Consequently / Hence he knows very little about it.
23. … especially given our traffic-filled streets. (Para. 5)
     given: 1) prep. conj. taking into account
                Given their inexperience, they’ve done a good job.
                Given that they are inexperienced, they’ve done a good job.
             2) adj. fixed for a purpose and stated as such
                The work must be done within the given time.
24. we, therefore, save most personal visiting for after-work hours or for social weekend gatherings.
    (Para. 5)
    save … for: keep something for future use, not use up something
                The young couple have already saved ample money for the summer vocation.
25. … the matter at hand. (Para. 6)
    at hand: 1) near in time
                The great day is at hand.
                2) under discussion or being considered
                Her question was not related to the matter at hand.
                3) near in place
                I still have some money at hand.
    Apart from “at hand” and “near at hand”, we can also say “close at hand”. All three phrases mean
    exactly the same.
26. In some countries no major business is conducted without eye contact, requiring face-to-face
    conversation. (Para. 6)
    conduct: vt. 1) carry out
                conduct an experiment
                conduct a survey
                conduct one's private affairs
                  2) to serve as a medium for conveying; transmit:
                Some metals conduct heat.
27. … whereas the postal service is less efficient. (Para. 7)



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                                              Unit One Book Two



    whereas: conj. but, in contrast; while
                Some people like fat meat, whereas others hate it.
                They want a house, whereas we would rather live in a flat.
28. Unless a certain amount of time is allowed to elapse, it seems in their eyes as if the task being
    considered were insignificant, not worthy of proper respect. (Para. 8)
    elapse: vi. (fml.) (of time) pass ;slip by
                Weeks elapsed before we could start renovating.
                Five months have elapsed since he joined the army.
29. In the U.S., however, it is taken as a sign of skillfulness or being competent to solve a problem,
    or fulfill a job successfully, with speed. (Para. 8)
    competent: adj. qualified; capable
                I need a competent typist.
                He is competent for the task.
                He is competent as a teacher.
                He is competent to teach English.
    fulfill: vt. 1) do or perform or carry out
                They have fulfilled their promises.
                He has fulfilled the orders that I gave him.
                2) satisfy.
                Does this job fulfill your desire?
30. … in order to “get it moving”.
    get sth. / sb. doing (sth.): make sth. / sb. do sth.
                Can you get the old car going again?
                It’s not hard to get the boy talking; the problem is stopping him.


V. Difficult Sentence Analysis
1. Americans believe no one stands still. (Para. 1)
    --------Americans think that no one should keep motionless, everyone should move and advance.
2. This attitude results in a nation of people committed to researching, experimenting and exploring.
    (Para. 1)
    --------As a result of this attitude, Americans tend to devote their time and energy to researching,
3. We are slaves to nothing but the clock. (Para. 2)
    --------We are under the control of time only and nothing else.
4. We budget it, save it, waste it, steal it, cut it, account for it; we also charge for it. (Para. 2)
    --------We deal with time in various ways as if time were something of real value.



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                                            Unit One Book Two



5. Many people have a rather acute sense of the shortness of each lifetime. (Para. 2)
    --------Many people have a very strong feeling that life is short (since time is a precious resource.)
6. We want every minute to count. (Para. 2)
    --------We want every minute to be put into good use (since it is precious).
7. …restlessly seeking attention in a store, or elbowing others… (Para. 3)
    -------- …impatiently trying to get service in a store, or pushing others out of the way by using
    their elbows.
8. Racing through daytime meals is part of the pace of life in this country. (Para. 3)
    --------To eat their meals hurriedly during the day is part of Americans’ fast pace of life.
9. You will miss smiles, brief conversations, and small exchanges with strangers. (Para. 3)
    --------Smiles, short conversations, and small exchanges with strangers may be common in daily
    life in your own country, but not in the United States. So if you visit this country you will feel sad
    because you will no longer experience or have them.
10. Don’t take it personally. (Para. 3)
    --------Don’t let it upset yourself because they are treating everybody this way or because they are
    not doing this to you in particular.
11. Many new arrivals to the States will miss the opening exchanges of a business call,…(Para. 4)
    --------Many newcomers to the United States will be sad to find that there is no polite
    communication at the beginning of their business visit like that found back in their own country.
12. They will miss the ritual interaction that goes with a welcoming cup of tea or coffee that may be a
    convention in their own country. (Para. 4)
    -------- They will be sad because they will not have the usual exchanges (with the person who
    invited you) that go with a welcoming cup of tea or coffee. These usual exchanges may be a
    common and regular practice on similar occasions in their country.
13. Normally, Americans do not assess their visitors in such relaxed surroundings over extended
    small talk; … (Para. 4)
    --------Usually Americans do not judge or evaluate their visitors in a restaurant or coffee house
    which are considered relaxed places through long, light conversations; …
14. Since we generally assess and probe professionally rather than socially, we start talking business
    very quickly. (Para. 4)
    --------Since we in most cases evaluate our visitors and ask them questions from a professional
    point of view instead of a social one, we start talking what is our concern very quickly (and there
    is no need in our eyes to spend time on small talk and the like).
15. Time is, therefore, always ticking in our inner ear. (Para. 4)
    --------So we are always aware of the fact that time is precious and time is flying.
16. We produce a steady flow of labor-saving devices; … (Para. 5)


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                                            Unit One Book Two



    --------The things we produce for particular purposes are like a continuous river and they can help
    reduce the amount of effort needed; …
17. …especially given our traffic-filled streets. (Para. 5)
    --------…especially when we take into account our busy streets that are often full of traffic.
18. We, therefore, save most personal visiting for after-work hours or for social weekend gatherings.
    (Para. 5)
    --------So, if we want to pay or receive a personal visit, we can do it after work or on the weekend
    when there is a social gathering.
19. Assignments are, consequently, felt to be given added weight by the passage of time. (Para. 8)
    --------As a result, people feel that assignments are gaining additional importance with the passing
    of time.
20. In the U.S., however, it is taken as a sign of skillfulness or being competent to solve a problem, or
    fulfill a job successfully, with speed. (Para. 8)
    -------- In the U.S., however, if you can solve a problem or do a job quickly, you will be
    considered as a person having skill or ability.


VI. Writing
Structured Writing: Write a paragraph by supporting a general statement by specific details.
     Supporting a general statement by specific details makes a general statement specific and easy to
understand. Specific details can be an illustration, a case or explanations. Vivid illustrations light up
abstract ideas and make them clear, interesting, memorable and convincing.


The typical words and phrases used to introduce details:
for example, for instance, in particular, take something as a case in point, in most cases, generally
speaking, in general, generally, as a rule, on the whole, most people believe that, in my view, I hold
the view that, etc.


Sample:
     It’s necessary to prevent children from seeing violent films. Particularly in recent years, teenage
criminals have increased alarmingly and this has happened at a time when more hours are being
devoted to TV programs and films which show violent behavior and violent solutions to all kinds of
problems. Generally children are weak in judging right from wrong, and tend to admire film
characters who solve problems by force. Then they apply what they have learned in the film to real
life, which causes harmful effects on society.




                                                        12
                                            Unit One Book Two



VII. Dictation
You may choose one of the following paragraphs, as you like:
Passage 1
                                        The Culture Difference
     A different culture that I have experienced is the Hawaiian culture. When going there, I saw new
and different things that I personally thought were the coolest things I had ever seen. Things like a pig
roasting on an open fire, or the people's idea that sixty-degree weather was cold. These were things
that surprised me when I went there for the first time, but don't surprise me now, since I've been there
a few more times. But when I was first there, everything about their culture seemed totally different
from the culture that I experienced living in the little town of Bellingham, Washington.
     The people in Hawaii dressed in very little clothing, as it was warm eleven out of the twelve
months in the year. The people who lived there were friendly to the tourists for some reason, even
though these tourists were annoying the heck out of them. Everything you saw in the city was
designed with tourists in mind. All the signs telling people the obvious and the millions of gift shops
that lined the streets are just a couple examples of this. But once a person gets down under all of the
tourist attractions and into the real culture, he finds the thousands of years of past that is still hanging
around. You get to understand exactly what the leis were for, where the hula dancers came from, and
why they roast pigs over a fire and then bury them.


Passage 2
                                         Culture Difference
     The first culture difference that many Japanese find in America is their greeting customs.
Although the greeting is one of the simplest human communications, both countries have different
methods of greeting each other. Three differences include introduction, self-introduction, and
departure. In addition, the main reason for the difference is that Americans use verbal greetings and
the Japanese use nonverbal greetings.
     First, the order of introduction in the U.S. is the reverse of the Japanese way. In America,
generally elderly people are introduced first. For example, one of my friends invited me to his house,
and he introduced his father first, then his mother, his older brother, and his young sister. After that he
introduced me to his family. In contrast, the traditional rule is the opposite in Japan. In other words,
young people have to be introduced first in Japan. This rule is the sort of manner in Japan, and the
people who do not follow this regulation are considered rude.
     The methodology of self-introduction varies between America and Japan. Americans prefer the
inductive method that brings out general idea from concrete; therefore, they are apt to talk about their
privacy first. Almost all American students talk about their family or themselves. For instance, a



                                                    13
                                           Unit One Book Two



woman who is a student at St. Cloud State University talked about her Iowa State and her family who
are farmers. Then she said that "The crops are mainly potatoes, and my family likes potatoes." Finally,
she said that her family is a German line. In contrast, Japanese prefer a deductive method. In other
words, Japanese people are likely to talk about where they belong to. For example, the typical
Japanese person first talks about his university or his major, then what kind of club they belong to.
Finally they usually talk about hobbies or an event that happened recently.
     Departures in the American and the Japanese cultures depend on whether people are close or not.
Americans just say "bye." Nevertheless if the conditions differ, this departure changes completely in
America. In fact, one of my American friends gives a hug or kiss to her family when they leave. In
contrast, unlike Americans, who just say "goodbye," generally Japanese make a shallow bow and look
back two or three times with their waving hand. Due to the different farewell, every Japanese person
who is in America is surprised when they get a hug from an American friend, and they feel Americans
are emotional or sentimental. On the contrary, they feel empty and passionless when many Americans
say "bye" and just walk away.


VIII. Homework
1. Do the exercises of Section A.




                                                  14
                                             Unit One Book Two



                                         Section B         Culture Shock


I.Outline of the Text
Part I
Introduction: There are at least four essential stages of culture shock when you are in a different
country. (Para. 1)
Part II
Body: The details of these four stages. (Paras. 2-7)
1. The honey moon stage (Para. 2)
2. The hostility stage (Paras. 3-5)
  Four protective mechanisms: a. repression
                                  b. regression
                                  c. isolation
                                  d. rejection
3. The recovery stage (Para. 6)
4. The adjustment stage (Para. 7)
Part III
Conclusion: Culture shock is helpful to adjust oneself into a different culture.



II.Summary of the Text
     This passage shows the meaning of culture shock when you are in another country, your views
may clash with the different beliefs, norms, values, and traditions that exist in different countries, you
may have difficulty adjusting to a new culture and to those parts of the culture not familiar to yours.
This is culture shock.
     There are at least four essential stages of culture shock adjusting occur from the author’s opinion.
The first stage is “the honey moon” which you feel excitement about everything. The second is
“hostility stage”; in this stage you become tired of many things about the new culture. Also in this
stage you will devise four mechanisms to help you cope and protect yourself against the effects of
culture shock. They are repression, regression, isolation and rejection. The third stage is called
“recovery”. In this stage, you try to develop comprehension of everything you don’t understand. The
last stage is called “adjustment”. In this stage, you have reached a point where you actually feel good
because you have learned enough to understand the new culture.




                                                    15
                                             Unit One Book Two



     Culture shock is something you cannot avoid when living in a foreign country. It will help you to
understand and adjust the new culture.


III.New Words and Phrases
1. fascinating: adj. interesting and able to attract
               People find her points quite fascinating.
               This is a fascinating old city full of very old buildings.
2. clash: vi. disagree seriously, come into argument or non-agreement state
               Their interests clashed with ours.
               People’s feelings sometimes clash with their judgment.
3. marvelous: adj. wonderful; excellent
               He certainly is a marvelous actor.
               It’s marvelous that we can at last buy our own house.
4. hostility: n. strong reaction against; unfriendliness
               I have no hostility towards anyone.
               There is now open hostility between the two countries.
5. distress: vt. (usu. passive) cause great pain or suffering
               The couple was distressed to find that their children had not returned.
             n. 1) great pain, sadness, suffering
               The sick man showed signs of distress.
               2) suffering caused by lack of money
               His company is in funding distress.
               3) a state of danger or great difficulty
               Send out a distress signal; the ship is sinking.
6. devise: vt. create or invent (a plan, method, etc.) by careful thought
               New long-range goals must be devised.
7. mechanism: n. [C] a method for doing sth.
               Drug and alcohol are sometimes used as an escape mechanism.
8. repression: n. a psychological term meaning actively preventing an unwelcome thought from
  conscious awareness
               The repression of your true feelings is harmful to your health.
9. regression: n. [U] a psychological term meaning a return to an earlier stage of development
               The teacher said the regression was a useful psychological term in our class.
10. isolation: n. [U] keeping oneself alone; separating from others




                                                       16
                                               Unit One Book Two



               The writer lived in complete isolation in the country for a year in order to finish his
               book.
11. rejection: n. refusing to accept, consider or use
               He keeps applying for jobs, but is given rejections only.
12. recovery: n. 1) [U] a return to a normal state
               The government’s policies bit by bit led to the country’s economic recovery.
                 2) getting back
               She has a reasonable chance of recovery from the insurance company.
13. symptom: n. [C] 1) a sign of a bad condition or existence
               Calls for important control are a symptom of the country’s present economic problem.
                     2) a change in the body that shows an illness
               The symptom don’t appear until a few days later after you are infected.
14. distinction: n. [C] a special quality or element
               He has the distinction of being regarded as the country’s greatest living writer.
               Tony has the distinction of being the tallest boy in the class.
15. acquisition: n. [U] The acquisition of a skill or a particular type of knowledge is the process of
               learning it or developing it.
               The children progressed quickly in the acquisition of basic skills.
16. alleviate: vt. ease; make sth. less severe
               She alleviated the tiring waiting by counting the cars passing on the street.
               We want to help alleviate their lack of food.
17. furthermore: adv. (fml.) also; in addition to what has been said; moreover
               The house is too small, and, furthermore, it’s too far from the office.
               Roy wants to leave for home; furthermore, he wants to go right now.




                                                       17
                                              Unit One Book Two



                                                 Quiz One
Directions: Each of the following sentences is provided with four choices. Choose the one that
best completes the sentence or that best explains the underlined part.
1. I'm afraid I can't ______ you on the point you've been talking about for so long.
    A. talk with              B. go with            C. agree                 D. match
2. I have no money to spend, ______ you have nothing to spend money on.
    A. whereas                B. whereupon          C. although              D. where
3. Professor Wheelock is a learned scholar, I should say. But I really find it difficult to understand his
  books, _______ his lectures.
    A. much more              B. much less          C. even less             D. still less
4. I didn't even find a chance to talk to him at the dinner party, _____ to discuss your problem with
  him.
    A. much more              B. many more          C. much less             D. more than
5. In discussing the marketing strategy for the coming year, I should like to draw everybody's attention
  to the fact that retailing ______ 68 percent of our profit this year.
    A. charges for            B. results in         C. brings about          D. accounts for
6. ______ the obscure nature of the charge against me, I feel sure that if I had come from a poor
  family and had really been unemployed, there is every chance that I would have been found guilty.
    A. Given that             B. Provided that      C. Given                 D. Provided with
7. I sincerely hope that you will not take my negative remarks about your proposal _______.There is
  nothing personal in my comment.
    A. personally             B. privately          C. in person             D. in private
8. They tried to _______ hard plastic for metals in manufacturing machine parts.
    A. replace                B. substitute         C. take the place of     D. give way to
9. By allowing tax deduction that favors small and medium-sized private enterprises, the government
    hopes to _______ the current crisis in the employment market.
    A. alleviate              B. accelerate         C. strengthen            D. recover
10. Divorce is not necessarily the best solution when a couple learning to ______ each other find
    difficulty in doing so.
     A. cope with             B. go through         C. compete with          D. adjust to
11. I venture to say that the present over-heated economy is nothing but a _______ of the loss of
     control of the government over domestic situation.
     A. symbol                B. sample             C. symptom               D. signal
12. Anything would be ________ to having her with us for the whole week!
     A. advisable             B. preferable         C. desirable             D. favorable



                                                     18
                                             Unit One Book Two



13. Over the past five years, tension has been building up to an open ______ between the two
    countries, and a war seems to be an inevitable result if either of them goes step further.
     A. hostility           B. distinction         C. acquisition              D. hospitality
14. The country’s quick _______ from the effects of the war was partly due to a favor climate of the
     world economy.
     A. recovery            B. discovery           C. consequence              D. isolation
15. He has considerable difficulty even in memorizing facts that are ______ every schoolboy..
     A. familiar with       B. familiar to         C. abundant in              D. compared to
16. Judging from his response to the stress, I don' t think he has fully appreciated the dangerous
     situation he's in.
     A. be thankful to                             B. understand and enjoy
     C. increase in value                          D. understand fully
17. It is not how much you read but what you read that really counts.
     A. be important                               B. consider; regard
     C. say the numbers in order                   D. include
18. To our great amazement, we have been hearing favorable accounts of your work from both your
     colleagues and your subordinates,
     A. giving or showing agreement                B. helpful; advantageous
     C. most liked                                 D. kind and generous
19. Social workers note that the distinctions of birth is less important than they used be.
     A. special element or unique quality          B. difference or contrast
     C. quality of excellence                      D. special mark or honor
20. The ritual household duties is always considered a dreary grind, for efforts in the areas are
     generally not appreciated.
     A. conventional        B. habitual            C. regular                  D. routine
21. There's no comparison between them, one _________ clearly much better than the other.
   A. being                 B. was                 C. be                       D. having been
22. By 1990, Australia had _______ than it had people.
  A. 15 times sheep                                B. 15 times more sheep
  C. 15 more times sheep                           D. 15 times sheep more
23. His success is entirely __________ to hard work.
   A. due                   B. attribute           C. owe                      D. go
24. The court is not ________ hear your case.
   A. competent for         B. competent to        C. capable of               D. able to
25. The train is late, and I can do nothing but _________.
   A. wait                  B. waiting             C. await                    D. to wait


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                                           Unit One Book Two



26. Tim cannot but _________ his supervisor to help him solve the difficulty he has in doing the
    project.
   A. to ask               B. ask                C. asking                D. asked
27. The rain was heavy and ______ the land was folded.
   A. consequently         B. constantly         C. continuously          D. consistently
28. The government has devoted a larger slice of its national _________ to agriculture than most other
    countries.
    A. resources           B. potential          C. budget                D. economy
29. A complete investigation into the causes of the accident should lend to improved standards and
    should ______ new opening procedures.
  A. result in             B. match with         C. subject to            D. proceed with
30. Angles of less than 90 are called ________ angles.
  A. acute                 B. blunt              C. sharp                 D. dull


KEYS: 1-10 BAACD        CABAD       11-20 CBAAB DAABD            21-30 A BABA BACAA




                                                  20
                                           Unit One Book Two



       Unit Two          Environmental Protection Throughout the World


Time Allotment: (4.5 periods)
Section A language points (3 periods)
Exercises and writing (1.5 period )



Teaching Aims: The teaching of this text aims to enable students
1.to master the new words and useful phrases;
2.to learn about environmental protection throughout the world;
3.to get acquainted with skills of developing a paragraph of a problem- solution pattern;
4.to get acquainted with finding out word meanings;
5.to practice what has been learned.


I. Background Information
1. New England
     New England is the most northeastern region of
the U.S.A., including the states of Connecticut, Maine,
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and
Vermont. It was so named by John Smith when he
explored it in 1614. A New Englander is a native or
resident of New England.
     THE SIX STATES of New England form the
most compact and most accessible region in the
United States. They are Rhode Island, Connecticut,
Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine .
2. Grand Banks
     Grand Banks is a vast extension of the ocean off southeast Newfoundland(纽芬兰岛)in the
North Atlantic, one of the world’s greatest cod-fishing grounds.
3. Islam
     Islam, one of the three major world religions, along with Judaism and Christianity, that profess
monotheism, or the belief in a single God. In the Arabic language, the word Islam means “surrender”
or “submission”—submission to the will of God. A follower of Islam is called a Muslim, which in
Arabic means “one who surrenders to God.” The Arabic name for God, Allah, refers to the same God
worshiped by Jews and Christians. Islam’s central teaching is that there is only one all-powerful,
all-knowing God, and this God created the universe. This rigorous monotheism, as well as the Islamic


                                                  21
                                             Unit One Book Two



teaching that all Muslims are equal before God, provides the basis for a collective sense of loyalty to
God that transcends class, race, nationality, and even differences in religious practice. Thus, all
Muslims belong to one community, irrespective of their ethnic or national background.


II. Warm-up Questions
1. With the economic development, peoples’ life is better, but they arise many environmental problems.
  Can you name some common and serious ones in China and in other countries?
2. What are the effects of those problems?
3. How can we solve those problems?


III. Text Structure Analysis
1. Outline of the Text
Part I. Introduction
A general statement of the text: Most countries neglect the environmental problem in their
development. However, with the increasing of the environmental problem, some countries have taken
measures to protect the environment. (Para. 1)
Question:
1.Why was environmental protection neglected by most countries in the past?
 The great majority of nations concern themselves with economic development, regardless of its
 effect on the global ecology.
2.Why and how do people change their attitudes towards environment?
 In recent years, as environmental damage has increased, people around the world began to change
 their attitude.
Part II. Evidence
A list of countries: their environmental problems, solutions and the effects. (Paras. 2-14)
Canada: (Paras. 2-4)
Problems: Excessive fishing has reduced the number of fish.
Solutions: Close the area and set strict limits for fishing.
Questions:
1. What was abundant in Canada when European explorers first came to the New World?
  Cod and other species of fish.
2. How did Canada protect its fish supply and what was the result?
  Canada has closed the area to cod fishing and set strict limits on catches of other species. In 1970s,
  the fish eventually recovered. But experts say that some species today have been so wasted, they
  may never recover. The government also faces protests from Canadian fishermen.
Costa Rica: (Para. 5)



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                                                Unit One Book Two



Problems: Much of the country has been clear-cut and soil erosion has been Extensive.
Solutions: Pass new environmental laws to protect the remaining forests.
Questions:
1.Where is Costa Rica?
 It lies in Central America.
2. What is one of its most ambitious programs?
 It is to preserve the ecological diversity of its tropical rain forests.
3. What is its present condition?
 Much of the country has already been clear-cut, and soil erosion has been extensive.
4. What measure did it take to protect its remaining rain forest?
 A series of new environmental laws together with the creation of parks and nature preserves are
  aimed at protecting its remaining rain forest.
Brazil: (Paras.6-8)
Problems: Development brings about severe environmental disasters to the area and its people.
Solutions: End tax favors that had encouraged clearing of the Amazon rain forest and plan to finance
                 new forest protection projects.
Questions:
1.What is the world’s largest jungle rain forest?
  The Amazon.
2. How did the government spoil the environment of Amazon?
  For decades, the government sought to colonize and develop the Amazon.
3. Why did the government reversed course in 1991?
  Because of the pressure from environmentalists around the world.
4. What measures did the government take? And the results?
  It ended tax favors that had encouraged clearing of the Amazon rain forest, and agreed to a plan to
  finance new forest protection projects. Cattle farmer, miners, and settlers have protested the move
  and continue to destroy the forest, although at a slower pace than before.
5. What does the writer think of Brazil’s environmental protection?
  The writer still has some kind of doubt about government commitment.
Eastern Europe: (Paras. 9-10)
Problems: Heavy metal from coal mining has contaminated much of the area’s waters and rivers, and
             land and forests are so contaminated that many are now biologically dead.
Solutions: Set up funds for environmental cleanups and improve the region’s power plants. Some
             countries set treaties to protect rivers.
Questions:
1.What countries does Eastern Europe include?


                                                         23
                                            Unit One Book Two



  Poland, Hungary, and Czech and Slovak Republics, etc.
2. Why is Eastern Europe considered as the most polluted of all the world’s industrialized areas?
  Heavy metals from coal mining have contaminated much of the area’s waters. Rivers, land, and
  forests are so contaminated that many are now biologically dead.
3. What measures did it take to protect environment?
  In a special series of treaties, Eastern European countries and other nations, including the United
  States, have set up special funds for environmental cleanups and improving the region’s power
  plants. In addition, Germany and the Czech Republic have signed a treaty to protect the Elbe River
  from further contamination.
Ghana: (Paras. 11-12)
Problems: Remove the forests and use excessively the existing farmland because of the population
             explosion.
Solutions: Urge local villagers to create more shared farmland and sponsor the growth of cash crops.
Questions:
1.What is the problems that Ghana facing?
  Explosive population growth has led to removal of forests and excessive use of existing farmland.
2.What measure did Ghana take?
  The government has urged local villages to create more shared farmland. It has sponsored the
  growing of cash crops and the planting of trees to regenerate waste land.
3. What are the results?
  The program has succeeded in strengthening the country’s agricultural base and bringing a new
  source of wealth to villagers.
Indonesia: (Paras. 13-14)
Problems: Struggle to provide enough food for its people because of large families and a large
             population
Solutions: Encourage birth control and cut down the number of births.
Questions:
1. What are the problems that Indonesia is facing?
  Large population
2. What measure did Indonesia take?
  In recent years, the government has waged a massive ad campaign to encourage birth control,
  offering inducements such as free trips to Mecca.
3. How effective is it?




                                                     24
                                            Unit One Book Two



  The government has succeeded in increasing use of birth control from 10 percent of the population
  20 years ago to 49 percent today. As a result, the average number of births has been cut from 5.6
  children per woman to 3.

2. Summary of the Text
    Most countries neglect the environmental problem in their development. However, with the
increasing of the environmental problem, some countries have taken measures to protect the
environment and the measures are helping to improve the environment. This passage describes some
of these national programs.



IV. New Words and Phrases
1. The great majority of nations concern themselves with economic development, regardless of its
  effect on the global ecology. (Para. 1)
   concern oneself with/about: to become involved in sth. because someone is interested in it or
                                   because it worries someone. If you concern yourself with
                                   something, you give it attention because you think that it is
                                   important.
              I didn’t concern myself with political matters.
              A good doctor should always concern himself with the health of his patients.
              More and more people are concerning themselves with environmental problems.
   compare
   be concerned with/to do sth: never before noun, believing that sth is important
              We are concerned to sort this out as quickly as possible.
   where/as far as sth is concerned: spoken used when saying what particular thing you are
                                     talking about.
              Where money is concerned, I always try to be very careful.
              As far as I am concerned you can do what you like.
              The car is fine as far as the engine is concerned but the bodywork needs a lot of
              attention.
   be concerned with: be about
              This story is concerned with a Russian family in the 19th century.
   regardless of: heedless of; without worrying about, without being affected by different situations,
                                     problems etc.
              Regardless of whether he is right or wrong, we have to obey his decision.
              All our proposals were rejected regardless of their merits.
              We must carry out an equal treatment for all, regardless of race, religion, or sex.


                                                     25
                                              Unit One Book Two



    regardless adv. paying no attention to sb. / sth.
               You get a lot of criticism but you just have to carry on regardless.
    ecology: the way in which plants, animals and people are related to each other and to their
               environment, or the scientific study of this
               Chemicals in the factory’s sewage system have changed the ecology of the whole area.
    ecologist n. a scientist who studies ecology
    ecological adj. connected with the way plants, animals and people are related to each other and
                         to their environment
               eco-: prefix concerned with the environment
               eco-warriors: people who try to stop damage to the environment
               eco-friendly: not harmful to the environment
2… signs of change have sprung up in various pockets around the world. (Para. 1)
    spring up: to suddenly appear or start to exist
               Towns have sprung up in what was a dry desert.
               New theatres and arts centers sprang up all over the country.
               A strong wind seemed to have sprung up from nowhere.
               Doubts have begun to spring up in my mind.
     pocket: small isolated group or area
               Pockets of resistance to the new regime still remained.
3…a few examples of countries undertaking new environmental initiatives. (Para. 1)
    undertake v. 1) (start to) make oneself responsible for sth.
               She undertook full responsibility for the new changes.
                   2) agree or promise to do sth.
               He undertook to finish the job by Friday.
    undertaking n. [c] an important job, piece of work, or activity that you are responsible for
               Starting a new business can be a risky undertaking.
    initiative n. 1) [u] action taken to solve a difficulty
               You seem to be critical of the chairman’s political initiatives.
                     2) [sing] power or right to gain an advantage by taking actions that will
                           influence events
    seize/take/hold/lose the initiative: seize/take/hold/lose the first step in an undertaking, esp. one
               that encourages others to act.
               It’s up to this country to take the initiative in banning nuclear weapons.
                  2) [u] ability to see what needs to be done and try to do it, esp. without other’s help
               If you show that you have initiative, you will sooner or later be promoted.
    initial adj. first


                                                     26
                                            Unit One Book Two



    initiate v. to set going by taking the first step; begin
    initiation n. the start or the process of sth. to happen
4. When European explorers first came to the New World, the fishing grounds off what would become
  eastern Canada and New England held abundant cod and other species(Para. 2)
     abundant adj. existing or available in large quantities so that there is more than enough
               abundant supplies
               We have abundant proof of his guilt.
               syn. plentiful, ample, adequate
     be abundant in: be rich in
               Our country is abundant in resources.
     abundance n. [sing, U] a large quantity of sth.
     in abundance
               Wild flowers grow in abundance on the hillsides.
     species n. 1) a group of animals or plants which are all similar and can breed together to produce
                    young animals or plants of the same kind as them:
               This type of rattlesnake has been declared an endangered species.
               the human species= mankind
                2) sort, type:
               No species of performing artist is as self-critical as a dancer.
               He is really an odd species of writer.
               pl. species
5. excessive fishing has reduced the number…(Para. 3)
     excessive: adj. exceeding a normal, usual, reasonable, or proper limit; much more than is
                 reasonable or necessary
               Frank’s wife left him because of this excessive drinking.
                 v. exceed
                 n. excess, excessiveness
6. In response, Canada has closed the area to cod fishing and set strict limits on catches of
   other species. (Para. 3)
     in response (to): as an answer to
               The law was passed in response to public pressure.
     set…limits (on): restrict
               He attempts to set limits on consumer waste.
7…one of the most ambitious programs… the ecological diversity of … (Para. 5)
     ambitious: determined to successful, rich, powerful etc
               They are ambitious although they are poor.


                                                    27
                                                Unit One Book Two



       be ambitious for sb.: want them to be very successful
                  Mothers are often highly ambitious for their children.
       ambition n.
       diversity: [U] (sing.) state of being different; variety
                  His writing shows the diversity of human behavior and ability.
                  There is a cultural diversity in the United States.
                  Mary has a great diversity of interests.
       diverse adj. 1) of different kinds; various
                  His interests are very diverse.
                      2) different (from each other); not the same
                  My sister and I have diverse ideas on how to raise children.
                  syn. different, various
       diversify v.
       compare:
       variety: quality of not being the same, or not being the same at all times.
                  A life full of change and variety
8. soil erosion has been extensive…(Para. 5)
       erosion: 1) [U] process of being worn away or destroyed bit by bit by rain, wind ,etc.
                  the erosion of the coastline by the sea
                  The government has made attempts to reduce soil erosion.
                  2) [U] reducing; destroying
                  erosion of human freedom
                  The president was facing great erosion of public support.
       erode v.
       erosive adj.
       compare:
       corrode: be destroyed slowly, esp. by chemical action
                  Acid can corrode the iron.
       corrosion: corroding or being corroded
                  Clean off any corrosion before applying the paint.
9. But a series of new environmental laws, together with the creation of parks and nature preserves
  that cover one quarter of the country, are aimed at protecting Costa Rica’s remaining forests. (Para.
  5)
       series: (pl. unchanged) numbers of things, events etc of a similar kind, esp. placed or happening
              one after another.
                  a series of good harvests


                                                       28
                                            Unit One Book Two



               a television series
     nature preserves: areas where animals are protected
     preserve v.: keep or maintain sth. in an unchanged condition
               preserve one’s sight
     preserve n.: areas where game or fish are preserved for hunting or fishing.
     compare: reserve, conserve
     reserve: 1) to keep (for a special purpose)
               We must reserve our energies for the tasks that lie ahead.
                2) book
               reserve tickets
    conserve: to keep from being wasted, damaged, lost, or destroyed
               Conserve your energy, you will need it.
    be aimed at: try to do sth.
               We are aimed at increasing our export.
10. Brazil is home to the world’s largest jungle rain forest, the Amazon. For decades, the government
   sought to colonize and develop the Amazon, bringing severe environmental disaster to the area
   and its people. (Para.6)
     colonize: establish a colony in (an area); establish (an area) as a colony
               Britain colonized many parts of Africa.
               Britain was colonized by the Romans.
     colony n. [C] country or area settled or taken over by people from another country and controlled
                  by that country
                 Australia was once a British colony.
     colonial adj.
11. Brazil reversed course … (Para.7)
    reverse: turn sth. the other way around or up, or inside out
               Shall we reverse the order and put Z at the beginning of the dictionary?
               reverse the trend
               The situations are reversed as the employee has become the employer.
12. It ended tax favors that had encouraged clearing of the Amazon rain forest, and agreed to a plan to
  finance new forest protection projects. (Para.7)
     agreed to: say that one is willing
               He is going to agree to our suggestion
     agree with sth / sb.
               I agree with you
     finance: v. provide money for (a project, etc.)


                                                     29
                                                Unit One Book Two



                 The project is partly financed by the government.
                 The repairs to the school will be financed by a private company.
                  n. 1) [U] management of (esp. public) money
                 The company needs a man who knows finance.
                 State finance has also entered a new stage.
                    2)(pl.)money available to a person, company or country
                 Are the firm's finances sound
                 Whether it can be done depends on your finances.
                       adj. Financial
13. Cattle farmer, miners, and settlers have protested the move and… (Para.8)
      move: n. action (to be) done to achieve a purpose
                The government’s announcement is seen as a move towards setting the strike.
14. The conflict enlarged last year when miners killed a group of Amazon Indians in order to seize
       their land.. (Para.8)
      conflict: n.1) [C, U] (of opinions, desires, etc.) opposing; difference; clash
                 the conflict between one's duty and one's desire
                    2) [C, U] struggle; fight
                 A conventional conflict might become a nuclear war.
                 v. be against or in disagreement with; clash
                 The statements of the two girls conflict.
                 Their account of events conflicts with ours
                 Has France ever conflicted with England in modern history?
      compare:
      clash: v. strike together with a loud , harsh noise.
                 Their swords clashed.
                 n. violent contact, fight
                 clashes between police and demonstrators
15.     Heavy metals from coal mining have contaminated much of the area’s waters. Rivers, land, and
       forests are so contaminated that many are now biologically dead. (Para.9)
       contaminate: make sth. /sb. dirty or polluted by adding dangerous or disease-carrying
                          matter
                 This river has been contaminated by chemicals.
                 They are contaminating the minds of our young people with these rotten ideas.
       contamination: [U] contaminating or being contaminated
                 contamination of the water supply




                                                       30
                                            Unit One Book Two



               The water supply is being tested for contamination.
16. In a special series of treaties, Eastern European countries and other nations, including the
     United States, have set up special funds for environmental cleanups and improving the region’s
     power plants. (Para.10)
     treaty: 1) [C] official agreement between two or more countries
               They signed a treaty to settle all boundary disagreements.
            2) [U] official agreement between people, esp. for the buying of property
               observe the treaty
               The house was sold by private treaty.
     fund: n. 1) [C] sum of money saved or made available for a particular purpose
               A fund was set up to protect the rare plants.
               2) [sing.] stock of supply of sth.
               She's got a fund of amusing stories.
               3) [pl.] resources of finance; money
               I'm short of funds so I'll pay you next week.
            v. provide (an organization, a project, etc.) with money
               The government is funding another project.
               The rich man was fond of funding films.
17. It has sponsored the growing of cash crops such as…(Para.12)
     sponsor: v. 1) support (a person, organization or activity) by giving money, encouragement
                      or other help
               The team is sponsored by NIKE, so the players wear the letters NIKE on their shirts.
               He sponsored the plan at the meeting.
                2) start; hold
               The church sponsored the fair to raise money for elderly people.
               Who sponsored the divorce change bill?
               n. 1) [C] person who puts forward or assures an idea
               the sponsor of the annual Christmas party
               the sponsor of the new employee
                 2) [C] person who pays money to support another person, organization or activity
               The sponsors of a television program pay the costs of making the program.
18. But it remains to be seen whether these measures will have enough impact to slow the rate
     of removing the forests. (Para.12)
     impact: n. 1) [C] usu. sing.)strong impression or effect on sb./ sth.
               Her speech made a great impact on everyone.




                                                    31
                                            Unit One Book Two



               The news did not make much impact on me.
                  2) [U] hitting of one object against another
               The cup hit the wall and broke on impact.
               v. 1) to leave a powerful effect on a situation or person
               These accidents will impact our school's name.
               Falling trade rates have impacted on the country's economy.
                  2) strike, hit
               The ball impacted against the bat with a loud noise.
19. …frowns on birth control. (Para.13)
   frown: v. 1) (on/upon) disagree; disapproved
               Smoking is frowned upon in many restaurants.
               Many doctors frown on a diet, which has a lot of fat.
               2) (at sb. /sth.) bring the eyebrows together, so wrinkling the skin on one’s forehead
               What is wrong? Why are you frowning?
             n. serious, angry, worried, etc. look on the face causing lines on the forehead; expression
               of displeasure
               She looked up from her exam paper with a worried frown.
20. …the government has waged a massive ad campaign to encourage birth control, (Para.13)
     wage: v. begin and carry on (a war, campaign, etc.)
               No country wants to wage a nuclear war.
               The city is waging a campaign against smoking.
             n. [pl.] regular (usu. per week) pay made or received for work or services
               minimum wages
               The workers are demanding to be paid living wages.
     massive: 1) very large in amount or number
               I've got a massive amount of work to do.
               Without a massive increase in new money, the company will suffer a problem of
               finances.
               2) large in size, heavy
               A massive truck has just parked outside the house.
               She has a massive forehead.
21. … the country must still convert millions more to the idea of birth control if it is to reach its
     population targets. (Para.14)
     convert: 1) change one's belief, attitude, etc.
               He honestly converted to Christianity.
               My daughter has converted me to pop music.


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                                              Unit One Book Two



              2) change sth. from one form or use to another
              This seat converts easily into a bed.
              They converted their money from pounds into dollars.
   convert (sb. /sth.) from sth.) (to sth.)
              The room was converted from a kitchen to a lavatory
              convert sb. from atheism to Christianity
   target: n. 1) [C] a level or situation which one plans to achieve
              The government's target of 3.5% annual growth seems difficult to meet.
              The target we need to reach in order to rebuild the church is $250,000.
                 2) [C] object or mark that a person tries to hit in shooting, etc.
              I had four shots but I didn't even hit the target.
              The target of the attack was a train station in the center of the city.
              v. aim at sth.; cause to have an effect on a particular, intentionally limited group
              This sales campaign was targeted at the youth market.
              Most ads target a special area of the market.
   compare:
   goal: 1) pair of posts with a crossbar , between which the ball has to be kicked, hit, in order to
            score
              He head the ball into the open goal
         2) object of one’s efforts, target
              one’s goal in life


V. Difficult Sentence Analysis
1. The great majority of nations concern themselves with economic development, regardless of its
   effect on the global ecology. (Para. 1)
   -----Most countries in the world are interested in developing the economy and careless about
    protecting the environment of the earth.
2. …signs of change have sprung up in various pockets around the world. (Para. 1)
   -----However, because lately the environment is increasingly damaged, people in a number of
   areas all over the world have changed their attitudes quickly and even taken an action towards the
   damage.
3. When European explorers first came to the New World, the fishing grounds off what would become
    eastern Canada and New England held abundant cod and other species(Para. 2)
   ----- When European explorers first visited to the Newland, cod and other types of fish existed in
    great quantities in the fishing grounds, at a short distance away from the places that would later



                                                     33
                                           Unit One Book Two



    become eastern Canada and New England.
4. …one of the most ambitious programs… the ecological diversity of … (Para. 5)
   ----- Among the world countries, this Central American country has the most demanding programs
    which is one of the top ones with the purpose of protecting the ecological diversity in its tropical
    rain forests.
5. …soil erosion has been extensive…(Para. 5)
  -----Many rain forests in the country have already been removed, and a large amount of top
    covering of the earth in which plants grow has been worn away.
6.…Brazil reversed course … (Para.7)
   -----However, because environmentalists all over the world put forcible influence on the
    government of Brazil in 1991, the government changed its policy to the opposite, stopped giving
    tax cuts which encouraged people to remove the Amazon rain forest, and agreed to a plan to
    provide money for new forest protection projects.
7. The government promises it will protect the region’s native people, but questions remain as to its
   true level of commitment. (Para. 8)
   ----Though the government makes a promise to give protection to the native people, the Amazon
   Indians who live in the area, people still have doubts about its actual efforts to keep the promise.
8. In a special series of treaties, Eastern European countries and other nations, including the United
   States, have set up special funds for environmental cleanups and improving the region’s power
   plants. (Para.10)
  ----Eastern European countries, the United States and other nations have signed a number of special
   agreements in which sums of money are agreed on to be particularly set apart for making the
   environment free from pollution and improving the power stations to produce less pollution in
   Eastern Europe.
9. … the country must still convert millions more to the idea of birth control if it is to reach its
   population targets. (Para.14)
  -----However, because of the large number of people living in Indonesia, in order to reduce the
   birthrate, the government has to persuade millions of people to accept the various methods of
   limiting the number of children.


VI. Writing:
Structured Writing: Problem –Solution Pattern.
     When you want to identify, define and then solve a problem, this is called problem solving. In
our life, we have to solve problems all the time: for example, to settle an argument over something, to
solve pollution problems, or to balance the relationship between study and work. Learning how to



                                                   34
                                            Unit One Book Two



present a problem in writing form and how to offer a reasonable solution for it can be a valuable
communication tool for you to have.


Series of steps for writing a problem-solution essay:
1. State the problem:
  Briefly, clearly and simply explain exactly what the problem is.
2. Define the problem:
  Explain in some detail information about the problem.
3. Suggest the possible solution:
  These can be the strongest solution you can think of , the most commonly accepted solutions to the
  problem. You just present solutions, but you do not state which is the best.
4. Judge the solution:
  Discuss the strong and weak points of the solutions.
5. Recommend the best solution
  The last step recommends the best solution and brings the paper to a definite finish.
The typical words and phrases:
I strongly suggest…
I recommend that…
I advice you to …
I propose…
One idea/ solution/ suggestion/ plan/ proposal/ strategy/ piece of   advice/ recommendation is …
Sample:
                                               Pollution
     Very often when we read newspapers, we come across the word pollution. This word was not
familiar with people about forty years ago. But now, to us it is a serious treat because it means
poisoning of the air, seas, rivers and land, and that would do harm to our health no matter who you are
and where you are.

     There are many factories that bring pollution to us. We can hardly see blue and clear sky and can
not have fresh air. This is mainly because of the poisonous smoke coming from factories, especially
from the chemical ones. Some factories just throw their waste into the seas or let them flow into the
rivers. Besides, rubbish from the houses, oil from ships may dirt streets and water, and all of these
wastes and gases are dangerous to health.
     We should take necessary measures to prevent pollution. We should work out some rules we
should observe. Production should meet the pollution standards. Those who do not observe the rules
must be punished. No body is allowed to throw rubbish or give poisonous gases into the air, water or



                                                   35
                                             Unit One Book Two



soil.
        To rid the world of pollution, we must make joint efforts to protect our environment.


VII. Dictation:
You may choose one of the following paragraphs as you like:
Passage 1
                                       Farming in New England
        In some parts of the United States, farming is easy. But farming has always been difficult in the
northeastern corner of the country, which is called New England.
        New England has many trees and thin, rocky soil. Anyone who has wanted to start a new farm
there has had to work very hard. The first job has been cutting down trees. The next job has been
digging stumps(根茬) of the trees out of the soil. Then the farmer has had the difficult job of
removing stones from his land.
        The work of removing stones never really ends, because every winter more stones appear. They
come up through the thin soil from the rocks below. Farmers have to keep removing stones from the
fields. Even today, farms which have been worked on for 200 years keep producing more stones.
        That is why stone walls are used instead of fences around New England fields. The stone walls
are not high: A man can easily climb over them. But they keep the farmer’s cows from joining his
neighbor’s cows.
Passage 2
                                      Skyscrapers and Environment
        In the late 1960’s, many people in North America turned their attention to environmental
problems, and new steel-and-glass skyscrapers were widely criticized. Ecologists pointed out that a
cluster of tall buildings in a city often overburdens public transportation and parking lot capacities.
        Skyscrapers are also lavish consumers, and wasters, of electric power. In one recent year, the
addition of 17 million square feet of skyscraper office space in New York City raised the peak daily
demand for electricity by 120,000 kilowatts-enough to supply the entire city of Albany, New York, for
a day.
        Glass-walled skyscrapers can be especially wasteful. The heat loss (or gain) through a wall of
half-inch plate glass is more than ten times that through a typical masonry wall filled with insulation
board. To lessen the strain on heating and air-conditioning equipment, builders of skyscrapers have
begun to use double-glazed panels of glass, and reflective glasses coated with silver or gold mirror
films that reduce glare as well as heat gain. However, mirror-walled skyscrapers raise the temperature
of the surrounding air and affect neighboring buildings.
        Skyscrapers put a severe strain on a city's sanitation facilities, too. If fully occupied, the two



                                                     36
                                         Unit One Book Two



World Trade Center towers in New York City would alone generate 2.25 million gallons of raw
sewage each year-as much as a city the size of Stanford, Connecticut, which has a population of more
than 109,000.


VIII. Homework
1. Do all the exercises.
2. Preview the next unit.




                                                37
                                              Unit One Book Two



                         Section B            Green Spaces in Cities
I.Outline of the Text
Part I Introduction: The problem of green spaces in cities. (Paras. 1-2)
Part II Body: The methods of solving the problem. (Paras. 3-6)
Part III Conclusion: The difficulties in solving the problem of green spaces in cities. (Paras. 7-9)


II.Summary of the Text
     The passage tells us how some cities have begun to increase the amount of green spaces for their
citizens. Psychologists have been studying the changes people experience when they leave rural areas
and move into urban environments. The findings are that people need green spaces for better mental
health. People try to find effective methods to solve the problem. For example, they want to build
more parks, but land in cities is quite costly. People try their best to find the vacant spaces to plant the
trees, and grass. They have coordinated their efforts to clean up the trash or garbage. One special
organization was established with the purpose of protecting land and public resources for people.



III New Words and Phrases
1. option: n. (1) [C] a thing that is or may be chosen; a choice
               (2) [U] power or freedom of choosing; choice
                There weren’t many options open to him.
                I have little option but to go.
2. erect: v. (1) build, set up; establish
            (2) set straight up; put up
                I don’t want to see a network like that erected.
                They erected a television antenna on the roof.
3. summit: n. (1) [C] highest point; top, esp. of a mountain
               (2) [C] a meeting between the heads of two or more governments, esp. of the world’s
                   most powerful countries
                From the mountain camp they reached the summit in six hours.
                We met at the summit in Geneva.
4. plot: n. (1) [C] a small marked or measured piece of land, esp. for a special purpose
           (2) [C] (plan or sketch of the ) events in the story of a play or novel
           (3) [C] a secret plan made by several people to do sth.
                There are several plots of land for sale.




                                                     38
                                             Unit One Book Two



               She began to tell me the plot in great detail.
               The plot against the government was discovered before it was carried out.
5. work on: give one’s attention to doing or trying to do
               You will have to work on the weak points in your English if you want to pass the exam.
6. coordinate one’s effort to: work together efficiently
               We must coordinate our efforts to help the poor.
7. up to: reach a certain number or amount
               I can take up to four people in my car.
8. lead into: (of a road, etc.) provide a way (for sb.) to enter a place
               This path leads halfway into the forest and then stops.




                                                     39
                                                  Unit One Book Two



                                                   Quiz Two
Directions: Each of the following sentences is provided with four choices. Choose the best
completes the sentence or that best explains the underlined part.
1. In the scientific spirit, a single verifiable experiment outweighs any authority, ______ reputation or
  the number of followers and advocates.
    A. in spite of            B. regardless of          C. in terms of            D. despite
2. He made an               attempt to climb the dangerous mountain single-handed, but soon found it
  impractical for anyone alone.
    A. ambitious              B. ambiguous              C. abundant               D. extensive
3. The American culture is known for its tolerance towards a great               of belief, norms and values.
    A. difference             B. diversity              C. division               D. distribution
4. Eventually, he managed to persuade a group of San Francisco businessmen to _______ the building
  of a new public school system.
    A. finance                B. provide                C. undertake              D. preserve
5. Thomas Jefferson pointed out more than two hundred years ago that _____, not unquestioning
    agreement, is the real source of freedom and strength for a nation.
    A. clash                  B. opposition             C. conflict               D. struggle
6. Despite the personal participation of the President, opinions remained divided among top military
  officials          the feasibility of a surprise attack at the terrorists' base camp.
    A. as for                 B. in relation to         C. but for                D. as to
7. It is still too early to anticipate what               his new theory will have ______ development of
  biochemistry study.
    A. influence …, for       B. effect ..., on         C. impression …, on       D. impact ..., upon
8. He was for many years the ______ of strong criticism, but he never bothered to answer his critics in
  public.
    A. target                 B. purpose                C. aim                    D. objective
9. The room smells of stale air; it must have been _______for a long time.
    A. empty                  B. vacant                 C. bare                   D. blank
10. Often cheerful ______and sad ______, Mr. Johnston is really one of the mysterious figures I find
     hard to understand.
    A. in public.., in person                           B. in companion.., in private
    C. in company.., in private                         D. in company.., in person
11. It is possible to resolve the acute problem of environmental pollution if all sides concerned will
     ______ their efforts with a down-to-earth approach.
    A. cooperate              B. corporate              C. coordinate             D. correspond



                                                         40
                                             Unit One Book Two



12. The new system is implemented to ensure that people doing _____ jobs receive _____ rates of pay.
    A. comparable.., comparative                   B. comparative.., comparative
    C. comparative.., comparable                   D. comparable.., comparable
13. Many contemporary writers have noted that it is more and more difficult to keep up with the
     radical changes that ______ our time.
    A. represent             B. characterize       C. concern                 D. sponsor
14. Ben Johnson of Canada was stripped of his gold medal for men's 100-meter dash won at the 24th
     Olympic Games because he was found to have taken stimulants before the race.
    A. was taken off          B. was replaced      C. was deprived of         D. was accused of
15. You have to admit that literally nothing has been done on the improvement of efficiency
   ever since you took over the business.
    A. practically                                 B. faithful to the word meaning
    C. word for word                               D. consequently
16. Asked why he chose to remain single, he said that he didn't want any commitment.
    A. the act of putting someone in prison
    B. loyalty
    C. promise to follow a certain course of action
    D. responsibility
17. The steady improvement of people's living conditions is one of the major concerns of the local
     government at present.
    A. a serious care or interest                  B. a company or business
    C. a matter of interest or importance          D. worry or anxiety
18. According to Freud, we return in our dreams to the mode of thought characteristic of early
     childhood.
    A. worthy of             B. typical of         C. in terms of             D. composed of
19. ______ a teacher in a university, it is necessary to have at least a master's degree.
    A. To become              B. Become            C. One becomes             D. On becoming
20. As a public relations officer, he is said _______ some very influential people.
    A. to know                                     B. to be knowing
    C. to have been knowing                        D. to have known
21. I have heard both teachers and students ______ well of him.
    A. to speak               B. spoken            C. to have spoken          D. speak
22. In her mind's eye, Peter was ______ than his elder brother.
    A. more of a businessman                       B. a businessman more
    C. a more businessman                          D. more businessman
23. A given event will be described in several ways by ______ witnesses.


                                                    41
                                           Unit One Book Two



    A. many                  B. as many           C. so many              D. same many
24. There was no point ______ out until the storm had really stopped.
   A. in going               B. by going          C. of going             D. to go
25. The human body is composed of organs, each ______ a definite job to do.
    A. has                   B. having            C. to have              D. had
26. By the time the talk is over, we ______ a lot about airplanes.
    A. shall be learning                          B. are learning
    C. shall learn                                D. shall have learnt
27. Mary wants to go to the United States by herself for the holiday, but her parents frown______ this
     idea.
    A. on                    B. for               C. to                   D. after


KEYS: 1-10 BABAD           DDABC 11-20 CDBCA DCBAA 21-30 DABBA DA




                                                   42
                                            Unit One Book Two



                   Unit Three           Marriage Across the Nations
Time Allotment: (4.5 periods)
Section A and language points (3 periods)
Exercises and writing (1.5 period )



Teaching Aims: The teaching of this text aims to enable students
1. to master the new words and useful phrases;
2. to learn about across-nation marriages and culture differences between countries;
3. to get acquainted with skills of writing a paragraph of denial of some opinions followed by your
  opinions;
4. to get acquainted with skills of distinguishing between facts and opinions;
5. to practice what has been learned.


I. Background Information
1. Potential Problems in Intercultural Communication
   Intercultural Communication has the successful and unsuccessful elements. The potential
problems include seeking similarities, uncertainty reduction, diversity of communication purpose,
stereotyping and prejudice, power, culture shock, ethnocentrism. The purpose of intercultural
communication is to improve it. The methods are known by yourselves, consider the physical and
human settings, seek to understand diverse message systems, develop empathy, encourage feedback
and learn about cultural adaptation.
2. Key Points of Intercultural Communication
* When communications cause conflict, be aware that problems might have more to do with style or
process than content or motives.
* Learn to understand different communication styles – you could even benefit through expanding
your repertoire.
* Communicating across cultures requires extra effort. Good communication requires commitment
and concentration.
* Although culture affects differences in communication patterns, there are many exceptions within
each group depending on class, age, education, experience, and personality.
* Remember that communication is a process and that the process varies among cultures. Look at
what might be getting in the way of understanding. Constantly ask “what is going on here?” and check
your assumption.
* Avoid jokes, words, or expressions that are hot buttons, such as those that are based on ethnicity,



                                                   43
                                            Unit One Book Two



race, or gander.
* Use language that fosters trust and alliance.
* Respect differences that; don’t judge people because of the way they speak.


II. Warm-up Questions
1. Do you know any examples of cross-racial or mixed marriage? Is their marriage life happy?
  Sanmao, a famous Chinese prose writer and her beloved husband Hussy, a Spaniard, lived a very
  happy life together.
2. What is your opinion about cross-nation or mixed marriage?
  Every marriage requires commitment, dedication and work. An international marriage requires even
  more attentions because of many obstacles that a couple may face. However, as along as you
  develop understanding and love each other, you surely will have a happy marriage.
3. What do you think is the foundation of a good marriage?
  Every marriage requires commitment, dedication and work, and love is of the greatest importance.
4. What background information do you get from the passage about the writer?
  The writer was a black man who fell in love with an American native girl. Even the two planed a
  wedding, which is greatly opposed by the girls’ parents. At that time he also had a problem with the
  Citizenship department.


III. Text Structure Analysis
1. Outline of the Text
Part I.
The two young people decided to get married after knowing each other quite well, and their being
from different race and culture only enhanced their relationship. (Paras. 1-2)
Questions:
1. How did the writer look on the time that he and his girl friend had had together? (Para.1)
2.What did Mark and Gail learn from their racial and cultural differences? (Para. 2)
Part II
They knew their future may not so bright, but they still wanted to marry and tried to avoid the mistake
made by many people including Gail’s parents. (Paras. 3-4)
Questions:
1. What did they think of their future? (Para. 3)
2. What was the source of their strength? (Para. 3)
3. According to Paragraph 4, we know that Gail’s parents, after thirty- five years of marriage, were
  going through a bitter and painful divorce. What point did this act emphasize? (Para. 4)


                                                      44
                                            Unit One Book Two



Part III
Gail’s mother’s attitude towards their plan of marriage and the communication between Gail and
mother (Paras. 5-9)
Questions:
1. What is Gail’s mother’s attitude towards their relationship? (Para. 5)
2. What was Gail’s mother’s reaction when Gail spread the news of their wedding plans to her family?
  (Para. 5)
Part IV
Gail’s father’s reaction and the conversation between the father and daughter. (Paras. 10-21)
Questions:
1. How did Gail’s father deal with their decision? (Para. 10)
2. When Gail’s father learned of Mark’s problems with the Citizenship department through Gail, what
  was his reaction? (Para. 10)
3. According to Paragraph 14, how did Gail’s father try to persuade Gail to put off their decision until
  later? (Para. 15)
4. Why did Gail’s father suggest that Gail be realistic? (Para. 19)

2. Summary of the text
     Choosing a life-long partner can be one of the most challenging communication tasks for many
people. Staying with that partner during sickness and health, in hard times and in good times, takes
much skill and patience beyond the initial love that brings two people together. The passage tells us
that Gail and Mark who face the added problems that two different races bring to a marriage. Their
racial and cultural differences enhanced their relationship and taught us a great deal about tolerance,
compromise, and being open with each other. Gail was confused the reasons why the Blacks were so
involved with the racial issue. Finally Gail understood that the racial issue problem was not avoidable.


IV. New Words and Phrases
1. Gail and I imagined a quiet wedding. (Para. 1)
    imagine: vt. 1) to plan to have or think about having…
               We imagine a quiet holiday at home for this summer after a busy year.
                 2) to form a picture or idea in the mind following usage:
               Try to imagine that you are all alone on a desert island.
               It’s hard to imagine living in a place where there are no telephones or cars.
               I can’t imagine George being unfair to anyone.
               Can you imagine George cooking the dinner?
     imagination: n. the ability to imagine.


                                                    45
                                            Unit One Book Two



              The story shows plenty of imagination.
    compare
    imaginative: that shows use of the imagination
    imaginary: not real. But produced from picture or ideas in someone’s mind;
    imaginable: that can by imagined
2. During our two years together we had experienced the usual ups and downs…(Para. 1)
    ups and downs: a mix of good experiences and bad experiences
              Life is full of ups and downs.
              He has seen the ups and downs in the history of the relations between the two
              countries.
3. But through it all we had honestly confronted the weaknesses and strengths of each other’s
  characters. (Para. 1)
    through: prep. from the beginning to the end of
              I have read halfway through the article but found it uninteresting.
               The company is going through a very difficult period.
    weaknesses and strengths: weak points and strong points
              It’s important to know your own weaknesses and strengths.
              She showed us the weaknesses and strengths of her theory.
    character: n. all the qualities that make a person or place different from other people or places
              He has a strong but gentle character.
              a man of character
              have an insight into character
              syn. disposition
4. Our racial and cultural differences enhanced our relationship and taught us a great deal about
  tolerance, compromise, and being open with each other. (Para. 2)
    enhance: to increase in strength or amount
              Good secretarial skills should enhance your chances of getting the prospects of world
              peace.
              computer-enhanced learning
    compromise: n. giving up of certain demands by each side, so that an agreement may be reached
                          which satisfies both to some degree
              He asked $ 1,500 for his old car, but I thought it was only worth $ 1,000. We finally
              reached a compromise and I paid $ 1, 250.
              Both sides are determined to get what they want, and there seems to be no possibility of
              compromise.
              reach/arrive at a compromise


                                                   46
                                               Unit One Book Two



               make compromise with
               compromise of principle
               compromise of dignity
               syn. concession, settlement, bargain
                    vi. settle a difference, etc., by making a compromise
               We can not compromise on such terms.
               I would rather die than compromise.
               syn. settle, meet halfway, make concession, yield
                    vt. bring sb./ sth / oneself into danger by foolish acts
               You will compromise yourself if you spend much time with those dishonest men.
               syn. discredit, dishonor, risk, weaken, undermine
5. … and being open with each other. (Para. 2)
    open: a. willing to talk honestly, frank
               Let’s be open with each other.
               He is a very frank and open person.
6. Gail sometimes wondered why I and other blacks were so involved with the racial issue, …(Para.
  2)
    be/get involved with:
               1) give a lot of time, effort, or attention to
               He was involved with working out a plan.
               syn. be absorbed in
               2) become connected or concerned with.
               If I were you I won’t get involved in their problem.
7.…she seemed to forget the subtle forms of racial hatred in American society. (Para. 2)
    subtle: adj. slight; not obvious; not easy to notice, understand or explain
               There are subtle differences in meaning between these two words.
               Prejudice can take subtle forms than this.
               a subtle taste/a subtle distinction
               syn. gentle, indirect, tactful, understated
              n. subtlety
    hatred: n. a very strong feeling of not liking somebody or something
               She looked at me with an expression of hatred.
               She is full of hatred for the men who killed her husband.
8. Gail and I had no illusions about what the future held for us as a married, mixed couple in America.
  (Para. 3)
    illusion: n. (C) a false idea, belief or impression


                                                      47
                                             Unit One Book Two



               The sun appears to go round the Earth, but that is only an illusion.
               He cherished the illusion that she loved him, but he was wrong.
               We are all under the illusion (believe wrongly) that the country is doing well
               economically, but in fact it is in serious difficulty.
               syn. deception, delusion, trick
               antonym: disillusion
    have no illusions about something: be fully conscious of the true nature of it, especially
                                               something bad or difficult.
               I have no illusions about his ability; he is just no good.
9. Gail and I had no illusions about what the future held for us as a married, mixed couple in America.
  (Para. 3)
    hold: own, be able to contain or offer; to have in store:
               Let's see what the future holds.
               He holds a great deal of property.
               The room can hold twenty people.
               He holds an important position at the bank.
               My husband and I hold conflicting opinions on this matter.
10.…our mutual trust and respect (Para. 3)
    mutual: adj.1) (of feeling or an action) felt or done by each or the other
               They working together was based on mutual respect, trust and understanding.
               We should give mutual support and encouragement.
               2) shared by two or more people
               They share mutual interests.
               The plan was ended by mutual agreement.
               Lynn and Phil met through a mutual friend.
               I like her, and I hope the feeling is mutual
11. … , or thirty years later that they were incompatible, that they overlooked serious personality
  conflicts in the expectation that marriage was an automatic way to make everything work out right.
  (Para. 4)
    compatible: 1) (of people, ideas, differences, etc.) suitable to be together with each other
               Their natures are incompatible.
               Make sure you’re compatible with him before you start sharing a house.
               2) (of equipment) able to use together
               The computer program isn’t compatible with this operating system.
                syn. harmonious



                                                     48
                                             Unit One Book Two



    overlook: vt. 1) fail to notice or realize how important something is; miss
                You have overlooked several of the mistakes in this work.
                These little details are easily overlooked.
                syn. neglect
                    2) pretend not to notice; forgive
                I overlooked your mistake this time.
                We’ll overlook your bad behavior this time, but don’t do it again.
                She overlooked his offensiveness and tried to pretend nothing had happened.
                syn. ignore
                    3) have or give a view (of a place) from above
                Her bedroom has large windows overlooking a lake.
                The house on the hill overlooks the village.
12. … in the expectation that marriage was an automatic way to make everything work out right
   ( Para. 4)
    expectation: n. firm belief or hope that something will happen
                Notice that this word is very often used in some set phrases.
                We thought Mary would pass, but contrary to/against(all) expectation(s), she didn’t.
                John has succeeded beyond expectation/ beyond our expectations.
                They closed the window in expectation of rain.
                I usually enjoy his films, but the latest one didn’t come up to / live up to my
                expectations.
13. to make everything work out right. (Para. 4)
    work out: 1) have as a result, turn out or develop
                I wonder how their ideas worked out in practice?
                How the situation will eventually work out only time can tell.
                2) to find by reasoning or calculating
                Have you worked out the answer yet?
                Try to work out how much it will all cost.
                She had worked out that it would cost over 100 dollars.
                3) plan or decide
                We must work out a plan as quickly as possible.
14. That point was emphasized by the fact that Gail’s parents, after thirty-five years of marriage, were
   going through a bitter and painful divorce, … (Para. 4)
    go through: to suffer or experience; endure
                The country has gone through too many wars.
                She went through a nasty illness.


                                                     49
                                             Unit One Book Two



    Sometimes we say “be through”, which has the same meaning.
               I admire the way she’s still so cheerful after all she’s been through.
15. Gail’s parents, after thirty-five years of marriage, were going through a bitter and painful
  divorce, … (Para. 4)
    divorce: n. formal ending of a marriage by law
               Their marriage ended in divorce.
               She wants to get a divorce (from him).
              v. 1) to officially end a marriage
               They got divorced last year.
               They are getting divorced
               She divorced him after years of unhappiness.
               The new couple divorced each other.
                2)to separate completely
               Some of his ideas are completely divorced from reality.
               It is hard to divorce love and duty.
16.…for a time had a negative effect on our budding relationship. (Para. 4)
    for a time: for a certain period; temporarily
               For a time the police thought she might be guilty.
    Other phrase that have the word “time” are:
               for some time / for the time being / from time to time / have a good time / have a hot
               time / in the mean time / (it is) (about high) time / kill time
17. Her mother, Deborah, all along had been supportive of our relationship. Land even joked about
  when we were going to get married so she could have grandchildren. (Para. 5)
    all along: throughout a period of time
               I suspected all along that he was lying.
   supportive of: giving encouragement, help, etc. especially to sb. In difficulty
               John was so supportive of me when I was in difficulty.
18.…Deborah counseled Gail to be really sure she was doing the right thing. (Para. 5)
    counsel: v. advise
               He counseled us not to go at once.
               I have waited for 6 months yet you still counsel patience.
             n. (U) advice
               They refuse to listen to the old man’s counsel.
               The King took counsel from the assembled nobles.
19. Gail subsequently told me… (Para. 6)




                                                      50
                                                Unit One Book Two



     subsequently: adv. afterwards
                They saw a film and subsequently walked home together.
                Subsequently, they heard that he had quitted his job.
      compare
      consequently: as a result, therefore
                He has never been to China. Consequently / Hence he knows very little about it.
                The rain was heavy and consequently the land was flooded.
20. …I harbored reservations about a mixed marriage, prejudices you might even call them. (Para.
7)
     harbor: v. 1) to keep in the mind (thoughts or feelings, esp. when bad)
                He harbors a secret grudge against his father.
                He harbors a wish to be a world championship.
                2) conceal, give shelter to , protect
                It is an offence to harbor escaped prisoners.
               n. an area of water by a coast which is sheltered from rougher water so that ships are
                  safe inside it.
                The boats in the harbor were safe during the storm.
     reservation: 1) (esp.pl) spoken or unspoken limit which prevents one’s agreement with a plan, or
                     accepting of an idea, etc.
                  She had some reservations about her new job.
                   2) order of seats, etc.
                  We made a reservation for dinner at the restaurant.
     prejudices: n. opinion, or like or dislike of sb. /sth. that is not founded on experience or reason
                  He has a prejudice against lending money, because he’s afraid it may not be returned.
                   v. cause sb. to have a prejudice
                 His unhappy childhood has prejudiced him against having children.
21. When we met I saw him as my beloved, intelligent, charming, and caring. (Para. 7)
     see…as: to consider to be; regard
                Many saw her as a world leader.
                I don't see him as a teacher.
      Other phrases about the word “see”:
     see to: to deal with or take care of
                You ought to have your eyes seen to by a doctor.
                Will you see to the children?
      see( to it) that: make sure that
                Will you see to it that this letter gets posted today?


                                                        51
                                            Unit One Book Two



    see sb. off: to go to an airport, station, etc., with (someone who is beginning a journey)
               He say his friend off at the bus station.
    see sb. through: to provide things for, support, or help until the end of (a time or difficulty)
               He had just enough money to see him through (a year abroad).
    see through sb. / sth. : to recognize the truth about.
               She knew him well enough to see through his laughter and realize he was upset about
               what had happened.
22.… ours was an ideal marriage with every indication that it would last forever. (Para. 7)
    every: as much (hop, chance, reason, etc.) as possible
               He had every chance of winning, but lost.
               This method is every-way better than that old one.
               She made every attempt.
               There is every appearance of snow.
23.“But Mark and I have been together more than tow years,” Gail railed. (Para. 7)
    rail: v. to express angry disapproval or complaint, complain
               Mark railed against these injustices.
         n. a fixed bar, esp. one to hang things on or for protection; either of the pair of metal bars
           fixed to the ground, along which a train runs
               Keep your hand on the rail as you climb the steps.
24.…time will only confirm what we feel deeply about each other. (Para. 8)
    confirm: vt. 1) make certain or sure
               The expression on her face confirmed our worst fears.
               This new evidence confirms (me in) my opinion that they are lying.
               My employer will confirm that I was there on time.
                   2) to give formal approval to (a person, agreement, position, etc.); agree to;
               Please confirm your telephone message by writing to me.
               The agency confirms the contract.
                   3) make firm
               This news confirms my resolution.
     confirmation n.
     compare
     conform: to obey or be in accordance with established rules
               You must either conform to the rules or leave the school.
25. Gail’s father, David, whom I had not yet met personally, approached our decision with a
  father-knows-best attitude. (Para. 10)
    approach: v. to begin to consider or deal with


                                                    52
                                             Unit One Book Two



               We approached the job cheerfully.
               He approached the idea with caution.
              n. the way or means of reaching a place, a path, etc.
               There is no very easy approach to mathematics.
     father-knows-best: with an attitude that father knows (the daughter)best
               Other similar compound words:
               a now-dry river
               this by-now-familiar excuse
               the often-referred-to books
26.…he immediately suspected that… (Para. 10)
    suspect: v. 1) to believe (esp. something bad) to be true or likely
               He suspects them of giving false information.
               I suspected her motives.
               2) to suppose or guess
               I suspect you may be right.
             n. suspect: a person who is suspected of guilty, esp. in crime
     suspicion: n. (a) belief that someone is or may be guilty
     suspicious: a. not trusting
     compare
     doubt: to be uncertain about or not trust or have confidence in
               I’ve always doubted the value of this approach to education.
27.…I should not hesitate to cancel our plans. (Para. 13)
    hesitate: v. to be unwilling to do something, esp. because it is unpleasant or because one is
                  uncertain whether it is right
               He who hesitates is lost.
               The government will not hesitate to take the severest measures against these terrorists.
     hesitation n.
    cancel: say that (sth. Already planned and decided upon) will not be done or take place;
               British Airways are canceling flights to Poland.
               syn. call off
28. Her father proceeded to quote statistics showing…(Para. 14)
     proceed: v.1) to begin or continue in a course of action or set of actions
               He paused to consult his notes, and then proceeded with his questions.
               We can now proceed to the main business of the meeting.
               Tell us your name and then proceed with your story.




                                                    53
                                               Unit One Book Two



                   2) to advance; move in a particular direction
                 Do not proceed across a main road without firstly looking to the right and the left.
                 syn. advance, progress
       quote: repeat the words that sb. else has said or written
                 He’s always quoting from the Bible.
                 syn. cite, illustrate
29.But you have to be realistic. (Para. 17)
    realistic: a. sensible and reasonable
                 It would be nice to have another holiday, but we’ve got to be realistic (about it)—we
                 can’t really afford one.
                 She gave us a realistic appraisal of our chances.
       antonym: unrealistic
       compare
       idealistic: adj. trying to live according to high principles or perfect standards, often in a way that
                  is not practical or shows a lack of understanding of the real world.
30. If we had to resolve all doubt before we acted, very little would ever get done. (Para. 20)
       resolve: v. 1) to find a satisfactory way of dealing with (a difficulty); settle
                 There weren’t enough beds, but the matter was resolved by George who sleeping on the
                 sofa.
                   2) to make a determined decision; decide firmly
                 Once she has resolved on doing it, you won’t get her to change her mind.
                 He resolved to work harder/ that he would work harder.
                 syn. decide, determine, settle
        resolution n.


V. Difficult Sentence Analysis:
1. …she seemed to forget the subtler forms of racial hatred in American society. (Para. 2)
  -----She seemed to forget the forms of American racial hatred that are not so obvious.
2. Gail and I had no illusion about what the future held for us as a married, mixed couple in American.
  (Para. 3)
  -----Gail and I were not idealistic about what the future would offer us in America as a married
  couple, on being black and the other being white.
3. We wanted to avoid the mistake made by many couples of marrying for the wrong reasons, … (Para.
  4)
  ----- Many couples got married for the wrong reasons. We had learned a lesson from them and we



                                                       54
                                             Unit One Book Two



  wanted to live a different married life.
4. Is his color the problem, …? (Para. 6)
  -----Is it his black skin color that makes our marriage unacceptable?
5. When we met I saw him as my beloved, intelligent, charming, and caring. (Para. 7)
  -----When we met I regarded him as the one I loved because he was smart, attractive and caring.
6. We’ve been through so much together. (Para. 8)
  -----We’ve experienced so many things together.
7. We’ve seen each other at our worst many times. (Para. 8)
  -----We have had many times when we behaved as unpleasantly as possible towards each other.
8. Then why the rush? Buy time, buy time… (Para. 12)
  -----Then why do you want to get married so soon? Delay your decision about marriage that seems
  too soon.
9. People can be very cruel toward children from mixed marriages. (Para. 19)
  -----People can on purpose cause distress to the children whose parents are not the same color.
10. If we had to resolve all doubt before we acted, very little would ever get done. (Para. 20)
  -----If we take action only after we are sure that everything is very safe, then we can achieve almost
  nothing.


Ⅵ.Writing:
Try to write an article, which starts with a correction of one idea and goes on to present another idea.
For example,
Outline:      some people’s idea: online learning, easy
             online learning not as easy as these people think
             my idea: only a convenient way of education
             facts to support “my idea”


Sample
                                Is Money All Powerful
     Money is considered by some people as the most important thing in life. They think that the
majority of the material things in our daily life have to be bought with money and that if they have a
lot of money, they can make themselves very comfortable by having a fine house to live in, beautiful
clothes to wear and delicious food to eat.
     But money can’t buy everything. Take time and health for example. Many people regret having
lost their time, however, no matter how much money they pay, they could not make a day longer than
24 hours to make up for the lost time. If someone gets cancer, he can use a lot of money to stay in the



                                                    55
                                             Unit One Book Two



best hospital, but nothing can bring back his good health.
     Money, moreover, is the source of some evils. Some people are greedy for money and they even
break the law by robbing or murdering others. Therefore, we should take a correct attitude to money:
it is necessary in our life but not all powerful.



VII. Homework:
1. Do all the exercises of this unit.
2. Preview the next unit.




                                                    56
                                               Unit One Book Two



           Section B            Rich Meeting His Future Mother-in-law
I.Outline of the Text
Part I
Introduction: The introduction of the international marriage. (Paras.1-3)
Part II
Body: The misunderstanding during his visitation resulting from intercultural communication. (Paras.
          4-19)



II. Summary of the Text
     The passage tells us that we shall observe how cultures misunderstand each other’s customs when
we read about Rich’s first meeting with his girlfriend’s Chinese family. At first, the girl paid much
attention to Rich’s visitation. She tried her best to give her mother a good impression of her boyfriend.
But things go beyond her origin imagination. Rich responded badly during his visitation. The problem
was that the different cultures resulted in cultural misunderstanding. For example, Rich expressed his
different ideas that cooking was bad, which was different from Chinese cultures. The result was that
the future mother-in-law was not satisfied with him. However, Rich didn’t know the fact. On the
contrary, he didn’t realize it. All of these resulted from the different cultures.


III. New Words and Phrases
1. brilliant adj. highly skilled, unusually good, very clever
                   "Did you like the film?" "I thought it was brilliant."
                   She's got a brilliant sense of humor.
2. slice 1) cut sth. into thin wide flat pieces
                   Could you slice me a very thin piece of cake?
                   He sliced the top off his finger while he was cutting vegetables.
           2) [C] a flat, often thin, piece of food that has been cut from a large piece
3. a slice of bread
                  Would you like another slice of beef?
4. ingredient n. [C] any of the foods that are combined to make a particular dish
                  The list of ingredients included 500g of sugar and 200ml of cream.
                  Mix all the ingredients in a bowl.
                  [C] any of the qualities of sth. is made
                  the ingredients of sb.’s character
                  Trust is a key ingredient in a successful marriage.


                                                       57
                                             Unit One Book Two



5. chop v. cut (sth.) into pieces with a knife or other sharp instruments
               Most of the diseased trees were chopped down last year.
               George Washington chopped down the cherry tree when he was a little boy.
          [C] a small piece of meat with bone still in it
               a pork chop
6. anticipate v. see (what is going to happen or what needs to be done) and then act
               She anticipates all her mother's needs.
               Anticipating that it would soon be dark, all of them took flashlights.
                expect (sth.)
               Do you anticipate meeting any trouble?
               I anticipate great pleasure from my visit to Paris.
7. criticism n. [C, U] the words not in favor of someone or something based on mistakes
               He can't take criticism; he just stops listening and starts shouting.
               I have a few criticisms to make about your speech.
  criticize v. point out the mistakes of sb. / sth.
               She was criticized by name for her lack of leadership.
               The report strongly criticizes the police for failing to deal with this problem.
                form and express a judgment on (a work of art, literature, etc.)
               He taught students how to criticize the films.
               We're a group of artists who meet to discuss things and criticize each other's work.
8. spot n. [C] small raised area or marks on the skin
               Teenagers suffer a lot from spots.
               Stop picking your spots!
          [C] a small mark
               spots of mud on your trousers
               I wore that skirt with the green spots.
          [C] a particular place or point
               This looks like a nice spot for a picnic.
               I'll show you the exact spot where I fell off my bike.
         v. mark with spots
               material that spots easily
               a table spotted with ink
           see, notice or recognize (sb. / sth.) that is difficult to notice or that one is looking for
               If you spot any mistakes in the article just mark them with a pencil.
               I've just spotted Malcolm; he's over there, near the gate.
9. compel vt. make sb. do sth.; force


                                                      58
                                             Unit One Book Two



                We cannot compel you to do it, but we think you should.
                The rain compelled us to stay indoors.
 10. behalf n. interest; side
                on someone's behalf
                On behalf of my husband and myself I thank you.
                Ken is not present, so I shall accept the prize on his behalf.
 11. innocent a. harmless
                It was an innocent question. Why get so worked up about it?
                It was an innocent remark; I didn't mean to hurt his feelings.
                 not guilty of wrong doing
                A man should be supposed innocent of crime until he is proved guilty.
                They have put an innocent man in prison.
12. clue n. a fact or idea as a guide or aid in a task or problem
                Police are still looking for clues in their search for the missing girl.
                I'm never going to guess the answer if you don't give me a clue.
13. cue n. [C] a signal for sb. to do sth.
                They started washing up, so that was a cue focus to leave the party.
                When he turns around, it's a cue for her to come out of the door.
          [C] example of how to behave, what to do, etc.
                Follow her cue, and one day you'll be a great man.
14. proclaim vt. make sth. known publicly
                The ringing bells proclaimed the birth of the queen's son.
                A national holiday was proclaimed.
                  show or make it clear
                His accent proclaimed that he was a Scot.
                Wearing hats that proclaimed their favorite team the football fans flooded into the bar.
15. somehow a. in some way; by some means
                We must stop him from seeing her somehow.
                It won't be easy, but we we'll get across the river somehow.
                 for a reason that is unknown
                Somehow the dogs had escaped.
                I always knew I'd get the job, somehow.
16. miserable a. causing unhappiness; unpleasant
                They were living in miserable conditions.
                The weather report is for more miserable weather over the weekend.




                                                     59
                                              Unit One Book Two



                 very unhappy or uncomfortable
               We could make life very miserable for you if you refuse to work with us.
               She's been so miserable since her son died.
   miserably ad.
               It's been miserably wet all week.
               We failed miserably to agree.
17. modest a. having or showing a not too high opinion of one's abilities, qualities, etc.
               The young man is very modest about his success.
               Really great men are modest.
               not large in amount, size, etc.
               His needs are quite modest.
               There has been a modest development in housing conditions for the poor.
18. come up with find or produce (an answer, a solution, etc.)
               She came up with a new idea for increasing sales.
               I hope you can come up with a better plan than that.
19. win over gain (sb.’s) support or favor
               She's against the idea, but I'm sure I can win her over.
               They've won over a lot of villagers since she's been leader of the party.
20. from head to toe over the whole length of one's body
               The children were covered in mud from head to toe.
               The policeman observed me from head to toe as though I were a thief.
21. think of have as an opinion about
               Mary doesn't think much of Jane's new boyfriend.
               What do you think of the government's latest action?
22. hold one’s breath stop breathing for a short time
               The whole country held its breath as it waited for news.
               The people held their breath as the young man climbed through the window.
23. put sb. to bed make sb. go to bed
               It's time to put the children to bed.
               I always put the children to bed at 7:00 p.m.
24. hit it off have a friendly relationship with each other
               Do you hit it off with your husband's mother?
               I didn't really hit it off with his friends.




                                                       60
                                             Unit One Book Two



                                             Quiz Three
Directions: Each of the following sentences is provided with four choices. Choose the one
that best completes the sentence or that best explains the underlined part.
1. If a person talks about his weak points, his listeners is expected to say something in the way of
  _______.
    A. persuasion            B. remedy             C. encouragement           D. compromise
2. We are all _______ that the country is doing well economically, but in fact it has been in serious
  difficulty all along.
    A. under the influence                         B. within the illusion
    C. below the illusion                          D. under the impression
3. At first few of us took his analysis of the market situation seriously, but his judgment was ______
  by the subsequent development of events.
    A. strengthened          B. confronted         C. confirmed               D. confined
4. Many people _______ pollution _______ only part of a larger and more complex problem, that is,
  the whole process of industrial production ad consumption of goods.
    A. think… to be          B. look upon…to be    C. take…to be              D. see…as
5. After the headmaster had given an account of the difficulties, he _______ to suggest ways of
  overcoming them.
    A. proceeded             B. protected          C. privileged              D. processed
6. Both parties are quite determined to get what they want, and so there seems to be no possibility of
  reaching a _______.
    A. conclusion            B. compromise         C. companion               D. complaint
7. Some fish have a greater _______ for acid water than others.
    A. tolerance             B. resistance         C. dependence              D. persistence
8. Until recently the harmful effect of these man-made substances on the environment had been to a
  considerable extent overlooked by human beings.
    A. fail to notice        B. look from above    C. pretend not to see      D. forgive
9. Somehow I have to try to predict what’s going to sell three and four years from now, even though I
  can’t say with any certainty what the public will want next month..
    A. For one reason or another                   B. in one way or another
    C. to a certain extent                         D. under certain circumstances
10. Everything will eventually work out for you if you will only be patient and keep trying.
    A. find an answer to                           B. figure out
    C. make out                                    D. bring about a good result
11. Many people hope that the rains will return and ease the hardship _______ the peasants of



                                                    61
                                            Unit One Book Two



  Northern China.
    A. faced              B. faces                 C. facing                    D. to face
12. Since I am on a diet, I have been    _______ by a desire to eat.
    A. possessed          B. embarrassed           C. overwhelmed               D. counseled
13. ______ of neglecting our education, my father sent my sister and me to an evening school.
    A. Accused            B. Accusing              C. To be accused             D. That he was accused
14. The teacher warned that whoever was caught _______ during the text would be punished.
    A. cheat              B. cheating              C. to cheat                  D. to be cheat
15. It was not until she had arrived home _______ remembered her appointment with the doctor.
    A. when she           B. that she              C. and she                   D. so that she
16. He showed great interest in my field of work. He asked me _______ fresh development.
    A. informing him of                            B. to inform him
    C. to keep him informed of                     D. keeping him informed of
17. All the students have to_______ to the rules, and regulations of the school.
    A. confirm            B. confront              C. confine                   D. conform
18. Generally it is only when animals are trapped that they _______ to violence in order to escape.
    A. proceed            B. appeal                C. resort                    D. incline
19. When I think _______ those nights, it is the snow and the warm lights from the windows that I
  remember.
    A. through            B. of                    C. up                        D. over
20. Her careless spending led her _______ debt.
    A. over               B. into                  C. up                        D. from
21. The destruction of these treasures was a loss for mankind that no amount of money could
  _______ .
    A. stand up to        B. make up for           C. come up with              D. put up with
22. I’m _______ all this garbage on the stairs.
    A. fed up at          B. bored of              C. made as the devil of      D. sick and tired of
23. I never quite overcame the sense of being out of _______, of being an outsider.
    A. place              B. order`                C. date                      D. sight
24. She has got no idea _______ with her for the trip.
    A. what cloths to take                         B. of to take what clothes
    C. to take what clothes                        D. what clothes he taken
25. The child pretended _______ listening to what his mother was saying.
    A. to be not          B. not to be             C. not                       D. /
26. No one imagined that the apparently _______ businessman was really a criminal.
    A. respective         B. respectable           C. respectful                D. respected


                                                    62
                                          Unit One Book Two



27. I need to have my own problem ______ out.
    A. solved            B. arranged             C. smoothed               D. sorted
28. Jack wishes that he _______ business instead of history when he was in university.
    A. had studied       B. study                C. studied                D. had been studying
29. As we can no longer wait for the delivery of our order, we have to _______ it.
    A. delay             B. refuse               C. cancel                 D. postpone
30. I was advised to arrange for insurance _______ I needed medical treatment.
    A. nevertheless      B. although             C. in case                D. so that


KEYS:1-10 CDCDA BAABD 11-20 CCABB                      CDCBB     21-30 BDAAB         BDDCC




                                                  63
                                            Unit One Book Two



        Unit Four Studying Abroad


Time Allotment: (4.5 periods)
Section A and language points (3 periods)
Exercises and writing (1.5 period )



Teaching Aims: The teaching of this text aims to enable students
1.to master the new active words and useful phrases;
2.to learn about reasons and problems of studying abroad;
3.to get acquainted with skills of starting a paragraph with a general statement supported by reasons;
4.to get acquainted with skills of reading for key ideas in a sentence;
5.to practice what has been learned.


I.Background Information
1. Host family is the family that provides ‘board and room’, food, etc. for overseas visitors or
  students.
2. Christians are followers of Jesus with whom they have a personal relationship and they
  accept/receive into their lives as God’s son and the way to heaven. They believe that there is one
  God. Most Christians are members of one of three major groups -- Roman Catholic, Protestant, or
  Eastern Orthodox. Christianity has had an enormous influence on Western civilization, especially
  on art, business, government, and social relations.
3. Income tax is one of the taxations on individuals and companies. In many countries or regions such
  as the US and Western Europe income tax is one of the major financial resources of the government.
  It first appeared in France in 1793.
4. Health insurance is a system for the advance financing of medical expenses by means of fees or
  taxes paid into a common fund to pay for all or part of health services specified in an insurance
  policy or law. Health insurance may apply to a limited or broad range of medical services and may
  provide for full or partial costs of specific services. Benefits may consist of the right to certain
  medical services or repaying the insured for specified medical costs and may sometimes include
  income benefits for working time lost owing to sickness or maternity leave.
5. Students studying abroad are usually encouraged to learn about the history, culture, politics and
  customs of the country/countries in which they travel and study, and to respect the country's
  customs, manners, rules and laws. For instance, various countries and cultures respect certain



                                                    64
                                          Unit One Book Two



  manners and dress codes. So these students should also abide by these manners and dress codes as
  much as possible. It is a good idea for students to learn as much as they can of the language of the
  country in which they plan to travel or study. Learning basic phrases of the language can be helpful,
  and it indicates a willingness on the part of students to make an effort to communicate in the
  language of the country. It is important that students learn about the local laws abroad and obey
  them. Remember, while in a foreign country, you are subject to its laws!


II. Warm-up Questions
1. Do you want to study abroad? And why?
  Yes, because we can learn more about history, culture, politics and customs of that country as well
  as the language itself.
2. What will be the problems if you study abroad?
  I may encounter problems like finding a place to live in and enough money for personal and
  medical expenses. I also have to take care of myself .I must grasp the language as soon as possible.
  Besides, I should adapt to the food, overcome homesickness and get used to the regulations.
3. What should we do to solve the problems?
  Before go to another country, we first should learn as much as we can of the langue and make a
  good preparation. When we are in a foreign country, we will try our best to adapt to the new
  environment and make friends. Just remember, when in Rome ,do as Romans do.


III. Text Structure Analysis
1. Summary of the Text
     Every year about 78,000 foreign high school students leave home to study in the United States.
They intend to improve their English, complete high school, and learn about a different way of life.
They encounter problems like finding a place to live in and enough money for personal and medical
expenses. They also must learn to take care of themselves. They must grasp English as soon as
possible. Besides, they must adapt to the food, overcome homesickness and get used to the
regulations.

2. Outline of the text
Part I
Introduction: (Paras. 1-4)
A case: 38 young passengers are leaving for Los Angeles, California by Flight 830. (Paras. 1-2)
Questions:
1. Why is Flight 830 special?


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                                           Unit One Book Two



2. How many foreign high school level students go to USA every year?
Reasons for going to the United States (Paras. 3-4):
Questions:
1. What is the purpose of their going abroad?
  (To improve their English and to learn American way of life.)
2. How can these students get the certificate granted by the American government?
3. What is more important for Gloria Mercado?
Part II
Problems with them: (Paras.5-12)
Before they settle down: Things are not always easy: they have difficulties in finding a host family;
they must cover their own expenses; they must learn to take care of themselves; they experience two
moments of tension. (Paras. 5-9)
Questions:
1.Can these students get everything ready before they leave for the United States? (Para.5)
2. How does Gloria Mercado succeed in finding a host family? (Para.5)
3. Are American families paid for hosting foreign students? What do they get? (Para.5)
4. What expense does each teenager have to cover? (Para.6)
5. How much do teenagers need each month? (Para.6)
6. What if they would fall ill? Does it cover any disease? (Para.6)
7. Do they need their parents to help with packing? Why? (Para.7)
8. When is the worst time for them? And why? (Para.8)
9. Why do these students feel nervous while waiting for the domestic flight? (Para.9)
After they settle down: There are also many problems for them to face. (Paras. 10-12)
Question: What are the problems for them to deal with after they settle down in America?


IV. New Words and Phrases
1. Flight 830. Departure 10:45 p.m. (Para. 1)
  departure: n. 1) an act of departing
               There are several departures a day for New York.
               His departure from the company was quite a surprise to all of us.
               What is the departure time of the flight to New York?
                 2) a change from a usual or former course of action
               This is a new departure for the company.
               There can be no departure from the rules.
  depart: v. leave; turn away from a usual course of action, way of thinking



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                                            Unit One Book Two



               He departed for London yesterday.
               The train to Edinburgh will depart from platform 6 in five minutes.
               We don’t do it because it departs from our usual practice.
2. At first glance, this is just another routine flight to…(Para. 2)
  at first glance: when seen or examined for the first time
               At first glance, the bullets looked the same as the others.
  routine : adj. habitual; regular, according to what is always habitually done; not special:
               He made his routine trip to the store.
               It is only a routine medical examination.
               I arrive at nine o'clock, teach until twelve thirty and then have a meal; that is my
               morning routine.
             n. (a) regular and habitual way of working or doing things
               the day's routine (=daily routine)
               I was tired of the stultifying routine of housework.
3.…they will spend 10 months of their lives studying abroad, … (Para.2)
  abroad: adv.1) in or to a foreign country or countries; away from one’s own country
               They perform regularly both at home and abroad.
               He always goes abroad on business.
                 2) being spread widely
               It is abroad that she plans to leave the company.
               There is plenty of enthusiasm abroad.
4.…the United States is host to an average of 78.000…… (Para. 3)
  host: n. 1) a person who receives guests and provides food, drink, and amusement for them
               At the end of the party we thanked our host and went home.
             2) a person, place, or organization that provides the necessary space, equipment, etc. for a
               special event
               The city chosen as host for the Olympic games in 2008 is Beijing.
             3) (of) great number
               The research group headed by Dr. Johnson is faced with a host of difficulties.
               The unselfish man had hosts of friends.
           v. to act as host of (a party, friendly meeting, TV show, etc.)
               The academic conference was hosted by our university.
               Beijing will host the Olympic Games in the year of 2008.
  average: n. the result you get when you add several numbers together and divide the total by the
               number of numbers; ordinary or usual standard
               The average of 10, 12 and 14 is 12.


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               Mary’s work at school is above (below) the average.
          adj. found by making an average; of the ordinary standard
               The average age of girls in our class is 18.
               He and his twin brother are boys of average intelligence.
          v. find the average of, be as an average of
               If you average 5, 11, 20, you get 12.
               The rainfall averages about 40 inches a year.
5.… ---- to become fluent in English. (Para. 3)
     fluent: adj. (in) (of a person) speaking, writing, etc. in an easy smooth manner
               He is fluent in five languages.
               She speaks fluent though not very correct French.
               a fluent writer 文笔流畅的作家
              n. fluency
6.…American authorities grant a certificate… (Para.3)
     authority: n 1) (usu. Pl.) person or group having the power to give orders or take action
               This is the idea of higher authorities.
                   2) [C] a person with special knowledge
               He is a recognized authority.
               He is a famous international authority on shipbuilding.
                   3) [U] power to give orders and make others obey
               The police had the authority to do a search.
               You don’t have the authority for entering this house. It’s private.
               Teachers should have greater authority over their students.
      grant: v. 1) fml to give, esp. as a favor
               The country was granted its independence in 1969.
               2) to agree to fulfill or allow to be fulfilled
               They granted her request.
               At last my wish was granted.
               syn. accord, award, confer
            n. money given esp. by the state for a particular purpose, such as to a university or to a
               student during a period of study
               She finds it difficult to live on her grant.
7. Others dream of continuing on to college. (Para. 4)
     dream of : have a dream of /about
               Mr. White dreamed of living in a house with a nice garden and a big swimming pool.




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                                            Unit One Book Two



               He never dreamed of such an important position.
     on: adv. further in space or time, forward.
               If you walk on, you’ll come to the railway station.
               If any letters come, shall I send them on to your new address?
               It’s time to move on.
8. … and to live through this experience than it is to receive a certificate from the American
  government. (Para. 4)
     live through: experience
               The country lived through an economical crisis.
               He lived through two world war.
9.…specifies Sandro Rodrigo de Barros. (Para. 4)
     specify: v. to state exactly or describe fully so as to choose or name
               Did you specify where the new office furniture was to be put?
               I specified blue for the bedroom walls, but the decorators have painted them white.
               The rules clearly specify that competitors are not allowed to accept payment.
     specific adj.
     specification n.
10. Even young students who plan on staying in the United States just long enough…(Para. 5)
     plan on (doing sth.): prepare for
               We hadn’t planned on twins!
               We were planning on just having a snack and catching the early train.
11. Very few arrive in the country with all the details worked out. (Para. 5)
     Sometimes “with” can be used as a function word to indicate accompanying detail or condition.
     He went home with all the work finished.
     work out: plan, decide
               I have drawn up the main outlines, and we will have to work out all the details later.
               I can’t work out how to deal with it.
12. “ I think it all depends,” says Gloria, “ on how you answer the survey sent by the overseas” (Para.
     5)
   overseas: adj. (at, to, from, etc. places or countries) across the sea; foreign
               We are trying to build up overseas markets for our cars.
               There are a lot of overseas students in America.
               overseas broadcasting/ Chinese/ trade
              adv. across the sea; abroad
               If you are living overseas, you may not have to pay tax in your own country.
               Many more people travel overseas for their holidays now than used to be the case.


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                                            Unit One Book Two



13. She hit the target. (Para. 5)
     hit the target: succeed, manage
               You certainly hit the target when you said that he was lazy.
14. …I didn’t economize on words. (Para. 5)
     economize: v.(on) to avoid waste
               The best that can be said for this method is that it economizes on thought.
               He economized by using trams instead of taking a taxi every time he went to school.
               There is the need to economize on scarce energy resources.
     antonym. squander
     economy n.
     economical adj.节俭的
     economic adj. 经济的
15. American families, which host foreign students, are not paid, though they are allowed a small
  income tax deduction. (Para. 5)
     allow: 1) to permit somebody to do something
               His parents won’t allow him to come.
            2) Here in this sentence, allow is followed by two objectives and it means “to provide
               something for somebody for a special purpose.
               We are only allowed a three-minute break.
               My father allows me money for books.
     deduction: n. the process of deducing or that which is deducted
               Your gross salary will be $900 a month, which works out at about $650 after all
               deductions.
               tax deductions.
               syn.: decrease, reduction
     deduct: v. take away (an amount or part)
               Tax is deducted from your pay.
               My employer deducted a pound from my wages this week.
16. In the event of illness, each student has a …(Para. 6)
     in the event of: if it should happen that; in case of.
               In the event of rain, the game will be postponed.
               He asked his sister to look after his children in the event of his death.
     compare
     in the event: as it happened, when it actually happened
               We were afraid he would be nervous on stage, but in the event he performed



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                                             Unit One Book Two



               beautifully.
17. Health insurance does not cover AIDS, abortion and suicide, … (Para. 6)
    cover: v. 1) to protect from loss or insure
               Are you covered against fire?
               2) to be enough money for
               Will $10 cover the cost of the damage?
               3) include
               The review covered everything we learned last term.
18. Basically, most students leave knowing they will have to do without their accustomed parental
   protection and learn to take care of themselves. (Para. 7)
    Notice that in this sentence the whole “knowing…” phrase functions as an adverbial. In English,
    the “doing…”phrase often functions as an adverbial in this way. For example:
               She had to work standing up.
               He rushed off, even forgetting to take his overcoat.
               Seeing this, some of us became very worried.
    do without: to manage to live or continue satisfactorily without
               There was no television on the island, but we soon learned to do without.
               I can do without (=would rather not have) your sarcastic comments!
19.…or even take on the task themselves. (Para. 7)
    take on: 1) undertake or charge oneself with
               Why not have a rest? You are taking on too much work.
               Don’t take on responsibility that you cannot handle.
               2) to start to employ
               We decided to take on a new clerk in the accounts department.
               3) to begin to have (a quality or appearance); assume
               These insects can take on the color of their surroundings.
    compare:
     take in: 1) to understand fully
                It took me a long time to take in what you were saying
              2) to deceive
                Don’t be taken in by his promises.
     take after: to look or behave like (an older relative)
                Mary really takes after her mother; she has the same eyes, nose, and hair.
     take off: to remove (esp. clothes); to rise into the air at the beginning of a flight
     take over: to gain control over and responsibility for sth
                Who do you think will take over now that the governor has been dismissed?


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     take up: 1) to begin to spend time doing; interest oneself in
                John took up acting while he was at college.
                2) (of things or events) to fill or use (space or time), esp. in a way that is undesirable
                The job took up most of Sunday.
     take to: 1) to feel a liking for, esp. at once
                I took to Paul as soon as we met.
              2) to begin as a practice, habit, etc.
                All this gloomy news is enough to make you take to drink.

20.…they will have to do without their accustomed parental protection…(Para.7)
     accustomed: a. 1) regular, usual
                She is sitting in her accustomed place at the head of the table.
                She spoke with her accustomed modesty.
                       2) in the habit of; used to
                I’m not accustomed to getting up so early.
                I am accustomed to sleeping late.
21.…show their lack of practice at such things. (Para. 7)
     lack: n. the state of not having (enough of) something
                The plants died through / for lack of water.
                There is no lack of vegetable.
                Serious lack of circulating fund forced the closure of the company.
          v. to be without; not have, or not have enough of (esp. something needed or wanted)
                Their actions lack consistency; they say one thing and do another.
                These photographs lack definition. You'd better have them taken again.
                The female bird lacks the male’s bright coloration.
     compare: lack and be short of.
     Both can mean “not to have enough of something” but lack (or commonly be lacking in) is used
     especially with abstract nouns. e.g:
                The teacher said that the child lacked/ was lacking in confidence.
                Be short of is more common than lack when talking about objects and materials, eg:
                We’re short of sugar / apples.
                (Lack would be very formal in sentences like these.)
22. They take along unnecessary items. (Para.7)
     item: 1) [C] single article or unit in a list, etc.
                We have many items to be discussed in our meeting today.
               The restaurant has a long menu of about 50 items.



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                                            Unit One Book Two



               There are some books, a notebook, and some other items of the desk.
             2) [C] single piece of news
                a front-page item
                The earthquake was the most important item of news this week.
                There was an interesting item in today’s newspaper.
23. One student from the Brazilian South succeeded in stuffing two enormous suitcases to their
  capacity, and had to cope with her cabin luggage as well. (Para. 7)
    capacity: n. 1) the amount that something can hold or contain
                The fuel tank has a capacity of 12 gallons.
                The seating capacity of this theatre is 500.
                  2) ability or power
                Her capacity to remember facts is remarkable.
                He has a great capacity for enjoying himself.
     to (one’s) capacity: completely full
                This ship was filled to capacity with goods.
                The theatre was filled to capacity.
                His cheek was swelled to capacity.
24.…and to cope with her cabin luggage as well…” (Para. 8)
     cope: 1) (with) to deal successfully with a difficult situation
                The factory coped very well with the sudden increase.
                We should be ready to cope with unexpected catastrophes.
                syn: deal with
            2) compete with
                No one can cope with him in English.
25. as well: 1) in addition; also; too
                I’m going to London and my sister’s coming as well.
                He mentioned other matters as well.
             2) with as a good result
                The weather was so bad we might (just) as well have stayed at home.
                I might as well go.
  compare:
  as well as: in addition to (being)
  We should notice that when we use this phrase, the noun before it is emphasized, just as contrast to
  the phrase “not only… but also”. So the gender and number of the predicate verb should be in
  accordance with that of the former noun. For example:
                The mother, as well as her three children, was taken to hospital.


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                                             Unit One Book Two



              The girl, as well as the boys, has finished their homework..
              He fished for fun as well as for a living.
              He hurt his arm as well as breaking his leg.
              He was kind as well as sensible.
26. Another moment of tension descends…(Para. 9)
    descend: 1) arrive (or attack) in a sudden or an overwhelming manner.
              Summer tourists descend on the seashore village.
              2) fml to move from a higher to a lower place; come or go down
              He descended from the top of the mountain.
              Put the factors in descending order of importance.
              I want to talk about all these points in descending order of importance.
              3) come from:
              She was descended from a pioneer family.
              He (is) descended from a good family.
              syn.: decline drop fall plunge
              ant.: ascend, rise
27. …while students await the domestic flight…(Para. 9)
    await: v. fml to wait for
              She is in prison awaiting trial.
              It is a long-awaited holiday
              I am awaiting their reply.
    domestic: adj 1) of or inside a particular country, not foreign or international
              Domestic public opinion had turned against the war.
                   2) of the home, house or family
              She loves going out, but he’s very domestic.
28. From then on it’s everyone for himself.
    from then on: since that time
              She had a car accident a year ago and has suffered from back pain from then on.
29. No one really knows how she/he will adapt to such new customs. (Para. 9)
    adapt: 1) change (something) for other uses
              The play has been adapted for children.
              This novel has been adapted for radio from the English original.
              This machine has been specially adapted for use underwater.
            2) to make something suitable for a new use, situation, etc.
              He adapted himself to the cold weather.
              When you go to a new place, you must adapt yourself to customs there.


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                                             Unit One Book Two



    adaptation n.
    adaptable adj.
               syn: adjust (to)
    compare
    adopt: 1) to take and use as one’s own
               We adopted their production methods.
            2) to take (someone else’s child) into one’s family for ever and to take on the full
               responsibilities in law of a parent
               He’s not my real father; I’m adopted.
30. The food her doesn’t look too nourishing…. (Para.10)
     nourish: v. 1) keep (a person, an animal or a plant) alive and well with food
               Most plants are nourished by water drawn up through their roots.
               Milk is a nourishing drink.
               a well-nourished baby
                 2) have or increase (a feeling, etc.)
              Lisa has long nourished the hope of becoming a famous writer.
              The young man nourished a deep attraction for her.
    nourishment n.
31.“The food here doesn’t look too nourishing,” pines Fernando Andrade. (Para. 10)
    pine: 1) to be very unhappy or to grieve
               The dog was pining for its dead master.
          2) (away) to become thin, less active, and lose strength and health slowly, through disease
             or esp. grief.
               pined away and died.
               He pined away after his wife died.
           3) (for) to have a strong desire, esp. that is impossible to fulfill
               They were pining for their homeland back in Europe.
           4) When we use this word as a noun, it means a kind of tall tree with thin sharp leaves
            (pine needles) that do not drop off in winter and woody fruits (pinecones) that grows esp.
            in colder parts of the world. If you still have no idea about what this tree is, please look at
            the following picture.
32. Another big problem encountered by… (Para. 10)
    encounter: v. 1) to be faced with or have to deal with (something bad esp. a danger or a
                         difficulty)
               We encountered a lot of problems.
               I encountered fierce opposition.


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                                          Unit One Book Two



              The young scientists encountered many difficulties during their exploration.
              syn: confront, face, run into
                     2) to meet unexpectedly
              He encountered an old friend on the street.
              She encountered a friend on the plane.
33.…study program has to do with the time,…(Para. 11)
    have to do with: to be concerned or associated with
              Her job has nothing to do with telephones.
              Don’t have anything to do with him –he’s completely untrustworthy.
34. “They’re really tough,” …(Para. 11)
    tough: 1) showing strong determination; uncompromising
              a tough negotiator.
              a tough policy
              We won the contract, but only through a lot of tough negotiating.
            2) not easy, needing effort
              She is a tough customer.
              The above sentence can be rewritten as “She is a person difficult to deal with.”
35. One important regulation of the foreign study program has to with the time. (Para 11)
    regulation: 1) [C] rule made by an authority
              fire regulations
              the school regulations
              keep to the regulations
              laws and regulations
              The rules and regulations should be made to be manifest to all staff.
              syn. rule
                 2) [U] controlling or being controlled
              the regulation of food prices
              Regulation of all the machines must take place every month.
              syn. setting, administration, management
36.…with little command of English. (Para. 12)
    command: n. 1) the ability to use or control something.
              He has a good command of French.
              He has an impressive command of the details.
              He has no command over himself.
                   2) order
              Who is the officer in command?


                                                   76
                                                 Unit One Book Two



                The army is under the king’s command.
                   v. to tell (someone) to do something, with the right to be obeyed
                Do as I command (you).
                The general commanded his men to attack the city.
                He commanded that we (should) attack at once.
37. This in turn pushes up the program cost, … (Para. 12)
     in turn: in a sequence
                Theory comes from practice and in turn serves practice.
38.…estimated at about $ 3,800, including air fare. (Para. 12)
     estimate: v. make a possible judgment or guess, usually followed by “at”
                I estimate her age at 35.
                n. a possible judgment or guess
                My estimate of his abilities was wrong.
                Now I've realized that my estimate of her character was one-sided.
                syn: estimate, assess, evaluate
     fare: 1) a transportation charge, as for a bus
                a bus fare         a taxi fare         All fares please.
                syn: charge, cost, fee, and payment.
             2) to get along or succeed
                He fared quite well in the exam.
                I think I fared quite well in the interview.
                How are you faring with your project?
                It has fared well (ill) with him.
             3) When fare is combined with the word “well”, it means “goodbye”.
                Farewell! I hope we meet again soon.
                It’s time to say our farewells.


V. Difficult Sentences Analysis:
1. Very few arrive in the country with all the details worked out. (Para. 5)
    ----- Almost none of the students managed to have all details planned or decided when they arrive
    in the United States.
2. …I didn’t economize on words. (Para. 5)
     ------I said all that I wanted to say.
3. She hit the target. (Para. 5)
    ------She just did the right thing and succeeded.



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                                            Unit One Book Two



4. American families, which host foreign students, are not paid, though they are allowed a small
  income tax deduction. (Para. 5)
    ------Those American families are not paid for providing room and board for foreign students,
    though they could pay less income tax.
5. Basically, most students leave knowing they will have to do without their accustomed parental
  protection and learn to take care of themselves. (Para. 7)
    ------Basically, most students leave their homes knowing they will have to live on their own and
    learn to take care of themselves without parents’ protection that they have been used to.
6. The youngsters frequently show their lack of practice at such things. (Para. 7)
    ------These young people very often show they haven’t had enough practice at such things.
7. One student from the Brazilian South succeeded in stuffing two enormous suitcases to their capacity,
  and had to cope with her cabin luggage as well. (Para. 7)
    ------One student from the Brazilian South managed to fill two really big suitcases with as many
    items as possible, and had to handle the luggage she could take with her to the cabin, too.
8. Another moment of tension descends while students await the domestic flight that will take them to
  their temporary home in America. (Para. 9)
    ------While students are waiting for the domestic flight that will take them to the places they will
    stay at, they feel tension again.
9. From then on it’s everyone for himself. (Para. 9)
    -------Since that time everyone must take care of himself.
10. Another big problem encountered by most youngsters is how sick they feel about being away from
  home. (Para. 10)
    -------Another big problem faced by most youngsters is that they long for home.


VI. Writing
Structured Writing:
     Write a paragraph by starting with a general statement supported by reasons or explanations.
     Very often, in our writing, we first write a general statement. Then we give explanations and
reasons to support. In this case, we answer “why” to a question. For example, when you state in your
first paragraph the concept that “Time is money”, you must illustrate your points in the following
paragraphs and explain to your reader why you say so. Now can you give your reasons why people
say, “Time is money”?
(Answer for reference)
1. Our life is nothing more than our time. Therefore, to kill our time is a form of suicide.
2. Time lost can never be regained. So we must make the best use of every minute of it.



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                                            Unit One Book Two



3. All time is precious, but the time of youth is more precious than any other part of our existence. If
  properly used, it will yield us incalculable advantages. )


Sample:
                       College Student Owning Mobile Phone


     As is known to all, owning mobile phones has become a new necessity for common students.
People seem to get accustomed to keeping a mobile phone at hand. In fact, 35% of college students
keep mobile phones.
     The reasons of the wide spread of mobile phones on campus lie in several aspects. Firstly, the
price of mobile phones has dropped rapidly. Secondly, college students need mobile phones to seek
employment before graduation. Thirdly, mobile phones can meet their daily demands in
communication. Finally, students can enjoy themselves with mobile phones.
     As a matter of fact, more students will buy mobile phones in the future. On one hand, the actual
demands for mobile phones will increase. On the other hand, both the price of mobile phones and
fees of calling will decrease further. Therefore, most students will own phones sooner of later.


VII. Dictation:
     The reasons to study abroad vary. Perhaps you are majoring in a foreign language and want to
study it first hand. Or maybe you have a strong enough language background to tackle both a foreign
country and language. If you don’t have the language background, there are still other reasons to study
abroad. You may find an English-speaking program that fits your interests. Some students go abroad
simply to experience a foreign country. Whether your reasons for studying abroad are specific to your
major or completely unrelated, studying abroad is worth doing.
     By going abroad, you break from your country culture and expand your horizons. You do not live
in hotels, but instead live in homes, villas, or dorms. You not only see the tourist sites like the
Egyptian Pyramids or Eiffel Tower, but also the small markets or countryside towns. Because of the
long stay in another country, you become a resident of that country, not a tourist. Once settled in your
new home, a foreign culture transforms into a familiar and fascinating home away from home. Your
sensitivity to diversity and your global understanding widen.


VIII Homework
1. Do all the exercises in Section A, B and C.
2. Preview the next unit.



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                                              Unit One Book Two



                                 Section B           Experiences in Exile
I. Outline of the Text
1) The author’s feelings and thoughts on the way from Montreal to Vancouver. (Paras.1-5)
     A. We began our journey and the people around us tries to avoid us just because we were so poor.
        (Paras. 1-2)
     B. As the train was running forward. I felt everything around me strange so I had no interest in
        any of them, for I missed my hometown. (Paras.3-4)
     C. Father was filled with a kind of illusion after learning from a man speaking Yiddish about
        Polish Jew making a large fortune in Canada. (Para.5)
2) The author’s feeling and thoughts after arriving in Vancouver. (Paras. 6-8)
     A .My parents were excited after getting to our destination. (Para. 6)
     B. I was wondering what our future would be in this strange land. (Paras.7-8)


II. Summary of the Text
     We are to take the train from Montreal to Vancouver. Being Polish Jew, my family is very poor,
so we have brought suitcases full of dried cake, canned sardines and sausages. The meal on the dining
car is too expensive for us to afford. On the way, most of the time I just kept silent, and I don’t want to
look at the landscape, although my parents are a little excited. My father, on hearing on Polish Jew has
become a millionaires in Canada, is very excited. However, for me it is a distant dream. When we
finally reached our destination, I found Vancouver is even stranger, I don’t know for sure what my
future life will be like.


III. New Words and Phrases
1. Experiences in Exile
  [U] being sent away from one's native country or home, esp. for political reasons or as a punishment
                The President went into exile abroad in 1959 because of the political situation in his
                own country. After many years of exile thousands of families will now be able to return
                to their homeland.
  [C] person who lives away from his own country by choice or because he is forced to
                There were many French exiles in England after the war.
                The island is full of tax exiles.
  v. send sb. into exile
                She was exiled from her country because of her part in the plot against the government.
                The President was exiled for life.



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                                             Unit One Book Two



2. We are in Montreal, in an echoing, dark train station, and we are squeezed together on a bench…
  (Para.1)
  echo: v. (of places) repeat a sound
                His footsteps echoed in the empty hall.
                The room echoed with the sound of their happy laughter
3. Eventually, a man speaking broken Polish approaches us, … (Para.1)
  approach: v. come near (to)
                He approached the old lady slowly, having no idea how to tell her the bad news.
                As summer approaches, the weather becomes hotter.
               n. act of approaching
                The little boy ran away as fast as he could at their approach.
4. The train cuts through infinite territory, … (Para.3)
  territory: n. [C, U] (area of) land under the control of a ruler, country, city, etc.
                The UN is sending aid to the occupied territories.
                He was shot down in enemy territory.
                [C, U] area ruled by one person, group or animal and defended against others
                My sister’s bedroom is forbidden territory to the rest of us.
                He seems to regard that end of the office as his territory.
5. After a while, I shrink into a silent indifference, … (Para.4)
  shrink: vi. 1) move away from something or somebody unpleasant
                She is shy by nature and shrinks from any stranger.
                The little boy shrank back with a cry at the sight of a snake.
                We must not shrink from difficulties.
                2) become smaller, esp. because of water, heat or cold
                Will the shirt shrink in the wash?
                Car sales have been shrinking recently.
             vt. cause sth. to become smaller
                The hot water shrank my sweater.
                The productivity increase has shrunk our costs by 25%.
6. My sister, perhaps recoiling even more deeply from all this strangeness,… (Para.4)
  recoil: vi. move away from something unpleasant; moving back because of fear or not liking
                For a moment I thought father was going to beat me, and I recoiled in horror.
                The dog recoiled from the rotten food because of the unpleasant smell.
7. In spite of my parents’ objections,… (Para.5)
  objection: n. (to) not supporting or resistance
                Some managers have raised objection to laying off too many employees.


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                                              Unit One Book Two



               Linda has no objection to her daughter’s idea about her future career.
  object: vi. (to) be against
               I strongly object to raising the price of our new product by 20%.
           vt. give a reason against sth.
               In this sense, the verb is very often followed by a that-clause.
               I object that he is too young and inexperienced for such a key position.
8.…and after making sure that we are the right people,… (Para. 7)
  make sure (that… / of sth.):
               1) find out if sth. is certainly true
               I think I locked the door, but I’ll just go back to make sure that I did.
               2) do what is necessary to feel sure about sth.
               There aren’t many tickets left for this film, so you had better make sure of one today.
               I think you should go to the workshop to make sure (that) everything goes smoothly
9 .... in their half-embarrassed embrace. (Para. 7)
  embrace: n. [C] act of taking someone in one's arms as a sign of liking
               He held her in a warm embrace.
               They greeted each other with a warm embrace.
            vt. 1) take (a person, etc.) into one's arms as a sign of liking
               She embraced her son before leaving.
               They embraced each other warmly.
                2) (of things) include
               The term "mankind" embraces men, women and children.
               We’re trying to develop an all-embracing policy which deals with every element of
               education.




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                                              Unit One Book Two



                                               Quiz Four
Directions: Each of the following sentences is provided with four choices. Choose the one that
best completes the sentence.
1.This tickets         to a free meal in our new restaurant.
     A gives                  B grants              C entitles              D credits
2.The old couple decided to ________a boy and a girl though they had three pf their own.
    A adapt                   B bring               C receive               D adopt
3.I suggested that he should ____himself to the new conditions.
     A adopt                  B regulate            C suit                  D adapt
4. He suggested ____ to tomorrow’s exhibition together.
    A us to go                B we went             C we shall go           D we go
5._____he works hard, I don’t mind when he finished the experiments.
    A As soon as              B As well as          C So far as             D So long as
6. We object ___ punishing a whole group for one person’s fault
    A against                 B about               C to                    D for
7. He is late again today, I’ll ____ that he will not be late tomorrow.
    A be sure                 B hope for            C see to it             D make it so
8. It is hard to believe that when she was ______ the chance to study in Paris for a year, Janet should
  have given it up.
    A. presented              B. granted            C. provided             D. introduced
9. The newcomers found it impossible to ________ themselves to the climate sufficiently to make
  permanent homes in the new country.
    A. coordinate             B. adopt              C. suit               D. adapt
10. Working on the farm is a new ________ for him.
    A. leave               B. departure             C. left               D. taste
11. Children and old people don’t like having their daily ________ upset.
    A. habit               B. routine               C. practice           D. custom
12. On his trip ________ he visited relative in Japan.
    A. abroad              B. aboard                C. overseas           D. board
13. She is ________ in five languages.
    A. flourishing         B. fluent                C. smooth             D. flute
14. She now has ________ over the people she used to take orders from.
    A. chance              B. authoritative         C. authority          D. authorities
15. This ________ shows that John Williams has completed the schoolwork of the eighth grade.
    A. qualification       B. certificate           C. identification     D. license



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16. Tax is ________ from your salary.
    A. reduced            B. less                 C. deducted             D. out
17. A good newspaper publishes both ________ and foreign news.
    A. domestic           B. strain               C. murder               D. purchase
18. The new comers found it impossible to ________ themselves to the climate sufficiently to make
   permanent homes in the new country.
    A. suit               B. adapt                C. regulate             D. coordinate
19. What is the bus ________ to London?
    A. fee                B. cost                 C. fare                 D. price
20. As a result of careless washing, the jacket _________ to a child’s size.
    A. compress           B. shrank               C. dropped              D. decreased


KEYS: 1-10 CDDDD         CCBDB 11-20 BABCB CABAB




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                                            Unit One Book Two



                  Unit Five             Weeping for My Smoking Daughter
Time Allotment: (4.5 periods)
Section A and language points (3 periods)
Exercises and writing (1.5 period )



Teaching Aims: The teaching of this text aims to enable students
1. to master the new active words and useful phrases;
2. to learn about the mother’s attitude toward smoking and her bitter feelings;
3. to get acquainted with skills of developing a paragraph by cause-effect technique;
4. to get acquainted with figurative language;
5. to practice what has been learned.


I. Background Information
1. Smoking
     Smoking is harmful to the health. Smoking causes lung diseases such as lung cancer. Some
research shows that lung cancer is ten times higher among smokers than non-smokers. This is because
cigarette’s smoke contains three harmful substances - tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide. Tar, as the
tobacco burns, damages the lung and therefore affects breathing. Nicotine, which can be found in the
leaves, causes the heart to beat faster and increases breathing rate. Smoking irritates the throat and
respiratory passages and sometimes
causes loss of appetite, nausea,
shortness of breath, and irregularity
of the heartbeat. But even more
important,   smoking-    particularly
cigarette smoking- brings chronic
and often fatal diseases of the
respiratory tract. Many statistical
evidence shows that smokers are
more likely to develop cancer of the
lung, throat, tongue, and jaw than
are nonsmokers. They are also more
likely to develop emphysema(肺气肿) and bronchitis(支气管炎).
2. Third World




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                                            Unit One Book Two



     Third World general designation of economically developing nations. The term arose during the
cold war, when two opposing blocs—one led by the United States (first), the other led by the USSR
(second)—appeared to dominate world politics. Within this bipolar model, the Third World consisted
of economically and technologically less developed countries belonging to neither bloc. Originated by
the Martinique-born Marxist writer Frantz Fanon, the designation was essentially negative and not
always accepted by the countries concerned. Although political and economic upheavals in the late
1980s and early 1990s marked the collapse of the Soviet power bloc, “Third World” remains a useful
label for a conglomeration of countries otherwise difficult to categorize.
     The countries of the Third World, containing some two-thirds of the world's population, are
located in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Politically, they are generally nonaligned. Some are
moving out of their previous situation and may soon join the ranks of industrialized countries. Others,
with economies considered intrinsically incapable of development, are at times lumped together as
forming a “fourth world.”
     Political instability caused by precarious economic situations is widespread in the Third World.
Democracy in the Western meaning of the term is almost completely absent. Both the Western and the
former Soviet blocs have tried to entice the Third World to follow their own examples, but the
countries concerned generally prefer to create their own institutions based on indigenous traditions,
needs, and aspirations; most choose pragmatism over ideology. It is debated whether China is part of
the Third World, with which it once identified itself on racial, cultural, and developmental grounds,
proclaiming that the exploited countries should unite against imperialist forces, both Western and
Soviet. After the death of Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) in 1976, however, the Chinese attitude
moderated.
     The Third World displays little homogeneity; it is divided by race, religion, culture, and
geography, as well as frequently opposite interests. It generally sees world politics in terms of a global
struggle between rich and poor countries—the industrialized North against the backward South. Some
nations, such as those of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), have found
ways to assert their economic importance as sources of raw materials indispensable to advanced
societies, and others may follow suit. Widely advocated within the Third World is a so-called New
Economic Order, which through a combination of aid and trade agreements would transfer wealth
from the developed to the developing nations.


II. Warm-up Questions

1. What are the effects of smoking?
2. What do you think are the solutions to the problem of smoking?
3. What have most authorities done to prohibit smoking?


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                                             Unit One Book Two




III. Text Structure Analysis
1.Outline of the text:
Part I
Discovering that my daughter has picked up the habit of smoking makes me want to weep. (Para 1)
Questions:
1. How does the writer feel when she sees her daughter smoking?
  She feels terrible and wants to weep.
2. When she sees that the cigarettes her daughter smokes are filtered, she feels grateful, why?
  At least, this kind of cigarettes is lighter than those unfiltered ones.
3. When the daughter smoked Marlboros and Players, the mother hardened herself against feeling so
  bad, why?
  There are light cigarettes.
Part II
How has my father become addicted to smoking? (Paras. 2-5)
A. First he just smoked Prince Albert tobacco in cigarettes he rolled himself. (Para. 2)
B. My father was completely conquered by cigarettes. (Para. 3)
C. My father started to cough and then died from pneumonia.(Paras. 4-5)
Questions:
1. What did the writer’s father smoke before he smoked cigarettes made by manufactures?
  He smoked Prince Albert tobacco in cigarettes he rolled himself.
2. By the time the writer was sixteen, what effects did smoking cigarettes have on her father’s health?
  His breath was a wheeze and could not climb stairs without resting every third or fourth step. It was
  usual for him to cough for an hour.
Part III
The author’s idea and comments on cigarette smoking (Paras. 6-8)
A. Like my father and my daughter, many people in the Third World countries have fallen victims to
  cigarettes. (Para. 6)
B. As a mother I can’t bear seeing my own daughter was poisoned by smoking. (Para. 7)
C. Smoking is a form of self-battering that also batters those who must sit by. (Para. 8)
Questions:
1. In the poor countries of the Third World, how is money spent that should go to food? And what
  results from that?
 Money goes to the tobacco companies. As a result, people starve themselves of both food and air,
  effectively weakening and hooking their children, eventually killing themselves.


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                                            Unit One Book Two



2. What does the writer read in the newspaper and in the gardening magazine about the effects of
  cigarette ends?
  The ends of cigarettes are so poisonous that if a baby swallows one, it is likely to die, and that the
  boiled water from a bunch of them makes an effective insecticide.
3. Why does the writer feel a deep hurt as a mother?
  Because it is a feeling of uselessness.
4. According to Paragraph 8, how does the writer view smoking?
  Smoking is a form of self-battering that also batters those who must sit by.

2. Summary of the Text
    A mother is deeply hurt because her daughter is smoking the same kind of cigarettes that killed
her grandfather. Tobacco advertising and film actors had attracted the grandfather to smoking but he
never looked well like them. His health was poor when his daughter was only sixteen; his breathing
was difficult; he rested often when climbing stairs; he often coughed for an hour. Now his daughter is
deeply hurt again; she was so careful raising her own daughter. For what purpose to see all her care
thrown away when her sixteen-year slowly kills herself? The mother feels smoking is self-injury. It
also injures others who watch a loved one die. The mother watched her father’s slow death; that one
victory for the rich tobacco companies is enough.


IV. New Words and Phrases
1. Weeping for My Smoking Daughter (Title)
  weep: cry, esp. because you fell very sad
               He lost control of his feeling and began to weep.
               She wept at the sad new.
               He weep over his failure/her sad fate.
  compare cry, weep, sob
  These verbs are used to express grief or pain by tears or voice or both. Cry and weep both involve
  tear-shedding; cry is the more common term and more strongly implies accompanying sound. Sob
  describes weeping, or a mixture of broken speech and weeping, marked by convulsive breathing or
  gasping.
  cry: If you cry, you produce tears, usually because you are unhappy.
               The babies cried for their mothers.
  sob: When people sob, they cry in a noisy way, usually breathing in short breaths.
               She put her head on her friend’s shoulder and began to sob.
               The sobbing began again.
2. her calculator clicking out answers to her geometry problems, … (Para.1)



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                                             Unit One Book Two



  geometry: the area of mathematics dealing with the relations and qualities of lines, points, surfaces
                 and solids
                 the laws of geometry
                 a geometry lesson
                 He is studying solid geometry (立体几何) as his major.
  geometric adj.
  geo-: earth
  Words begin with geo-:
  geography (the study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the earth)
  geomagnetic (the mathematics of the properties, measurement, and relationships of points, lines,
  angles, surfaces, and solids.)
  geothermal (of or relating to the internal heat of the earth)
3. tossed carelessly close at hand. (Para.1)
  toss: to throw something, esp. something light, with a quick gentle movement of your hand
                He tossed the paper bag into some nearby bushes.
                We tossed the coin to decide who would pay the bill.
   (close) at hand: within reach; near
                 When Betty writes, she always keeps a dictionary at hand.
                 Fortunately there was someone at hand, so we asked him to deliver the message at
                 once.
                 This phrase can also be used figuratively to refer to time, meaning: near in time.
                 The end-of-term examination is (close) at hand.
3. they’re filtered, for which I am grateful. (Para.1)
  filter: 1) to pass through or as if through a filter
                filter out impurities
                Light filtered through the blinds.
          2) to come or go gradually and in small groups
             The audience filtered back into the hall.
          3) filter through/ into
                The news slowly filtered through to everyone in the office.
                As was expected, the news filtered through.
                filter tip (香烟的)过滤嘴
  grateful: feeling that you want to thank someone because of something kind that they have done.
             Dr Cameron has received hundreds of letter from grateful patients.
             He was extremely grateful to Gladstone for his support.



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                                               Unit One Book Two



  grate v.
  gratitude n.
5. I hardened myself against feeling so bad; ... (Para.1)
  harden: 1) to become firm or stiff, or to make something firm or stiff
              Make sure you give the paint enough time to dry and harden.
             2) to become more strict and determined and less sympathetic
              Opposition to the military regime has hardened since the massacres.
              He did a lot of morning exercises to harden the body.
              Life in the mountains hardened me.
                 adj. + en = become adj.
                 n. + en = cause to have n.
  Words with –en:
     soften, whiten, widen, deepen, blacken, strengthen, lengthen, loosen, tighten, sharpen
6. ... nobody I knew ever smoked these brands. (Para.1)
  brand: n. a type of product manufactured by a particular company
                 Which brand of toothpaste do you prefer?
                 The company sells goods under their own brand.
                 Do you like this brand of tea?
          v. 1) mark sth. with or as if with a brand
                 They branded him as a liar.
             2) give sb. a bad name
                 brand the lesson on one’s mind
                 The scandal branded him for life.
                 The opposite parties are branding the Prime (as) a man without principle.
7. completely won over people like my father(Para. 3)
  win over: get someone’s support or friendship by persuading them or being nice to them
                 We’ll be working hard over the next 10 years to win over the undecided voters.
8. The tobacco industry, coupled with Hollywood movies in which both male and female heroes
  smoked like chimneys, …who were hopelessly hooked by cigarettes. (Para.3)
  couple with: link or associate sb. /sth with sb. /sth
                 The name of Mozart is coupled with the city of Salzburg.
  hopelessly: ad. in such a bad way that is causing no hope or not likely to improve
                 Most of the students are making good progress but Jeremy hopelessly fails again.
                 adj. hopeless: lacking ability; very bad
                 I am hopeless at cooking.
                 n. hope


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                                           Unit One Book Two



               lay one’s hope in
               anchor one’s hope in
               set one’s hope in
               build one’s hope on
   hooked: depending or relying on sth, addicted or used to; accustomed
               Some youngsters are hopelessly hooked on computer games, nowadays.
9. …he continued to look like a poor, overweight, hardworking colored man with too large a family,
    black, with a … (Para. 3)
   over-: 1) too much
               overpopulation
               overcooked cabbage
           2) above, beyond, across
               the overland route
               overhanging branches
           3) outer
               an overcoat
               overall
           4) additional
               work overtime
               overage
10. Perhaps it was unnoticeable at first, a little coughing in the morning as he lit his first cigarette
    upon getting out of bed. (Para. 4)
   noticeable: not able to see or notice; evident, worthy of notice, significant
               The mother left with an unnoticeable smile on the face.
   upon/on: 一……就
               On seeing the police they ran away.
11. … he couldn’t climb stairs without resting every third or fourth steps. (Para. 4)
   not/never…without… : when … always; every /each time
               I never see you without thinking of your sister. Your are as like as two peas. (你们俩长
                              得一模一样)
               We can’t survive without air.
               I can’t tell a joke without laughing myself.
12. at a family reunion (Para. 5)
  re - 1) again, anew        rebuild
         2) back             react



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                                              Unit One Book Two



         3) stress             redouble(to double)
13. but by then he was so slim no one noticed. (Para.5)
    slim: thin / very small ; slight
                Girls all try to get slim.
                She has got a lovely slim figure.
                It’s quite a slim book so it is not too heavy to carry.
                There are slim hopes of success.
                The opportunity was slim.
                We only have a slim chance of winning the game.
                syn. slender
14. people starve themselves of both food and air ... (Para.6)
    starve: (cause a person or an animal to) suffer seriously or die from hunger
                They got lost in the desert and starved to death.
                Notice that this verb is often used together with the preposition “of”. This verb also has
                the sense of suffering because of lacking something other than food.
                People in this region are starved of drinking water.
                The motherless children were starved of affection.
                starve for= be starved of: be short of
                They are starving for news/ companionship.
                starve sb. into
                They tried to starve the army into surrender.
15. the beautiful, “worldly” young woman, ... (Para.6)
    worldly: experienced
                After ten years in London, my sister is much more worldly than she used to be.
                He is an experienced and worldly man who had been many places of the world.
16. that if a baby swallows one, it is likely to die, ... (Para.6)
    swallow: 1) cause to move down from your mouth to your stomach
                He swallowed more pills.
                He swallowed his meals and rushed to school.
                He finished the beer with a swallow. (n.)
               2) believe sth. too easily
                He flatters her outrageously, and she swallows it whole.
17. ... the boiled water from a bunch of them makes an effective insecticide. (Para.6)
    bunch: group
                a bunch of flowers/grapes/roses/newspapers
                They were acting like a bunch of spoiled children..


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                                               Unit One Book Two



                  a bunch of keys/ fruits
  make: have the quality for (esp. sth. good)
                  The story makes good reading. 这故事很有看头。
                  The wall calendar makes a nice new year gift.
                  Cold tea makes a good drink in summer.
18. There is a quotation from a battered women’s shelter that I … (Para. 8)
    batter: hit sb. / sth. hard and often
                  The parents have been known for battering their children.
                  The man was battering on wall.
                  He kept battering at the door.
    compare
    hit: If you hit someone, you touch them quickly with a lot of force with your hand or stick or
        other object.
                  The man was so angry that he hit the boy on the head.
                  If you hit a ball, you make it move by swinging a bat, racket or club to touch it with
                  force.
                  Golf is a game whose aim is to hit a very small ball into a small hole .
    beat: If you beat someone, you hit them many times so as to hurt or punish them, usually with a
           stick.
                  His step father used to beat him with an iron bar.
                  When you beat someone in a game, you defeat them.
                  The Rockets was beaten by the Lakers.
    strike: If you strike someone or something, you hit them with a stick or hand or other objects
           usually because you are very angry.
                  He was striking his dog with a whip.
                  If you strike an object such as a ball, you hit it hard so that it goes in a particular
                  direction.
                  He struck the ball beautifully.


V. Difficult Sentences Analysis:
1. …and her calculator clicking out answers to her geometry problems (Para.1)
  --------…-and she works out her geometry problems by making a hard sound, which sounds click,
  click, click.
  This type of expression can be rewritten by adding “with” or by using the “and + finite verb”
  structure. The above example can be rewritten as follows:



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                                              Unit One Book Two



  The man sat in the front row, with his hands on the table.
  Or: The man sat in the front row, and his hands were on the table.
  “her calculator clicking out answers” performs a similar function and can be rewritten in a similar
  way:...with her calculator clicking out answers ...; or: ... and her calculator clicked out answers ...
2. …and study them -- they’re filtered, for which I am grateful. (Para.1)
  --------... and examine them carefully-- they have a tip (filter) on one end for smoking at, and I feel
  or experience a feeling of thanks for this fact that it is safer for my daughter.
  “Study” is used here in the sense of “examine carefully”.
3. when he was very young and very poor, with glowing eyes … (Para.2)
  -------- when he was very young and very poor, his eyes shining with energy ...
4. … who were hopelessly hooked by cigarettes. (Para.3)
  --------they indicate themselves in smoking and it is hard for them to give it up.
5. Perhaps it was unnoticeable at first, a little coughing in the morning … (Para.4)
  --------His short dry frequent cough in the morning was not easily noticed at first...
6. … upon getting out of bed. (Para.4)
  --------... immediately after he got out of bed.
  upon / on: prep. immediately after the occasion of something
7. ... when his lung illnesses had left him low. (Para.5)
  --------... when his lung illnesses made him very weak in a poor condition.
8. …that my father picked her up for a minute -- long enough for me to photograph them -- but the
  effort was obvious. (Para.5)
  --------... but it was easy for us to see that he made a real effort (to do that).
  The two dashes indicate that it was just a short time only enough for me to make photograph for
  them but to my father it was really long.
9. He gained a couple of pounds, but by then he was so slim no one noticed. (Para.5)
     --------He became heavier, but by then he was so thin no one noticed (he had become heavier).
10. ... the boiled water from a bunch of them makes an effective insecticide. (Para.6)
     --------… the boiled water which is made also by a number of cigarette ends serves as an effective
     aid used for killing insects.
11. For what, I sometimes wonder; so that she can struggle to breathe through most of her life feeling
     half her strength, and then die of self-poisoning, as her grandfather did? (Para.7)
     --------I sometimes wish to know why I have done those things; in order that she can make great
     efforts to breathe for most of her life, feeling weak, and then die by poisoning herself (that is, by
     way of smoking cigarettes), just as her grandfather did.
12. “Peace on earth begins at home.” (Para.8)
     --------“We should have peace at home first and then peace may spread to the other parts of the


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                                             Unit One Book Two



     world.”
     on earth: in the world


VI. Writing:
Structured Writing: Develop a paragraph by cause-effect technique.
     We do cause and effect analysis almost everyday, whether we are aware of it or not: What’s
wrong with my bike today? It won’t go fast no matter how hard I pedal. Why didn’t I do well in the
exam? What will happen if I can not find a good-paying job when I graduate? What makes people
stressed out? Why are some businesses laying off employees? What should the society do to help the
unemployed and underemployed? What will happen when someone is depressed? Indeed, cause and
effect analysis is a very useful strategy for both thinking, organizing, and presenting ideas. In using
this strategy, we need first to distinguish between cause and effect, and then to find effective ways to
organize the detailed causal analysis.
     When we ask questions about why certain things happen, we are seeking causes, when we ask
questions about what will happen as a result of certain causes, we are trying to understand the effects.
For example, we analyze the above questions:
     What is wrong with my bike today?                                                    (causes)
     Why didn’t I do well in the exam?                                                     (causes)
     What will happen if I can not find a good-paying job when I graduate?                 (effects)
     What makes people stressed out?                                                       (causes)
     Why are some businesses laying off employees?                                         (causes)
     What will happen when someone is depressed?                                          (effects)
     Two more examples:
     Why does the only child tend to be more self-centered?                                (causes)
     What would be the size of China’s population by the turn of the century if it had not
implemented the one-family-one-child policy?                                               (effects)


Causes for certain daily life situation can be simple:
1) Cause:           You have a flat tire.
   Effect:          The bike is not going.
2) Cause:           You didn’t prepare for the test.
   Effect:          You didn’t do well on the test.
Many situations, however, are much more complicated and involve much more complex cause
and effect relations. In certain situations, a multiple of facts led to on result:
Causes:             Took good notes in class



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                                            Unit One Book Two



                          Reviewed before exam
                          Practiced relaxation techniques
                          Had a good sleep the night before
Effect:              Did very well on a big exam
One factor can lead to a multiple of results:
Cause:               Being laid off
Effect:              Much less monthly income
                          Change in life style
                          Increased level of stress (quick mood swings)
                     Search for alternative employment (starting a small family grocery store in the
       neighborhood?)
This situation can be further complicated:
Causes:              Nation-wide macro-economic reform
                          Low market demand for his plant’s products
                          Pressure from major competitors abroad
                          Overall financial difficulty of the plant
                          Age
Effect:              Being laid off
Another important variant of the cause-effect relation is the so-called chain reaction, the
one-thing-leads-to-another situation:
       had a flat tire -------- missed an important review class -------- failed a big exam --------
       experienced a lot of stress -------- had quick mood swings -------- had a light with a
       roommate -------- being arrested for assault -------- was asked to leave school --------
       could not recover after the setback…
In order to assess a causal connection in any analysis, simple or complex, you should pay
attention to the following:
1)   Whether the cause is necessary to the effect.
2) Whether the cause is sufficient for the effect.
3) Whether the cause is both necessary to and sufficient for the effect.


Sample 1:
                                  Television Is Harmful to Children
     Television has been one of the most important influences on society. Children in our culture grow
up with television. Although there are many excellent programs for children, many people feel that
television may not be good for children.




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     First of all, some programs are not good for children to see. There are many police stories on
television. People are killed by guns, knives and even cars. Children can be frightened. by the
violence.
     Second, television can do harm for the children’s eyes. If children watch TV too long a day, they
will become near –sighted. Finally, television may affect children’s school work. They waste too
much time in front of TV, and they will have no time for doing homework. Therefore, they will fall
behind others.
     In a word, television has many negative effects on children today.


The typical words and phrases:
Causes: because, the reason…, the cause…, one of the reasons…, one of the causes…, due to…,
        since…
Effects: as a result, consequently, one result is…, one of the results is…, thus, therefore



VII. Dictation:
You may choose one of the following paragraphs as you like:
Passage 1
                                      Why do people smoke?
     Why do people smoke? One reason is that people become addicted (有瘾) to cigarettes. The
addictive substance (物质) in cigarettes is nicotine. When people smoke, the nicotine goes right into
the blood stream and makes people feel relaxed. A smoker’s body gets used to the nicotine and if he
stops smoking, he feels nervous. Many smokers try to stop smoking, but because of the addiction to
nicotine they feel so uncomfortable that they often find it too difficult to do so. Another reason is that
people simply enjoy smoking. Having a cigarette for many people means taking a break. For some
people smoking becomes part of certain social rituals (礼节), for example, the cigarette after dinner.
Many people enjoy smoking because it gives you something to do with your hands. Reaching for a
cigarette, lighting it, flicking (轻弹) the ashes are especially comfortable in situation where a person
feels nervous.
     Many people also like the taste of tar(焦油) in cigarettes. However, it is the tar that causes cancer
(癌). While governments and health experts have tried to get people to give up smoking completely,
cigarette manufacturers (制造商) have tried to keep selling them by producing cigarettes with less tar.
Many people in Western countries have welcomed these cigarettes since they find it hard to stop
smoking but want to reduce the danger to their health.
Passage 2


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                                          Unit One Book Two



                                  Against Cigarettes Smoking

     Young people who are exposed to(置身于)multiple anti-tobacco advertisements on television
and who can describe these ads accurately are less likely to take up smoking than their peers, study
findings show. What's more, their likelihood of remaining nonsmokers appears to increase with the
number of television ads they view and are able to correctly describe. The findings are based on
telephone responses from 12- to 20-year-olds involved in a follow-up survey 20 months after the April
2001 start of the Florida "truth" anti-tobacco media campaign. This campaign included 11 television
ads that aimed to prevent youth from starting smoking by informing them about strategies used by the
tobacco industry to popularize smoking. Those who were able to describe, in detail, at least one of the
11 ads were 23% more likely to remain nonsmokers at follow-up. The almost 40% of youth who were
able to accurately describe four or more ads were 68% more likely to remain nonsmokers, the report
indicates. In contrast, young people who were unable to accurately describe any of the television ads
were more likely to say that the campaign theme did not influence their smoking in any way.


VIII. Homework
1. Do all the exercises.
2. Preview the next unit.




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                   Section B            Stop Spoiling Your Children
I.Outline of the Text
Part I
Introduction: The tendency to give children too many toys and clothes is quite common in American
families. (Paras. 1-2)
Part II
Why do children give their children too much, or give them things they can’t afford? (Paras. 3-6)
 A. Parents spoil their children out of a sense of guilt. (Para. 4)
 B. Other parents provide too much because they want their children to have everything they want
     while growing up, along with those they pined for but didn’t get. (Para. 5)
 C. Spoiling a child also happens when parents are unable to stand up to children’s unreasonable
     demands. (Para. 6)
Part III
All the above reasons are not justified for spoiling children. (Paras. 7-8)
 A. Spoiling children with material things does little to reduce parental guilt, nor does it make
   children feel more loved. (Para. 7)
 B. Spoiled children are not as challenged to be more creative in their play as children with fewer toys.
   (Para. 8)
Part IV
How to avoid spoiling children. (Paras. 9-11)
 A. Make sure whether you should give in to many of your children’s requests. (Paras. 9-10)
 B. Try to make gradual improvement while expecting and accepting the occasional slips that come
   with any change. (Para. 11)


II.Summary of the Text
     Parents in America all tend to give children too many toys and clothes. However, in far too many
families not only do children come to take their parents’ generosity for granted, but also the effects of
this can actually be somewhat harmful to children. There are several reasons for this phenomenon.
First, parents spoil their children out of a sense of guilt. Second, they want their children to have
everything they had while growing up, along with those things they pined for but didn’t get. Last,
sometimes parents cannot stand up to their children’s unreasonable demands. However, there are many
disadvantages in doing this. So parents should try to make firm decisions and practice responding to
your children’s requests in a prompt, definite manner.




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                                             Unit One Book Two



III.New words and phrases
1. spoil: vt. (1) harm the character of (esp. a child) by lack of strictness or too much generosity,
              attention, praise, etc. (2) destroy the value, quality or pleasure of; ruin
          vi. (of food, etc.) become bad or unfit to be used, eaten etc.
                Parents tent to spoil their only child.
                I haven’t seen the film, so don’t spoil it for me by telling me what happens.
                The cake will spoil if you don’t keep it in the fridge.
2. assign: vt. (1) send to a particular place; name sb. for a task or position (2) give sth. to sb. as a share
              of work to be done or of things to be used.
                They have assigned their best man to the job.
                I’ve been assigned to interview the children.
3. compensate: v. give sb. sth. good to lessen the bad effect of damage, loss, etc.
                A dog’s good sense of smell compensates for its poor eyesight.
4. fluctuate: vi. (1) (of an attitude or a state) change continually (2) (of a price, number, rate, etc.) rise
                and fall
                His attitude seems to fluctuate between happiness and hopelessness.
                Her wages fluctuate between $150 and $200 a week.
5. sensitive: adj. (1) having or showing sympathy or understanding (2) affected greatly or easily by sth
                We are trying to make people more sensitive to the problems faced by working
                mothers.
                Mr. Smith was exceedingly sensitive to personal criticism.
6. undermine: vt. (1) weaken gradually (2) weaken at the base
                Smoking undermines health.
                Mice had undermined the foundation of the church.
7. submit: vi. to accept the control;
            vt. give sth. to sb. so that it may be considered, decided on etc.
                She decided to submit to the new rules.
                You must submit your application before January 1st.
8. stand up to: (1) meet or face bravely; be against without fear
                 (2) not be changed or damaged by
                Don’t let her say things like that about your work – you should stand up to her a bit
                more.
                Will the lorries stand up to the journey over rough roads?
9. be bound to: very likely; certain
                They have done so much work that they are bound to pass the exam.



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                                          Unit One Book Two



10. hold down: keep a job for some time
              He holds down quite a good job in the city.




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                                            Unit One Book Two



                                             Quiz Five
Directions: Each of the following sentences is provided with four choices. Choose the one
that best completes the sentence.
1. When I caught him______ I stopped buying things there and started dealing with another shop.
    A. cheating             B. cheat              C. to cheat              D. to be cheating
2. As early as 1647, Ohio made a decision that free, tax supported schools must be established in every
  town ______ 50 households or more.
    A. having               B. to have            C. to have had           D. having had
3. After the Arab states won independence, great emphasis was laid on expanding education, with girls
  as well as boys _______ encouraged to go to school.
    A. to be                B. been               C. being                 D. be
4. ______ the earth to be flat, many feared that Columbus would fall off the edge of the earth.
    A. Having believed      B. Believing          C. Believed              D. Being believed
5. If I correct someone, I will do it with as much good humor and self-restraint as if I were the one
  ______.
    A. to correct           B. correcting         C. having corrected      D. being corrected
6. ______, a man who expresses himself effectively is sure to succeed more rapidly than a man whose
  command of language is poor.
    A. Other things being equal                   B. Were other things equal
    C. To be equal to other things                D. Other things to be equal
7. The project, ______ by the end of 2010, will expand the city’s telephone network to cover
  1,000,000 users.
    A. accomplished                               B. being accomplished
    C. to be accomplished                         D. having been accomplished
8. When writing, you should manage to make yourself ______.
    A. understand           B. understanding      C. being understood      D. understood
9. All flights ______ canceled because of the snowstorm, many passengers could do nothing but take
  the train.
    A. had been             B. have been          C. were                  D. having been
10. ______ the claim about German economic mighty, it is somewhat surprising how relatively small
   the German economy actually is.
    A. To give              B. Given              C. Giving                D. Having given
11. During the process, great care has to be taken to protect the ______ silk from damage.
    A. sensitive            B. tender             C. delicate              D. sensible
12. There was a big hole in the road which _______ the traffic.



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    A. set back             B. stood back         C. held up                D. kept down
13. Many elderly people are now not used to the ______ of modem living, which they consider a way
   from the old customs.
     A. tendency            B. tend               C. trend                  D. treat
14. Young people are not ______ to stand and look at works of art; they want art they can
   A. content               B. generous           C. confident              D. conservative
15. The hopes, goals, fears and desires ______widely between men and women, between the rich and
   the poor.
   A. alter                 B. shift              C. transfer               D. vary
16. This kind of glasses manufactured by experienced craftsmen ______ comfortably.
   A. is worn               B. wears              C. wearing                D. are worn
17. I don't know why he hasn't come yet. But he usually arrives here at nine o'clock
   A. prompt                B. late               C. soon                   D. early
18. Our journey was slow because the train stopped ______ at different villages.
   A. unceasingly           B. gradually          C. continuously           D. continually
19. In your first days at school you'll be given a test to help the teacher to ______ you to a class at
   your level.
   A. locate                B. assign             C. deliver                D. place
20. Because Edgar was convinced of the accuracy of this fact, he ______ his opinion.
   A. struck at             B. strove for         C. stuck to               D. stood for
21. Physics is______ to the science which was called natural philosophy in history.
   A. alike                 B. equivalent         C. likely                 D. uniform
22. Your statements today are in ______ with what you said yesterday.
   A. conversation          B. contradiction      C. convention             D. contribution
23. Shelly had prepared carefully for her biology examination so that she could be sure of passing it
   on her first ______.
   A. intention             B. attempt            C. purpose                D. desire
24. Only one little boy ______the accident; everyone else was killed.
   A. survived              B. suffered           C. submitted              D. succeeded
25. ______his sister, Jack is quiet and does not easily make friends with others.
   A. Dislike               B. Unlike             C. Alike                  D. Liking
26. Jim didn't leave until completely dark, ______ which time all the people had already gone.
   A. after                 B. by                 C. at                     D. during
27. The bed has been ______ in the family. It was my great grandmother's originally.
   A. handed out            B. handed over        C. handed down            D. handed round
28. It took him several months to ______ the wild horse.


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   A. tend                 B. cultivate         C. breed                 D. tame
29. The destruction of these treasures was a loss for mankind that no amount of money could ______.
    A. stand up to         B. make up for       C. come up with          D. put up with
30. The student was just about to _______ the question, which suddenly he found the answer.
    A. arrive at           B. submit to         C. work out              D. give up


 KEYS: 1-10 AACBD ACDDB              11-20 CCAAD        BADBC      21-30 BBBAB        BCDBD




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                                            Unit One Book Two



                       Unit Six         As His Name Is, So Is He!

Time Allotment: (4.5 periods)
Section A and language points (3 periods)
Exercises and writing (1.5 period )



Teaching Aims: The teaching of this text aims to enable students
1. to master the new active words and useful phrases;
2. to learn about name prejudice;
3. to get acquainted with skills of developing a paragraph by comparison and contrast;
4. to get acquainted with skills of reading for the main ideas in paragraphs;
5. to practice what has been learned.


I. Background Information
Bible also called the Holy Bible, the sacred book or Scriptures of Judaism and of Christianity.
Judaism (犹太教):39 books originally in Hebrew
                       a few sections in Aramaic
Christianity:Old Testament + New Testament
Old Testament (type of literature)
The Pentateuch (摩西五书), corresponding to the Torah
Historical books
Poetical or wisdom books
Prophetical books
New Testament
The four Gospels 福音书
The Acts of the Apostles, a history of early 使徒行传
Epistles, or letters, of Paul and other writers 使徒书
An apocalypse, or book of revelation 启示
USE OF BIBLE
The Bible is a religious book, not only by virtue of its contents but also in terms of its use by
Christians and Jews.
It is read in practically all services of public worship, its words form the basis for preaching and
instruction, and it is used in private devotion and study.



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                                          Unit One Book Two



The language of the Bible has informed and shaped the prayers, liturgy, and hymnody of Judaism and
Christianity.
Without the Bible these two religions would have been virtually speechless.
Importance & Influence
The importance and influence of the Bible among Christians and Jews may be explained broadly in
both external and internal terms.
External
Religious groups confess that they are guided by the Bible.
Internal
The literature, art, and music of Western culture in particular are deeply indebted to biblical themes,
motifs, and images.
Names for reading passage A
  We have many proper names, which contain cultural background. The following is a brief
explanation of some of the names that appeared in the reading passage.
1) Debbie (f.) represents the personality characteristics of generous, understanding, honest, creative,
    and intense. It is a short name of Deborah originally from a Hebrew name for a woman described
    in the Old Testament history of the Bible.
2) Lynne (f.) or Lynn(m.) represents the personality characteristic of sensitive, deeply artistic and
    creative, intense, and nature-lover and comes from Welsh meaning “lake” or is a short form of
    Linda(Spanish),or Belinda (Italian), both meaning beautiful.
3) Webster (m.) represents the personality characteristics of original, inventive, friendly, positive,
    outspoken, and procrastinator and comes from Old English, meaning “weaver”.
4) Joe (m.) represents the personality characteristics of spontaneous, social, easy-going, warm,
    generous, lacking in initiative and is a short form of Joseph, originally from a Hebrew name of a
    famous man in the Old Testament history of the Bible.
5) Adrian (m.) represents the personality characteristics of diplomatic, friendly, lacking in energy,
    confidence and initiative, and a procrastinator. This name is the English form of Hadrian, the
    name of a Roman Emperor who built a wall across northern Britain.


II. Warm-up Questions
1. In what way can teachers be guilty of name prejudice?
  In giving grades and evaluating achievement.
2. Express your opinion on name prejudice.
  It’s a common phenomenon in society, but we should avoid judging people by names in our life.
3. What does the writer suggest you do if your name does not suit you?



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                                           Unit One Book Two



  Change your name.


III. Text Structure Analysis
1. Outline of the text
Part I
A woman named Debbie felt much better after changing her name. (Paras. 1-2)
Questions:
1. Did Debbie like her former name? Why? or why not?
  No, she didn’t. Because, her name had always made her think she should be a cook.
2.According to Debbie, what difference, did her new name make when she substituted her middle
  name, Lynne, for her first name Debbie?
  Her new name, Lynne, felt more comfortable with herself, and other people started to take her more
  seriously.
Part II
Throughout history, names have not merely identified people but also described them. (Paras.3-5)
A. Name is a word expressing some quality considered characteristic or description of a person or a
thing, often expressing approval or disapproval. (Para. 3)
Questions:
1. What did the writer think of Debbie’s name change?
  Naturally, the name change didn’t cause Debbie/ Lynne’s professional achievement ---- but it surely
  helped if only by adding a bit of self-confidence to her talents.
2. What’s the definition of name in Webster’s Dictionary?
  A word or words expressing some quality considered characteristic or descriptive of a person or a
  thing.
3. What may be suggested by your name?
  For better or worse, qualities such as friendliness or reserve, plainness or charm may be suggested
  by your name and conveyed to other people before they even meet you.
B. Names also become attached to specific images. (Para. 4)
Question: What image is attached to the name of Joe?
  An average Joe.
C. Names with positive sense can work for you, even encourage new acquaintances. (Para. 5)
Question:
Why was the woman ill at ease?
Because before she met Harry, she had turned down a blind date with Harry because “he sounded
dull”.



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                                            Unit One Book Two



Part III
We are all guilty of name stereotyping to some extent. (Paras. 6-8)
A. We project name-based stereotypes on people. (Para. 6)
B. Name prejudice can affect classroom achievement as well. (Para. 7)
Question:
How can name-based prejudices affect classroom achievement?
Teachers gave consistently lower grades on essays apparently written by boys named Elmer and
Hubert than they awarded to the same papers when the writer’s names were given as Michael and
David.
Part IV
If you are not satisfied with your name, just change it. (Para. 8)
Question:
According to the writer, what can you do if your name doesn’t seem to fit you?
You can change your name.

2. Summary of the Text
     Names have something to do with our state of mind. Social scientists say that what you’re called
can affect your life. Throughout history, names have not merely identified people but also described
them. For better or worse, qualities such as friendliness or reserve, plainness or charm may be
suggested by your name and conveyed to other people before they even meet you. Names with a
positive sense can work for you. At the same time they will sometimes affect us in a negative way. If
you feel your name no longer seems to fit you, don’t despair; you can certainly change your name as
you like.


IV. New Words and Phrases
1. In this unit we encounter some ways of communication (Preview)
  encounter: vt. to meet somebody; face, confront or experience problems, difficulties, or opposition
                 when you are trying to do something
               We encountered a serious setback when two members of the expedition were injured.
               I first encountered him at summer school.
  communication: n. the process by which people exchange ideas.
               Good communication is vital in a large organization.
  communicate: vt. 1) contact someone, esp. by telephone or by writing a letter
                      2) understand each other’s thoughts and feeling by communication
               Parents sometimes find it difficult to communicate with their teenage children.
2. We also learn about the kinds of prejudice associated with these continual messages. (Preview)



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                                                 Unit One Book Two



  continual: continuing for a long time without stopping
                The hostages lived in continual fear of violent death.
  compare
  continual: adj. describes separate actions(often annoying actions you do not like) which are
                repeated over a period of time:
                These continual interruptions are driving me mad.
                She’s continually flying off to different places.
  continuous adj. esp. describes things and events that go on without a break:
                The police formed a continuous line round the building.
  consistent adj. is continuing to develop in the same way, or always having the same beliefs,
                behavior, attitudes.
                It is a consistent policy of the Chinese government to strengthen the good neighborly
                and friendly relations with its surrounding countries.
3. ... good looks and elegant manner. (Para. 1)
  elegant: adj. 1) very beautiful and graceful; delicate
                a tall, elegant woman
                elegant writing
                 2)(of ideas)neat and simple
                This passage gives us an elegant piece of reasoning.
4. I just don’t feel like a Debbie. (Para. 1)
  feel like + sth./ doing sth.: identify with (as used in this instance); have a wish for, want
                1) want to have sth or do sth.
                I feel like a cup of coffee.
                I don’t feel like taking a holiday now.
                I don’t feel like a president.
                2) give you a particular feeling
                It’s nice fabric and it feels like velvet.
                I was only there for 2 weeks but it felt like a year.
                3) feel as if you are a particular kind of person
                They made me feel like on of the family.
  feel about: have an opinion
                How do you feel about going out for a drink?
5. ... while filling out an application form for a publishing job, the young woman impulsively
  substituted her middle name, Lynne, for her first name Debbie. (Para. 2)
   application: n. 1) an official written request to be allowed to have a job or membership in




                                                       109
                                            Unit One Book Two



                          organization
               fill out a job application
               an application for financial aid
               Applications should be handed in as early as possible.
                       2) the using of a rule or piece of knowledge in a particular situation
               Students learned the practical application of the theory they had learned in the
               classroom.
  apply v. 1) request sth, esp. officially and in written form
               You may apply for the job in person or by letter.
               You should apply for the job in person or in written from.
           2) bring or put into use
               This rule applies to new students only.
6.... impulsively substituted her middle name, Lynne, for her first name Debbie. (Para. 2)
  substitute: 1) vt. put (sth. or sb.) in place of another
               They were substituting violence for dialogue.
               Dayton was substituted for Williams in the second half of the match.
                2) vi. act or serve as a replacement
               substitute A for B
               substitute new for old
               Can you substitute for me at the meeting?
               Honey can substitute for sugar in this recipe.
                3) n. [C] person or thing that replaces, acts for or serves as sb. or sth. else
               The teacher’s ill, so a substitute is teaching today.
               There is no substitute for good food and exercise.
  compare
  substitute for: If you substitute something for something else, you use it instead of the other thing.
               Force was substituted for argument.
               Cattle dung can be substituted as fuel when no wood is available.
  take the place of : If something takes place of something, it begins to exist instead of that thing.
               The old system has died and the new one has taken its place.
  replace by/with :
               Peter bought a new sweater to replace the one he lost.
               The worry on her mother’s face was replaced by /with a relief.
   give way to : If you give way when you are driving a car, you slow down or stop in order to allow
                  other traffic to go in front of you.
               Give way to traffic coming from the right.


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                                              Unit One Book Two



7.... and other people started to take me more seriously. (Para. 2)
  take ... seriously: treat (sth. or sb.) in a serious manner
                He now learns to take things more seriously.
8. Two years after her successful job interview, the former waitress is now a successful magazine
  editor. (Para. 2)
  editor. one who writes editorials
  edition n. the form in which a publication is issued
  edit v. to prepare (written material) for publication or presentation, as by correcting, revising, or
         adapting
  editorial adj. leading article
9.... it surely helped if only by adding a bit of self-confidence to her talents. (Para. 3) .
  if: conj. accepting that, although
   confidence: n. 1) a calm unworried feeling or manner based on a strong belief in one’s abilities
                She’s a good student but she lacks confidence in herself.
                      2) a strong belief in the ability of a person, plan, etc. to do what is needed
                       effectively and successfully
                We have every confidence in your ability.
  talent: n. 1) (a) special natural or learned ability or skill, esp. of a high quality
                Alice has a talent for language.
                This sort of work calls for special talents.
                2) [U] people of such ability
                a major loss of talent to overseas jobs
                sports / acting talent
                We’re always looking for new talent.
                Promising talent is (or: are) hard to find.
10. Social scientists say that what you're called can affect your life. (Para. 3)
    affect v. 1) to have an influence on or effect a change in
                Inflation affects the buying power of the dollar.
                How do you think the changes will affect you?
             2) To have or show a liking for:
                affects dramatic clothes
           n. a disposition, feeling, or tendency.
    compare:
    effect n. sth brought about by a cause or an agent; a result
                What effect do you think the changes will have on you?
          v. to bring about, to make sth happen.


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                                              Unit One Book Two



               You might effect changes or a plan of action.
11..... includes the following definition of name ... (Para. 3)
  definition n. 1) an exact statement of the meaning, nature, or limits of something give a definition
               In this dictionary, definitions have been written by using words from a specially chosen
               list.
                  2) clearness of outline; making of being distinct in outline
               The photograph has poor definition.
  define v. give the meaning(s) of (a word or idea); describe exactly
               Some words are hard to define because they have many different uses.
12..... some quality considered characteristic or descriptive of a person or a thing, ...(Para. 3)
  characteristic: adj. representative; representing a person’s or thing’s usual character
               Rainy days are characteristic of June.
               Such honesty is characteristic of him.
                       n. a special and easily recognized quality of someone or something
               Genes determine the characteristics of every living thing.
               What characteristics separate Americans from Canadians?
               Such honesty is characteristic of him.
               A characteristic of this species is the blue stripe on its back.
               Such bluntness is characteristic of him.
13.... often expressing approval or disapproval. (Para. 3)
    approval: n. If someone or something has your approval, you like and admire them.
               nod one’s approval / nod in approval
               He expressed his approval of what they had done.
               Do the plans meet with your approval?
   approve: vi. (of) to have a favorable opinion esp. of a course of action or type of behavior; regard
                   as good, tight, sensible
                I can’t approve of smoking in bed/of people who smoke in bed.
              vt. to agree officially to
                The city council approved the building plans.
               The equipment must be bought from a supplier approved by the company.
    disapproval: n. (of) opposite to approval; the state of having a bad opinion (of sb. or sth.) esp. for
                            moral reasons
               She made no secret of her disapproval of what we had done.
    disapprove: v. (of)opposite to “approve”; have a bad opinion (of sb. or sth.)esp. for moral
                       reasons
               She disapproved the arrangements for the wedding.


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                                                Unit One Book Two



                He disapproves of mothers going out to work; in fact, he disapproves very strongly.
14.For better or worse, ... (Para. 3)
     for better or (for) worse: (as said in the Christian marriage ceremony) whatever happens; even
                                        if there are difficulties
                He promised to take her for better or for worse.
                This type of farming is, for better or worse, rapidly dying out.
15.... qualities such as friendliness or reserve, ... (Para. 3)
     reserve: n. (of a person or one’s character) the quality of not liking to talk about oneself or to
                   make one’s feelings known
                lose one’s reserve in talking
                reserve of manner
                We always keep some money in reserve.
     Words with –serve:
     reserve: v. keep
                1) If something is reserved for a particular person or purpose, it is kept especially for
                that person or purpose.
                The first three rows are reserved for special guests.
                2) If you reserve a table in a restaurant or a seat in a cinema, you arrange them to be
                kept for you.
                He reserved an airplane ticket.
                3) If you say you reserve the right to do something, you mean that you want to be
                allowed to do it if you feel that it is necessary.
                The management reserved the right to refuse the admission.
     deserve: v. merit, earn
                If you deserve something, or deserve to do something, you should be rewarded,
                punished or treated in some particular way because of you quality or action.
                You deserved praise/ punishment/ criticism.
                That novel deserved to be read.
     preserve: v. keep
                If you preserve a situation or condition, you make it remain the way it is.
                The main thing as far as education is concerned is to preserve standards.
                We are interested in preserving the world peace.
     observe: v. examine
                If you observe someone or something, you watch them carefully, especially in order to
                learn or understand something about them.
                The team observed for monthly the way mother took care of their babies.


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                                              Unit One Book Two



                 It is difficult to observe the changes in water.
16. Names become attached to specific images,... (Para. 4)
     specific: a. 1) particular; certain; fixed; determined, or named
                 Feathers are a characteristic specific to birds.
                 Is this game meant for a specific age group?
                        2) detailed and exact; clear in meaning; careful in explanation
                 We don’t get any specific instruction.
                 There are two specific questions we must answer.
    specify v.
                 The rules specify that competitors must not accept payment.
17. ... which some think makes me more qualified to be a baseball player than, say, an art critic. (Para.
   4)
     qualified: adj. having suitable knowledge, quality or skills esp. for a job
                 Tom is well qualified for the job.
                 Tom is well qualified to accomplish the job.
                 He recently qualified as a pilot.
     qualify: v. (cause to) gain a certain level of knowledge, ability, or performance
                 Being a son of a member of government doesn’t qualify him to talk about
                 political affairs.
                 I won’t qualify until next year.
                 Being a single parent qualifies you for extra benefits.
    qualification n.
    say: v. (usually used in imperatives) suppose, suggest, assume
                 Would you take an offer of, say (= for example), 5,000 dollars for your car?
                 Can you come to dinner? Say, 7:30?
18. Even so, one prominent magazine consistently refused to print “Joe” in my by-line... (Para. 4)
     even so: in spite of that
                 There are many spelling mistakes; even so, it’s quite a good essay.
                 I had a terrible headache, but, even so, I went to the concert.
    compare
    in spite of: without being prevented by sth, despite
                 We went out in spite of the rain.
    despite: in spite of sth
                 Despite all our efforts to save the school, the County decided to close it.
    prominent: adj. well-known and important
                 a prominent Russian scientist


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                                              Unit One Book Two



             syn: outstanding, famous
 19 .... I suspect that if I were a more refined Arthur or Adrian, the name would have appeared
    complete. (Para. 4).
   refined: a. having or showing education, sensitivity of feeling, and gentleness of manners
               a refined way of speaking
               refined manners
               refined tastes
   refine: v. 1) make (sb. / sth.) more elegant
               refine one’s language
               You’d better refine your words when you are speaking to a linguist.
               Delia has been refined. You can’t imagine she is now an elegant lady.
               2) make pure or improve esp. by removing unwanted material
               refining processes
               Oil is industrially refined.
20. ... names with a positive sense can work for you, even encourage new acquaintances. (Para. 5) .
   acquaintance: n. 1) a person whom one knows, esp. through work or business, but who may not
                           be a friend
               No one in their entire acquaintance would wear such a dress.
               He is not my friend, but an acquaintance in the business.
                           2) information or knowledge, as obtained through personal experience rather
                             than careful study
               I have an / some acquaintance with the language.
               I wasn’t sure about Derry when I first met her, but on further acquaintance I rather like
               her.
   make sb.’s acquaintance/ make the acquaintance of sb.: get to know sb.
               I’m so pleased to make your acquaintance, Mr. Smith.
   acquaint v.
                 I’m acquainted with him but only on a professional basis.
21. ... turned down a blind date ... (Para. 5)
     turn down: 1) refuse to consider; refuse a request or offer or the person that make it
               He tried to join the army but was turned down because of poor health.
               Why was I turned down for the job? Is it because I’m a woman?
               Their claim has been turned down.
                  2) to reduce the force, speed, loudness, etc., of sth by using controls
               If you feel very hot you can turn the heating down.
    blind date: arrangement to meet (each other) made between a man and a woman who have not


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                       met each other before
                 Ann has arranged for me to go on a blind date this Saturday with a man that she knows
                 through work.
22. ... she came up to me at a party, pressing for an introduction to a very impressive man;... (Para.
  5)
  came up to: move towards
                 A man came up to me and asked for a dance.
  press for: demand with force (for sth. from sb.)
                 I don’t know whether to accept this new job, and the firm is pressing (me) for a
                 decision.
                 The chairman is pressing for improved working conditions.
                 Many parents have been pressing for the local school to be reopened.
  impressive: adj. seemingly very good, large , important so that you admire it.
                 The children’s work is impressive.
23. She was ill at ease. (Para. 5)
   be ill at ease: uncomfortable; embarrassed
                 He was ill at ease with people whom he didn’t understand.
24. ... we’re all guilty of name stereotyping to some extent. (Para. 6)
   guilty: 1) deserving of blame
                 I feel really guilty about forgetting her birthday again.
                 My guilty conscience got the better of me, and I went back to apologize.
              2) having done sth that is a crime
                 The jury found her guilty of murder.
   guilt n.      Don’t you have any feelings of guilt about leaving David?
                 He felt an enormous sense of guilt when he thought about how he’d treated her.
   stereotype: vt. form a fixed set of ideas that is generally disapproving about the characteristics of
                  certain group of people or things
                 The study says that British advertisements stereotype women.
                 The police have been criticized for having stereotyped images of black people.
                 The stereotyped image of him is a cowardly thin man.
   extent: n. the limit or degree of something’s influence etc
                 The success of a marriage depends on the extent to which you are prepared to work at
                 it.
   to such an/the extent: used to say that sth has affected or influenced sth so much that it causes sth
                                 else to happen.
                 We are angry to such an extent that we leave without saying goodbye to him.


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   to a certain/some extent: used to say that sth is partly, but not completely, true
              To a certain extent it was my fault that we lost the contract.
   to a lesser/greater extent: used when comparing two things to say that one thing has less or more
                                influence
              These changes will affect all managers and to a lesser extent some shop-floor workers.
   to a great/large extent: used to say that sth. is mainly true
              These policies are to a large extent responsible for the region’s economic decline.
   to what extent: used to ask how big an amount or influence is
              To what extent can we blame the government for this lack of information?
25. Confess: Wouldn’t you be surprised to meet a carpenter called Nigel? (Para. 6)
   confess: to admit that you have done sth. wrong or illegal, esp. to the police
              I confess to having broken the law and want to answer for it.
              She confessed that she killed her husband.
              Occasionally people confess to crimes they haven’t committed just to get attention.
   I must confess: used when admitting sth you feel slightly embarrassed about
               I must confess I don’t visit my parents as often as I should.
26... we project name-based stereotypes on people... (Para. 6)
    project sth on/onto sb: to avoid dealing with your own feelings by imaging that someone else is
                             feeling them.
              You’re projecting your insecurity onto me.
27.... pushing a thoughtful creature named Rory to play ball. (Para. 6)
      creature: something created.
              creature of the age
              Man is the creature of God.
28.... they awarded to the same papers ... (Para. 7)
    award v. 1) give sth. such as a prize or an examination mark, esp. as a result of an official
                    decision, to sb.
              The university awarded grants to poor students.
               2) give by a decision in a court of law
               The referee awarded a free kick.
               The judge awarded substantial damages to the victim of the explosion.
            n. sth. given as a result of an official decision, esp. a prize
               Because of his great contribution to the country, he won the highest award.
   compare
   reward: v. to give sth. to sb. because they have done sth. good or helpful
                She was generously rewarded for her work.


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                                               Unit One Book Two



29.... performed better on objectively graded IQ and achievement tests... (Para. 7)
     objectively: ad. in a way of not being influenced by personal feelings; fairly
                Objectively (speaking), he can’t possibly succeed.
                Judges are supposed to judge each case objectively.
     objective: 1) a. fair; not influenced by personal feelings
                How could you make an objective decision if she’s your own daughter?
                It is an objective report.
                The painter tried to be as objective as possible in evaluating his latest work.
                 2) n. an object to be won; purpose of a plan
                His objective is to become the fastest runner.
                I don’t know what his objectives were in making such a criticism?
       grade: vt. separate into levels of status or quality; score, mark
                Potatoes are graded according to size and quality.
                The teacher has been grading the papers these days.
30. If your name no longer seems to fit you, don’t despair; ... (Para. 8)
      despair v. complete lack or loss of hope
                She despaired of ever seeing her son again.
                His despair of becoming a great artist makes him stop painting.
               n. complete loss of hope
                I spent ages trying to fix it, but gave up in despair.
                Norman’s constant drinking drives his family to despair.
                syn. upset, hopelessness
31... you aren’t stuck with the label. (Para. 8)
        be stuck with: 1) be unable to get rid of
                We were stuck with relatives who came to stay unexpectedly.
                         2) be unable to go or do anything further, esp. because of difficulties
                Will you help me with this mathematical problem? I’m stuck with it.


V. Difficult Sentence Analysis:
1. As his name is, so is he! (Title)
  -------- His nature or manner as a man is similar to what he is called, his name.
  The “as … so” here is used to express parallelism or proportionality.
2. I just don’t feel like a Debbie. (Para.1)
  --------I just don’t identify with the name Debbie.
3. ... while filling out an application form for a publishing job, the young woman impulsively



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                                              Unit One Book Two



  substituted her middle name, Lynne, for her first name Debbie. (Para. 2)
  --------One day, when she was filling out an application form to apply for a job in a publishing
  house, the young woman replaced her first name Debbie by her middle name Lynne, with a sudden
  wish.
  In adverbial clauses of time introduced by the conjunction “while” (and “when”, “until”, “as soon
  as”, “once”, etc.), we may have finite verb forms or non-finite verb forms. So this clause of time
  may be rewritten as: ... while she was filling out an application form ...
4. ... it surely helped if only by adding a bit of self-confidence to her talents. (Para. 3)
  -------- it surely helped although it helped only by adding a bit of self-confidence to her talents.
  if: conj. accepting that, although
5. Names become attached to specific images,... (Para. 4)
  -------- People’s names come to be connected with the particular appearance or quality, ...
6. I suspect that if I were a more refined Arthur or Adrian, the name would have appeared complete.
  (Para. 4)
  -------- I think it likely that if my name were Arthur or Adrian, (a name suggesting that a person is
  more polite, better educated and better-mannered), my full name would have been printed in my
  by-line.
7. ... names with a positive sense can work for you, even encourage new acquaintances. (Para. 5)
  -------- ... names that suggest good qualities to other people can help you to your advantage in some
  way, and even give other people encouragement to get to know you.
8. we’re all guilty of name stereotyping to some extent. (Para. 6)
  -------- ...all of us are wrong to some degree to attach too simple an image to people according to the
  qualities suggested by their names.
9. ... we project name-based stereotypes on people... (Para. 6)
  --------we imagine that people have the qualities suggested by their names...
10. ... you aren’t stuck with the label. (Para. 8)
  -------- If you don’t like your name given by your parents, you can get rid of it by changing your
  name.



VI. Writing:
Structured Writing:
     The method of comparison is often used .We compare people and things. By, we have a clear
picture of them.
     Strictly speaking, a comparison points out the similarities between the two or more persons or
things of the same class. While a contrast points the difference between them. In practice, however,


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comparison and contrast often appear together, because people generally compare two things that are
similar in certain ways and difference in others.
     Once you have identified similarities and differences through comparison and contrast, you can
organize them through two basic ways: subject-by-subject and point-by-point.
     Subject-by-subject organization is to present each of the two subjects separately, that is, you
write first about one of the subjects, covering the points completely, then proceed to the other subject,
also covering all the points completely.
     If you are using this method to organize your comparison and contrast of the teaching styles of
Professor Yang and Professor Wu, the structure of your essay would look something like the
following:
     Subjects:            Points of Comparison/Contrast
     1. Prof Yang         a. classroom instruction
                         b. homework
                         c. exam
                         d. grading
     2. Prof Wu           a. classroom instruction
                         b. homework
                         c. exam
                         d. grading
     Point-by-point organization is to discuss the two subjects for each point of comparison and
contrast, that is, you write about the first point in terms of the similarities and differences between the
two subjects, then proceed to the next point, and so on. Using the point-by-point method, your essay
on the same two professors would be organized like this:
     Points of Comparison/Contrast                         Subjects
     a. classroom instruction                              1. Prof Yang
                                                           2. Prof Wu
     b. homework                                           1. Prof Yang
                                                           2. Prof Wu
     c. exam                                               1. Prof Yang
                                                           2. Prof Wu
     d. grading                                            1. Prof Yang
                                                           2. Prof Wu


The typical words and phrases indicating time:
For comparison (Similarities): Both … and…, also, too, in the same way, likewise, similarly, just




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                                            Unit One Book Two



               as… so…
For contrast (Differences): on the other hand, in contrast, on the contrary, unlike, different,
               however, the opposite of
Sample 1:
     Are you aware of the striking similarities between two of the most popular US presidents,
Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy?
     A minor point is the names of Lincoln and Kennedy both have seven letters. Lincoln and
Kennedy are both remembered for their sense of humor and for their interest in civil rights. Lincoln
became president in 1860 and Kennedy in 1960. Both are assassinated and they both were killed on
the same day of the week. Kennedy’s assassin(刺杀) was not brought to trial, and neither was
Lincoln’s. Kennedy didn’t finish his term of office, and Lincoln didn’t either. Just as Lincoln was
succeeded by a Southern Democrat named Johnson, so was Kennedy. And finally, the same caisson
carried the bodies of both men in their final processions.
Sample 2:
                                             Teachers and Actors
     To be a good teacher, you need some of the gifts of a good actor: you must be able to hold the
attention and interest of you audience; you must be a clear speaker, with a good, strong, pleasing voice
which is fully under your control; and you must be able to act what you are teaching, in order to make
its meaning clear.
     Watch a good teacher, and you will see that he does not sit motionless before his class; he stands
the whole time he is teaching; he walks about, using his arms, hands and fingers to help him in his
explanations, and his face to express feelings. Listen to him, and you will hear the loudness, the
quality and the musical note of his voice always changing according to what he is talking about.
     The fact that a good teacher has some of the gifts of a good actor doesn’t mean that he will
indeed be able to act well on the stage, for there are very important differences between the teacher's
work and the actor's. The actor has to speak words which has learnt by heart; he was to repeat exactly
the same words each time he plays a certain part, even his movements and the ways in which he uses
his voice are usually fixed beforehand. What he has to do is to make all these carefully learnt words
and actions seem natural on the stage.
     A good teacher works in quite a different way. His audience takes an active part in his play: they
ask and answer questions, they obey orders, and if they don't understand something, they say so. The
teacher therefore has to suit his act to the needs of his audience, which is his class. He cannot learn his
part by heart, but must invent it as he goes along.
     I have known many teachers who were fine actors in class but were unable to take part in a
stage-play because their brains wouldn't keep discipline: they could not keep strictly to what another



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                                            Unit One Book Two



had written.
HINT:
     Teacher and actors have both similarities and differences.
     Similarities: clear voice, acting ability, hold the attention of the audience.
     Differences: The fact that a good teacher has some of the gifts of a good actor doesn't mean that
he will indeed be able to act well on the stage.
     Actors: learn sth. by heart, repeat the same words each time he plays a certain part, make those
carefully learned words and actions seem natural on the stage.
     Teacher: The audiences take an active part in the play: they ask and answer questions and obey
order. If they do not understand sth, they say so. A good teacher should suit his act to the needs of the
audience. He cannot learn his part by heart, but invent it as he goes along.


VII. Dictation:
You may choose one of the following paragraphs as you like:
Passage 1
                                           Andrew Carnegie
               Andrew Carnegie, known as the King of Steel, built the steel industry in the United
States, and, in the process, became one of the wealthiest men in America. His success resulted in part
from his ability to sell the product and in part from his policy of expanding during periods of
economic decline, when most of his competitors were reducing their investments.
               Carnegie believed that individuals should progress through hard work, but he also felt
strongly that the wealthy should use their fortunes for the benefit of society. He opposed charity,
preferring instead to provide educational opportunities that would allow others to help themselves.
"He who dies rich, dies disgraced," he often said.
               Among his more noteworthy contributions to society are those that bear his name,
including the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, which has a library, a museum of fine arts, and a
museum of national history. He also founded a school of technology that is now part of
Carnegie-Mellon University. Other philanthropic gifts are the Carnegie Endowment for International
Peace to promote understanding between nations, the Carnegie Institute of Washington to fund
scientific research, and Carnegie Hall to provide a center for the arts.
     Few Americans have been left untouched by Andrew Carnegie's generosity. His contributions of
more than five million dollars established 2,500 libraries in small communities throughout the country
and formed the nucleus of the public library system that we all enjoy today.


Passage 2



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                                          Unit One Book Two



                                            Henry Ford
     Although Henry Ford’s name is closely associated with the concept of mass production, he
should receive equal credit for introducing labor practices as early as 1913 that would be considered
advanced even by today’s standards. Safety measures were improved, and the work day was reduced
to eight hours, compared with the ten-or twelve-hour day common at the time. In order to
accommodate the shorter work day, the entire factory was converted from two to three shifts.
     In addition, sick leaves as well as improved medical care for those injured on the job were
instituted. The Ford Motor Company was one of the first factories to develop a technical school to
train specialized skilled laborers and an English language school for immigrants. Some efforts were
even made to hire the handicapped and provide jobs for former convicts.
     The most widely acclaimed innovation was the five-dollar-a-day minimum wage that was offered
in order to recruit and retain the best mechanics and to discourage the growth of labor unions. Ford
explained the new wage policy in terms of efficiency and profit sharing. He also mentioned the fact
that his employees would be able to purchase the automobiles that they produced – in effect creating a
market for the product. In order to qualify for the minimum wage, an employee had to establish a
decent home and demonstrate good personal habits, including sobriety, thriftiness, industriousness,
and dependability. Although some criticism was directed at Ford for involving himself too much in the
personal lives of his employees, there can be no doubt that, at a time when immigrants were being
taken advantage of in frightful ways, Henry Ford was helping many people to establish themselves in
America.


VIII. Homework:
1. Do the exercises in Section A, Section B and C.
2. Preview the next unit.




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                                           Unit One Book Two



                       Section B           Judge by Appearances
I. Outline of the Text
Part I
Introduction: In order to test what most people with common sense already know, my classmate and I
made one experiment to see whether people judge others by their appearance. (Para.1)
Part II
Our experiences in different places indicate that there really is such a thing as judging by appearance.
(Paras. 2-6)
1. Disguise ourselves and the aim of our experiment. (Para 2-3)
2. The experience in different places confirmed the existence of prejudice against appearance. (Paras.
  4-5)
Part III
We have to admit that we tend to judge people by their appearance, and such prejudice is unavoidable.
(Paras. 7-9)



II. Summary of the Text
     In order to describe a sociological experiment, the writer and his friend dressed ridiculously so
that no one would recognize them and then went downtown to shops and other places. Their aim was
to observe how people responded to the way they looked. It turned out that judging by appearance was
a common phenomenon. People turned them off or turned them out. Therefore they draw a conclusion
that it was a prejudice time. Unfortunately, we ourselves gradually accepted others’ attitudes towards
us and became accustomed to them.



III. New Words and Phrases
1. …It goes to great lengths to prove…(Para.1)
  go to great lengths: make a great deal of effort (to do sth.)
               Some people go to great lengths to make their homes attractive.
               They went to great lengths to keep the affair secret.
               This idiom may have various forms: go to any length(s) or go to all (or: great, some,
               considerable) lengths, which means: try very hard and be prepared to do anything,
               however dangerous, unpleasant, or wicked, in order to achieve sth.
               The famous actor went to great lengths to hide from news writers and photographers.
2. …We made ourselves virtually unrecognizable to our friends…(Para.2)



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                                           Unit One Book Two



  virtually: ad. Almost ;very nearly; in every way that is really important
              My thesis is virtually finished; I’ve only a few changes to make in the writing.
              It used to be virtually impossible to find restaurants outside the cities, but it’s much
              easier now.
              On the label, the milk is described as “virtually fat-free”.
3. …some mildly unusual behavior that might speak of some emotional problems,…(Para.3)
  mildly: ad. Slightly; not deeply or seriously
              I suggested it to him, but he seemed only mildly interested.
  speak of: be evident of or convey a quality, experience, or feeling
              Her eyes speak of suffering.
              Her behavior speaks of suffering bravely borne.
              The whole robbery spoke of inside knowledge on the part of the criminals.
4. …in the bargain store of a local charity…(Para.4)
  bargain store: a store where cheap things are sold
  charity: n 1) [C] a society or organization for helping people
              Money from the sale of these cards will go to local charities.
              Many charities sent money to help the victims of the flood.
            2) [U] (generosity in) giving money, food, help. Etc. to the people who are in need; help
              given in this way
              The old man was too proud to accept what he regarded as charity.
              They live on charity.
5. …trying our act at an exclusive restaurant,…(Para.4)
   exclusive: a. 1) limited to a specific kind, e.g., for socially suitable people and charging a lot of
                   money
              This is an exclusive shop.
              This is one of the most exclusive hotels in the city.
                2) not shared with others in a certain group
              This company has an exclusive right to film the novel.
              This room is for the exclusive use of guests.
 6. … It was prejudice time. (Para.5)
   It was a time when people were filled with prejudice.
 7. …At one establishment we did blow our cover…(Para.6)
   blow one’s cover: cause one’s true identity or the true nature of one’s work to be revealed
              Asking those kinds of questions could blow my cover.
              The enemy’s cover was blown.
              I was pretending to be her sister until she blew my cover.


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                                            Unit One Book Two



8. Just looking poor brings with it prejudice, accompanied by removal of much of the social grace…
  (Para.7)
   accompany: vt. 1) happen or exist at the same time
               Thunder accompanies lightning.
               Fever is almost always accompanied by cough.
                    2) go with, as on a journey
               Ken agreed to accompany me on a trip to Africa.
               Would you like me to accompany you to your room?
9. The place felt out of bounds for us. (Para.9)
   We felt that we were not allowed to go into the place.
   out of bounds(for/to): 1) If a place is out of bounds, people are not allowed to go there.
               Most of the bars are placed out of bounds to the army.
                           2) If sth. Is out of bounds, people are not allowed to do it, use it, see it, or
                       know about it.
               Violent TV programs are out of bounds to children.
 10. …Prevailed among the people we met;…
      prevail: vi. 1) (used with among or in) (continue to) exist or be widespread
               This custom still prevails among the members of the older generation.
               This is a strange custom that still prevail.
                   2) (used with against or over) fight successfully; gain control or victory; win a fight
               I do hope he will prevail over his opponents.
               The enemy prevailed over the native population.
               I am sure that common sense will prevail in the end.




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                                            Unit One Book Two



                                               Quiz Six
Directions: Each of the following sentences is provided with four choices. Choose the one that
best completes the sentence.
1. Those gifts of rare books that were given to us were deeply______.
 A. appreciated           B. approved               C. appealed               D. applied
2. In manufacturing, cheaper materials are constantly being _______ for the better and more
  expensive kind.
 A. replaced              B. transformed            C. displaced              D. substituted
3. He looked for a table to sit down at, but they were all______.
 A. used up               B. taken up               C. reserved               D. engaged
4. He is quite sure that it's _______ impossible for him to fulfill the task within two days.
 A. absolutely            B. exclusively            C. fully                  D. roughly
5. The ______ stuck on die envelope says "By Air".
 A. diagram               B. label                  C. signal                 D. mark
6. In order to prevent the soil erosion, many trees are planted on a large _____ to strengthen the river
  banks.
 A. range                 B. aspect                 C. scale                  D. scope
7. In the early days of the industry, each automobile was ________ made by hand.
 A. barely                B. properly               C. artificially           D. virtually
8. Abstract Expressionism ______ in the big international art shows of the 1950s.
 A. exhibited             B. initiated              C. prevailed              D. distinguished
9. Although she tried to ______ her disappointment at losing the contest, it was apparent that she had
  hoped to win.
 A. concede               B. conceal                C. convey                 D. confess
10. Mr. Bloom is not_______ now, but he will be famous someday.
 A. significant           B. dominant               C. magnificent            D. prominent
11. It is through learning that the individual ______ many habitual ways of reacting to situations.
 A. retains               B. acquires               C. gains                  D. achieves
12. It is useful to be able to predict the extent ______ which a price change will affect supply and
  demand.
 A. from                  B. with                   C. to                     D. for
13. The man in the comer confessed to ______ a lie to the manager of the company.
 A. have told             B. be told                C. being told             D. having told
14. For many patients, institutional care is the most ______ and beneficial form of care.
 A. persistent            B. appropriate            C. thoughtful             D. sufficient



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15. The statistical figures in that report are not______. You should not refer to them.
 A. accurate             B. fixed                     C. delicate            D. rigid
16. In general, matters which lie entirely within state borders are the ______ concern of government.
 A. extinct              B. exclusive                C. excessive            D. excluding
17. A visitor to a museum today would notice changes in the way museums are
 A. cognitive            B. rigorous                 C. conspicuous          D. exclusive
18. You can keep watching the football match, but turn the television_____— I'm trying
 A. off                  B. down                     C. out                  D. on
19. The workers' demands are______; they are asking for only a small increase in their wages.
 A. commercial           B. abnormal                  C. complicated         D. moderate
20. Young adults ______ than older people are more likely to prefer pop songs.
 A. other                B. more                     C. less                 D. rather
21. By success I don't mean ______ usually thought of when that word is used.
 A. what is              B. that we                  C. as you               D. all is
22. When I try to understand ______ that prevents so many Americans from living as happy
  as one might expect, it seems to me that there arc two causes.
 A. why it does          B. what it does              C. what it is          D. why it is
23. Mike's uncle insists ______ in this hotel.
 A. staying not          B. not to stay          C. that he would not stay   D. that he not stay
24. We agreed to accept ______ they thought was the hest tourist guide,
 A. whoever              B. whomever                 C. whatever             D. whichever
25. We think it necessary______ all the students should prepare their lessons before the classes.
 A. which                B. that                     C. where                D. what
26. The mere fact______ most people believe nuclear war would be madness does not mean that it
  will not occur.
 A. what                 B. which                    C. that                 D. why
27. There are many indications ______ the scientific method is being applied to public
 A. that                 B. whether                  C. how                  D. which
28. A conclusion was drawn ______ pressure is identified with temperature.
 A. which                B. what                     C. that                 D. its
29. His promotion was due to ______ he had been working hard.
 A. that                  B. what                    C. the fact that        D. the fact which
30. There are signs ______ restaurants are becoming more popular with families,
 A. that                 B. whose                    C. which                D. in which


KEYS:1-10 ADCAB CDCBD                     11-20 BCDBA BCBDD             21-30 ACDAB CACCA


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               Unit Seven             Lighten Your Load and Save Your Life
Time Allotment: (4.5 periods)
Section A and language points (3 periods)
Exercises and writing (1.5 period )



Teaching Aims: The teaching of this text aims to enable students
1. aster the new active words and useful phrases.
2. learn about how to handle stress in our lives.
3. review the skills of developing a paragraph by cause and effect.
4. get acquainted with skills of finding out word meanings.
5. practice what has been learned.


I. Background Information
     The effect of physical and mental demands and pressures on the human body may be thought of
as stress. Everyone’s life has some stress. In day-to-day situations, your body can handle normal stress.
Even when stress continues, the body will react by demanding physical and mental rest. After rest, it
is again ready to take on stress.
     Stress can have both positive and negative effects. Stress is a normal, adaptive reaction to threat.
It signals danger and prepares us to take defensive action. Fear of things that pose realistic threats
motivates us to deal with them or avoid them. Stress also motivates us to achieve and fuels creativity.
Although stress may hinder performance on difficult tasks, moderate stress seems to improve
motivation and performance on less complex tasks. In personal relationships, stress often leads to less
cooperation and more aggression.
      If not managed appropriately, stress can lead to serious problems. Exposure to
chronic stress can contribute to both physical illnesses, such as heart disease, and mental
illnesses, such as anxiety disorders. The field of health psychology focuses in part on how
stress affects bodily functioning and on how people can use stress management
techniques to prevent or minimize disease.


II. Warm-up Questions
1. Do you have stress in your life? What are they?
2. How does stress affect one’s life and work?




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3. For many people, what causes their stress?
4. What do you think can possibly control stress?


III. Text Structure Analysis
1. Outline of the Text
Part I
To take charge of your life, you need to take charge of it where you can. (Paras. 1-6)
A. You may be stressed and hurting your heart. (Paras. 1-3)
Question:
According to Dr. Robert S. Eliot, what should you do if you don’t want to break your heart?
You need to learn to take charge of your life where you can and recognize there are many things
beyond your control.
B. Stress is killing ‘hot reactors’. (Paras. 4-6)
Question:
1. For those who are called “hot reactors”, what may be the result of being tense?
Being tense may cause tremendous and rapid increases in their blood pressure.
2. According to Eliot, what did researchers find through years of work?
They find that stressed people have higher cholesterol levels, among other things.
Part II
FUD factors cause stress. (Paras. 7-12)
A. Fear, uncertainty and doubt lead to your stress. (Paras. 7-11)
Questions:
1. What main factors, according to Eliot, cause harmful levels of stress?
The main factors are fear, uncertainty, doubt and perceived lack of control.
2. What kinds of people does the author mention to illustrate “the root of their stress is anger”?
Professional women and people with no compass in life.
B. Change your attitudes and negative thinking to calm yourself down. (Para. 12)
Part III
Nice factors can help to take charge of your life. (Paras. 13-17)
A. You need the nice factors (new, interesting and challenging experiences) to control your life.
 (Paras.13-15)
Question:
What new factors does Eliot recommend in order to calm yourself down?
They are new, interesting, challenging experiences.
A. Follow Ben Franklin’s example to set priorities in your life. (Paras. 16-17)



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Question:
What does the example of Ben Franklin show?
People should set priorities in their lives.
Part IV
You have to learn to flow with which you have little or no control in your life. (Paras. 18-20)
Question: From Eliot’s viewpoint, how do we face all the problems and difficulties in our daily lives?
We realize that there are other troublesome parts of our life over which you can have little or no
control, and have to learn how to flow.

2. Summary of the Text
     You should learn to take charge of your life and recognize many things are beyond your control.
For those who are ‘hot reactors’, being tense may cause tremendous and rapid increases in blood
pressure. Studies show that alarm or stress chemicals can literally burst heart muscle fibers. The main
factors causing harmful level of stress are fear, uncertainty and doubt, together with the lack of control.
For professional women and people who have no direction in life, some authorities believe anger is
the root of their stress. The nice factors---new, interesting, challenging experiences---are
recommended in order to calm you down. Like Benjamin Franklin, you have to set your priorities. In
order to face all the problems over which you have little control, you have to learn how to flow.


IV. New Words and Phrases
1. If you often feel angry and overwhelmed, like the stress in your life is spinning out of control,
 then you may be hurting your heart. (Para. 1)
  like: conj. in the same manner as
                Do you make bread like you make cake?
                Like I said, I can’t get there on Saturday.
                In both these sentences we can use “as” to replace “like”.
  overwhelm vt. 1) (of feeling) make sb. completely helpless, usu. suddenly
                Overwhelmed with gratitude, he fell to his knees.
                He was suddenly overwhelmed by a strong feeling of his insignificance.
                He was overwhelmed with grief at the news of his son’s death in an accident.
                The whole nation was overwhelmed with excitement because of its victory in bidding
                for hosting the 2008 Olympic games.
                    2) defeat
                The enemies were overwhelmed by superior forces.
                The policeman overwhelmed by the robber by holding his arm.
                    3) if water overwhelms an area of land, it covers it completely and suddenly



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               A great mass of water overwhelmed the village.
  overwhelming adj. too great to resist or overcome
               an overwhelming urge to smoke
               an overwhelming victory
  stress n. continuous feelings of worry about work or personal life, that prevent you from relaxing
  spin v. turn around and around quickly
               The wheels of the car were spinning.
               They spun a coin to decide who should start.
       n. turning movement
               He gamble his money on one spin of the wheel.
  out of control: no longer manageable
             Inflation has got out of control.
             After that package is put on a truck, when it is delivered is out of my control.
  compare
  under control
             It took the teacher months to bring his class under control.
  in control
             He was in control of the car.
  beyond control
             He lost position through situations beyond his control.
2. If you don’t want to break your own heart, you need to learn to take charge of your life where you
 can — and recognize there are many things beyond your control. (Para. 2)
  take charge of: take control of sth.; become responsible for sth.
               Jean was asked to take charge of the children.
               Please take charge of my dog while I’m away.
               He will take charge (of it) during my time away.
               She took charge of the family business when her father died.
               syn. be in charge of:
3. Eliot says there are people in this world whom he calls “hot reactors”. (Para. 4)
  hot reactors: people who are hot tempered
  react against: rebel
               They react against Victorian Tradition.
               Will people one day react against the political system that oppresses them?
   react with: If one chemical reacts with another, it has an effect on it by combining with it to form
                 a new substance. = combine
               The water was reacting with a ferrous iron (亚铁)in the tank.


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   react to: When you react to something that has happened to you, you behave in a particular way
                 because of what has happened.
                 I wonder how a child would react to such a question.
                 A good speech will react to the applause.
                 Children react to kind treatment by becoming more self-confident.
                 If you react to a substance, usually a drug that has got into your body you are affected
                 unpleasantly or made ill by it.
                 Many people reacted to this drug.
   react on: If something reacts on something, it has an effect on it.
                 How do acids react on metals?
4. For these people, being tense may cause tremendous and rapid increases in their blood pressure.
    (Para. 4)
   tense: adj. 1) feeling very nervous and worried because of sth. bad that might happen
                 He read the letter with a tense anxiety.
                 The environment in the hospital waiting room was very tense.
                2) unable to relax (part of) one’s body because one’s muscles feel tight
                 After a long day’s driving I always feel very tense.
                 You cannot play the piano properly if your fingers are too tense.
                 v. (cause sb./ sth. to) become tense
                 Having tensed his muscles, he is waiting for the race to start.
                 She tensed up as the turned.
                 n. tension.
5.… stressed people have higher cholesterol levels, among other things. (Para. 5)
   among other things: used to say that you are only mentioning one or two things out of a much
                            larger group
                 At the meeting they discussed, among other things, recent events in Eastern Europe.
                 She’s very keen on sport: among other things, she plays tennis twice a week.
 6. We’ve done years of work in showing that excess alarm or stress chemicals can literally burst
   heart muscle fibers. (Para. 5)
    excess adj. additional and not wanted or needed because there is already enough of sth.
                 If you take more luggage than is allowed, you will have to pay for the excess luggage.
                 The fat man went on a diet to get rid of his excess weight.
                 The government orders the schools to cut any excessive charges from the tuition fee.
           n. an amount that is more than what is needed or wanted; an act of doing too much of sth.
                 This excess of losses over profits will ruin the business.




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                He spends too much money; his excesses put him into debt.
                An excess of fat in one’s diet can lead to heart disease.
   excessive adj. too great in amount or in degree.
               She takes an excessive interest in clothes.
   excessively ad.
7. He attributes some of the cause to stress. (Para. 6)
   attribute: v. 1) to say that a situation or event is caused by sth.
                We attribute our success to being in right place and in right time.
                He attributed his success to hard work.
                The president attributed the worsening situation to the war.
                  2) to say that sb was responsible for saying or writing
                This saying was attributed to Confucius.
                This play was attributed to Shakespeare.
                I do not want to attribute these mean motives to anyone.
               n. 1) a quality regarded as a natural part of sb. /sth.
                What attributes should a good manager possess?
                One of the attributes of their plastic is its ability to bend without breaking.
                 2) object recognized as a symbol of a person or his position
                The scepter is an attribute of kingly power.
   compare
   contribute: give money, help, ideas etc. to sth. that a lot of people are also involved in
                He contributed 20,000 Yuan to a public school.
                The elder people have much to contribute to the community.
                This dictionary will contribute to your English study.
8. On the exterior, he was cool, calm and collected but on the interior, stress was killing him.
   (Para. 6)
   exterior: n. the appearance or outside surface of sth.
                The exterior of the house is very unattractive.
                You must not judge people by their exteriors.
   interior: n. inner part; inside
                This office has a very modern interior.
                There is a house with a classical exterior and a modern interior.
   Both “exterior” and “interior” can be used as adjectives. Examples:
                the exterior walls of the prison
                interior decorator




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 9. The main predictors of destructive levels of stress are the FUD factors---fear, uncertainty and
  doubt… (Para. 7)
   destructive: adj. causing damage to people or things
               a destructive storm
               We were shown a video about the destructive effects of carbon dioxide on the
               environment.
               This is a policy that is destructive to the economy.
   destruction n.
10. … together with perceived lack of control,... (Para. 7)
   together with: along with, as well as, accompanied by
                       Just bring it back to the store, together with your receipt.
                       Use the shampoo together with our special conditioner for best results.
   perceive: understand, become aware of, notice, observe
               People now perceive that green issues are important to our future.
               The past is often perceived to be better than the present.
               Peter began to perceive his father as a loser.
               The patient was perceived to have difficulty in standing and walking.
   perception n.
11. Perfectionists cannot delegate. (Para. 9)
     -------- Perfectionists do not give their duties or responsibilities to other people because they
     believe they are the best people to achieve the goal.
     delegate: vt. 1) give (duties or rights, etc.) to sb. in a lower position or grade
               You cannot do the entire job yourself----you must learn to delegate.
               He delegated his responsibilities to an assistant.
                   2) choose or send sb. as a representative
               A group of four teachers were delegated to represent the school at the meeting.
               The new manager was delegated to reorganize the department.
                n. a person chosen by a group to speak, vote at a meeting.
               Delegates have voted for this suggestion.
               Each union chooses several delegates to the yearly meeting.
12. They get angry that they have to carry it all, and they blow their tops. (Para. 9)
   blow one’s top: explode with anger; lose one’s temper
               My father will blow his top when he sees what has happened to the car.
               Parents should not blow their tops seeing their children had failed in the exam.
13. … start the whole cycle over again. (Para. 9)
   cycle: n. 1) a number of events happening in a regularly repeated order


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               The seasons of the year, spring, summer, autumn, winter make a cycle.
               How can we stop the unending cycle of violence?
                2) [C] a bicycle, motorcycle, etc.
               The shop sells a large range of foreign cycles.
               Do you know where there’s a good cycle shop?
         vi. ride a bicycle
               He cycles to the metro station every day.
               Shall we cycle into town or go by bus?
   compare
   circle: n. ring.
               The students were sitting in a circle on the floor.
           v. draw a circle round sth. or moves around it.
               One city was circled in red on the map.
               A trench circled the village.
14. .…they have no compass in life. And they give the same emphasis to a traffic jam that they give a
  family argument,…(Para. 10)
   emphasis: n. special or extra importance that is given to one part of sth.
               In Japanese society there is a lot of emphasis on academic success.
               Some schools put great emphasis on language study.
   emphasize v.
15. … that they give a family argument … (Para. 10)
   argument: n. 1) [C] a situation in which two or more people disagree, often angrily; a quarrel
               An argument broke out.
               They were having an argument about the children.
                  2) [C] a reason put forward
               Her husband was not convinced by her argument that they needed a car.
               I don’t think that’s a very strong argument.
16. If you own anger for more than five minutes --- if you stir in your own juice with no safety
    outlet … (Para. 10)
    stir v.1) move (sth.) in a round motion through a liquid or mixture
               Use a spoon to stir the sauce.
               Slowly add the flour, stirring until completely blended.
           2) excite (a person or his feelings, etc.)
               The story stirred the boy's imagination.
               The speech stirred the crowd to take action.
         n.1) [C] the action of stirring


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                                            Unit One Book Two



               Could you give the salad a quick stir?
             2) [U] excitement; fuss
               The news caused quite a stir in the village.
               The suggestion caused a stir of interest in the class.
   stir in one’s own juice: suffer from unpleasant feelings
17. … with no safety outlet … (Para. 10)
   outlet: n. a means of expression, exit or escape
               Children need an outlet for their energy.
               This job provides an excellent outlet for his artistic impulse.
18. What happens is that the hotter people get, physiologically, with mental stress, the more likely they
     are to blow apart with some heart problem. (Para. 11)
   blow apart: break by an explosion; explode
                  His car had been blown apart.
   In this sentence “blow apart” is used in its figurative sense, meaning “break down physically”.
19. Eliot recommends taking charge of your life. (Para. 13)
   recommend: v. 1) suggest, advise
   The verb “recommend” in this sense is used in several structures:
   (1) If it is followed directly by a verb, the verb should be in the -ing form.
               I wouldn’t recommend reading in this light; it may affect your eyes.
   (2) If it is followed by a “that-clause”, the verb in the “that-clause” should be used in its base form
       or used together with the modal auxiliary “should”.
               I recommend that he (should) try the new medicine.
   (3) The verb “recommend” in this sense can also be followed directly by a noun.
               The doctor recommended a change of climate for her health.
                    2) praise sth. or sb. as suitable for a purpose or for a post
               They recommend her for the job.
               Can you recommend me a good hotel in the city?
20.“If there is one word that should be substituted for stress, it’s control.” (Para. 13)
   substitute (for): v. replace (with)
               They substituted red balls for blue, to see if the baby would notice.
               He substituted for the worker who was ill.
                    n. a person or thing acting or used in place of another
               Water isn’t a proper substitute for wine.
               Our teacher is having a baby, so we have a substitute.
21. “... being financially independent, being stimulated intellectually and remaining even-
  tempered …” (Para. 15)


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     financial: concerning money
     financial aid
               It was a wonderful film, but not a financial success (sth that makes a profit)
     compare
     financial year: the period of a year over which a company’s profits and losses are calculated
     fiscal year: the period of a year which the government uses to calculate how much tax a person
                     or business must pay
     independent: a. not dependent, not controlled by other people or things
               She likes to be financially independent (of her family).
               She is very independent and lives all alone.
               India became independent of Britain in 1947.
22. … being stimulated intellectually … (Para. 15)
     stimulate: vt.1) make sb. / sth. more active
               She was stimulated into new efforts.
               Success will stimulate a person into further efforts.
               Praise always stimulates him to further efforts.
                     2) cause sth. to work or function
               The medicine will stimulate his nerve system.
      stimulus n.
      stimulation n. a working atmosphere lacking in stimulation
      stimulating a.
23. … and remaining even-tempered … (Para. 15)
     temper: n. state of the mind
               even-tempered
               mild-tempered
               hot- / quick- / short-tempered
               sweet-tempered
               moody-tempered
               good-tempered
               bad- / ill-tempered
24. … then cut it down to 6 and set your priorities. (Para. 16)
     cut down: reduce, make less in number or amount
               Your article is too long. Please cut it down to 1,000 words.
               If you can’t give up smoking completely, at least try to cut down.
               People concerned about cholesterol levels often try to cut down on meats.
25. … and set your priorities. (Para. 16)


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                                             Unit One Book Two



   priority: 1) thing that must be done, dealt with or provided as soon as possible.
               Getting food is the main priority.
               The waiting list contains a thousand priority cases.
             2) If you give priority to someone or something, you treat them as more important than
                any one or anything else.
               The trade union must give priority to protecting the interests of its members.
               Housing was given the highest priority after the war.
   prioritize v.
               Everyone should take time to be alone, to prioritize and meditate
    compare
    superiority n. an advantage of something or someone.
               No one doubts the superiority of modern ways of traveling over those of older times.
26. From Eliot’s viewpoint,… (Para. 19)
   viewpoint: opinion, attitude
               This is unacceptable form my viewpoint.
               It's my viewpoint that the price is much too high.
               Everyone will have a chance to make his/her viewpoint known.
27. … other troublesome parts of your life … (Para. 19)
     troublesome: giving trouble; causing annoyance
               My cough is rather troublesome today.
               Her knee has been troublesome for quite a while, and she may need an operation on it.
     Words with –some: quarrelsome, burdensome, lonesome, tiresome, fearsome
28. You can’t fight. You can’t flee. You have to learn how to flow. (Para. 20)
     flee: run away; escape
               Local tribesmen fled in fear.
               He had to flee to South Africa.
     Compare
     escape vi. to emphasize the result of running away
               She longed to escape from her mother’s dominations.
               A lion has escaped from its cage.


V. Difficult Sentence Analysis:
1. If you often feel angry and overwhelmed, like the stress in your life is spinning out of control, then
  you may be hurting your heart. (Para. 1)
  -------- If you are often angry and very strongly affected by negative feelings, as if the stress is



                                                    139
                                             Unit One Book Two



  quickly going out of control, then it is possible that you are doing harm to your heart.
   like: conj. in the same manner as
2. If you don’t want to break your own heart, you need to learn to take charge of your life where you
  can — and recognize there are many things beyond your control. (Para. 2)
  -------- If you don’t like to harm your heart, you should learn to take control of your own life where
  you can, and at the same time, you have to realize that you’re unable to take control over
  everything.
3. So says Dr. Robert S. Eliot,… (Para. 3)
  -------- It’s an inverted sentence. The normal order is: Dr. Robert S. Eliot … says so.
  “So” refers to what is talked about in Para. 2. The reasons for the inverted order of the sentence are
  that the subject of the sentence (that is: Dr. Robert S. Eliot, author of a new book titled From Stress
  to Strength: How to Lighten Your Load and Save Your Life) is very long and, what is more, the
  subject bears the new information of the whole sentence. To keep the sentence in balance, and to
  achieve the end-weight (that is: leave the complex structure towards the end of the sentence) and
  end-focus (that is: leave the new information towards the end of the sentence), the word “so” is put
  at the very beginning and the verb comes before the subject.
4. We’ve done years of work in showing that excess alarm or stress chemicals can literally burst heart
  muscle fibers. (Para. 5)
  --------We’ve spent years in showing that too great amounts of chemicals produced by too much
  anxiety or tension can actually damage heart muscles.
5. It creates many short circuits and that causes crazy heart rhythms. (Para. 5)
  -------Damaged heart muscles cause the heart a lot of problems, which result in irregular heart beat.
  The heart beats like a bag of worms instead of a pump. (Para. 5)
  -------- The heart works badly rather than beating like a pump.
  like a bag of worms: (functioning) irregularly and without much power
6. The main predictors of destructive levels of stress are the FUD factors — fear, uncertainty and
  doubt … (Para. 7)
  -------- The main signs to show that stress has produced destructive effects on health are fear,
  uncertainty and doubt...
  FUD: a word made up from the first letters of fear, uncertainty and doubt
7. … and the trick is to find out where the anger is coming from.(Para. 8)
  -------- and the key to success is to find out the source of the anger.
8. or many people, the root of their stress is anger, and the trick is to find out where the anger is
  coming from.(Para. 8)
  ------- As the most important cause of many people’s stress is anger, the best solution to find out
  what makes them angry.


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                                             Unit One Book Two



9. They feel they have to be all things to all people and do it all perfectly. (Para. 9)
  ------- These women feel forced to play all the roles their lives demand of them and, therefore, do all
  of these different things to the extent of being perfect.
10. Good enough is never good enough. (Para. 9)
  -------- However good their performance is, they (or they feel others may) never think so.
11. Perfectionists cannot delegate. (Para. 9)
  --------Perfectionists do not give their duties or responsibilities to other people because they believe
  they are the best people to achieve the goal.
12. They get angry that they have to carry it all, and they blow their tops. (Para. 9)
  -------- They get angry because they have to do everything on their own, and so they lose their
  temper.
  blow one’s top: (slang) explode with anger, lose one’s temper
13. Then they feel guilty and they start the whole cycle over again.(Para. 9)
    ------- Then they feel ashamed about losing their temper, but they go back to their former way of
  living, aiming at perfection and living under stress.
14. …they have no compass in life. And they give the same emphasis to a traffic jam that they give a
  family argument,…(Para. 10)
  -------- These people have no way to know the right direction they should follow in life. And they
  get equally angry about a traffic jam and about a family quarrel.
  “Compass” refers to a device used to find direction. In this sentence “compass” is used in its
  figurative sense.
15. If you own anger for more than five minutes - if you stir in your own juice with no safety outlet …
  (Para. 10)
  -------- If you experience anger for more than five minutes — if you suffer from your own feelings
  of anger but find no proper means to set free your anger …
  stir in one’s own juice: suffer from unpleasant feelings
16. What happens is that the hotter people get, physiologically, with mental stress, the more likely they
  are to blow apart with some heart problem. (Para. 11)
  -------- The fact is that the more angry people become because of high mental pressure, the more
  likely they are to come down with some heart disease.”
  blow apart: break by an explosion; explode
  His car had been blown apart.
  In this sentence “blow apart” is used in its figurative sense, meaning “break down physically”.
17. One step to calming down is recognizing you have this tendency. (Para. 12)
    ------- In order to make yourself quiet and peaceful, you have to take the action of admitting that
     you are very likely to lose your temper.


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18. Instead of the FUD factors, what you want is the NICE factors --- new interesting, challenging
  experiences. (Para. 13)
  ------- What we need is not fear, an certainty and doubt but a life full of new, interesting and
  challenging experiences.
19. then cut it down to 6 and set your priorities. (Para. 16)
  -------- then reduce the list of 12 things to 6 and decide which ones are of the most importance that
  you must deal with first.
  cut down: reduce, make less in number or amount
20. but things that will affect your identity, control and self-worth. (Para. 16)
  --------…but (first consider) things that will have influence on your character, your control of
  yourself and the sense of your own value.
21. Since we can’t create a 26-hour day we have to decide what things we’re going to do. (Par. 17)
   ------- As everyone has 24 hours a day, we have to decide what things we should do first and what
  things wait.
22. Keep in mind that over time these priorities are going to change. “The kids grow up, the dog dies
  and you change your priorities.” (Para. 18)
   -------- Remember that with time going by, some things once considered the most important have
  lost important while others are becoming more and more important.
23. ... You can’t fight. You can’t flee. You have to learn how to flow. (Para. 20)
  --------(With things like traffic jams, deadlines and unpleasant bosses,) you can’t choose to quarrel
  or escape. You can only learn how to accept and get used to them.



VI. Writing:
Structured Writing:
     Since we have got familiar with the skill of developing a paragraph of cause and effect, in this
unit we discuss on how to organize cause-and-effect.
     Whether cause-effect analysis is the main strategy for the whole or part of the essay, the first
thing that needs to be done is to establish the causal connection between the things being discussed. Is
there really a causal connection between the flat tire and someone’s failure to do well in the big exam?
To put it differently, did the flat tire cause the failure? Are there other and perhaps more important
reasons (hadn’t taken good notes in class; or hadn’t reviewed for the exam), which contributed to the
failure? Which of the reasons are direct? Which are historical? Which are hidden?
     There are three basic ways of organizing cause-effect analysis: chronological, order of
importance, and categorical. Which one you use depends on the overall rhetorical situation: the
nature of the subject, the kind of audience you are wiring to, and the specific purpose you want to


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achieve.
Chronological
     A chronological organization means arranging the discussion by following the time sequence in
which actual events happened or unfolded. This organization is effective for top which involve
narrating how something happened through period of time. Say the subject you want to analyze is: Wi-
led to the famous Xian Incident in which Zhang Xueliang “the Young Marshal,” and his associates
house-arrested Jiang Jieshi on December 12, 1936? How far back should you go for a chronological
organization of such a paper? It depends on how long and how complex you want your analysis to be.
For a short paper (about 5 pages), you may not want to go too I back. The time line of your paper for
this topic may lo somewhat like the following:
1. 1331: Zhang Xueliang and his army were driven out of the three provinces in northeastern China,
which were lost to the Japanese.
2. 1934: Upon return to China after a tour in Europe, Zhang was dismayed that the Japanese launched
a new series of major military campaigns while he was, under the order of Jiang Jieshi, commanding
his troops to kill the Communists who were fighting the Japanese.
3. 1935: Thousands of students rallied in Beijing and other major cities in China, protesting Japanese
invasion, and calling for a united front against Japanese invasion.
4. Early 1936: Moved by the Communists’ appeals for united front, Zhang held meetings with
Communist representatives.
5. Mid 1936: Zhang felt more pressured by the Japanese movement on his borders and more worried
about the fate of China.
6. December 1936: Zhang house-arrested Jiang Jieshi who had flown to Xian to re-energize and
supervise anti-Communist military campaigns.
Order of Importance
     In an analysis that involves multiple causes and effects, you can use the order-of-importance
organization: either you arrange the factors from the least important ones to the most important ones,
or from the most important to the least important ones. The least-to-most importance organization
would produce a climatic effect while the most-to-least importance organization would give the
strongest factor first to impress the reader. Which one should you use depends on your subject, au-
dience, and purpose. If you are discussing the disastrous impact of a major natural disaster, you may
want to give the most severe damages (human casualties) first. If you want to explain why you voted
for someone to be the recipient of a big award, you may want to save the most important reason (that
person's most significant achievement) to be discussed last for dramatic effect.
Categorical
     In addition to chronological and order-of-importance methods of organization, you can also
group the various factors into different categories and arrange them accordingly. Let's say the


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management of a manufacturing plant is discussing the possible effects of laying off around 30% of its
employees. The management can organize the possible effects in a few important categories:
Financial: How will the laid-off employees survive with the limited unemployment relief fund?
Social: How will the community and society be impacted by the sudden increase of laid-off residents?
Psychological: How will the employees — both those laid off and those who stay — feel about them-
selves, the plant, and the future?
     If, instead of a chronological organization, you prefer to use the categorical method for
discussing what led to the Xi’an Incident, you could group the factors into a few major categories.
Personal: the Young Marshal's origin in northeastern China which was lost to the Japanese; his
patriotic love for the motherland;
Social and national Political: widespread protest against Japanese invasion and call for united front by
students and people from all walks of life;
Political: Jiang Jieshi's policy of non-resistance to the Japanese and all-out military campaigns against
the Communists at the same time; Communists’ appeals for a united front.


     Sample:
     Why do people want to save the whales? There are two important reasons. One reason is that
whales help to keep a balance between plants and animals. People have disturbed this balance. People
get rid of their wastes by throwing them into the oceans and seas. People’s sewage and garbage
increase the amount of salt in ocean and seawater. The increased salt helps some plants and some very
small animals grow. These plants and animals can be harmful to fish. Whales eat enormous amounts
of plants and animals that grow in very salty water. Therefore whales are very important because they
keep the oceans environment clean enough for fish. In addition, because fish provide necessary food
for many people, people need whales, and many people want to save them.


VII. Dictation:
You may choose one of the following paragraphs as you like:
Passage 1
                                       The Language of Music
     A painter hangs his or her finished pictures on a wall, and everyone can see it. A composer writes
a work, but no one can hear it until it is performed. Professional singers and players have great
responsibilities, for the composer is utterly dependent on them. A student of music needs as long and
as arduous a training to become a performer, as a medical student needs to become a doctor. Most
training is concerned with technique, for musicians have to have the muscular proficiency of an
athlete or a ballet dancer. Singers practice breathing every day, as their vocal chords would be



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inadequate without controlled muscular support. String players practice moving the fingers of the left
hand up and down, while drawing the bow to and fro with the right arm—two entirely different
movements.
     Singers and instruments have to be able to get every note perfectly in tune. Pianists are spared
this particular anxiety, for the notes are already there, waiting for them, and it is the piano tuner’s
responsibility to tune the instrument for them. But they have their own difficulties; the hammers that
hit the string have to be coaxed not to sound like percussion, and each overlapping tone has to sound
clear.
     This problem of getting clear texture is one that confronts student conductors: they have to learn
to know every note of the music and how it should sound, and they have to aim at controlling this
sound with fanatical but selfless authority.
     Technique is of no use unless it is combined with musical knowledge and understanding. Great
artists are those who are so thoroughly at home in the language of music that they can enjoy
performing works written in any century.


Passage 2
                                                    Sleep
     Sleep is part of a person’s daily activity cycle. There are several different stages of sleep, and
they too occur in cycles. If you are an average sleeper, your sleep cycle is as follows. When you fist
drift off into slumber, your eyes will roll about a bit, you temperature will drop slightly, your muscles
will relax, and your breathing well slow and become quite regular. Your brain waves slow and become
quite regular. Your brain waves slow down a bit too, with the alpha rhythm of rather fast waves 1 sleep.
For the next half hour or so, as you relax more and more, you will drift down through stage 2 and
stage 3 sleep. The lower your stage of sleep, the slower your brain waves will be. Then about 40 to 69
minutes after you lose consciousness you will have reached the deepest sleep of all. Your brain will
show the large slow waves that are known as the delta rhythm. This is stage 4 sleep.
     You do not remain at this deep fourth stage all night long, but instead about 80 minutes after you
fall into slumber, your brain activity level will increase again slightly. The delta rhythm will disappear,
to be replaced by the activity pattern of brain waves. Your eyes will begin to dart around under your
closed eyelids as if you were looking at something occurring in front of you. This period of rapid eye
movement lasts for some 8 to 15 minutes and is called REM sleep. It is during REM sleep period,
your body will soon relax again, your breathing will slip gently back from stage 1 to stage 4
sleep----only to rise once again to the surface of near consciousness some 80 minutes later.



VIII. Homework:


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1. Do the exercises after Section A and study Sections B and C.
2. Preview the next unit.




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                      Section B             Are You a Workaholic?
I. Outline of the Text
Part I
Introduction: The distinction between working hard and being a workaholic. (Paras. 1-2)
Part II
Cause of workaholics (Para. 3-9)
A. People are compelled to be workaholics by a controlling habit. (Para. 3)
B. People escape other parts of lives through work to produce good feelings. (Paras. 4-5)
C. Three types of workaholics (Para. 6)
D. Psychology of workaholics (Paras. 7-9)
Part III
Conclusion: One should lead a balance in his life to be a healthy person. (Para. 10)


II. Summary of the Text
Being a workaholic is different from working hard. Workaholics often find reasons for working more,
feel list without work to do, hide from problems through work and have unbalanced, one-dimensional
lives. They are pushed into a controlling habit by workaholism. People seek to escape other parts of
lives through work to produce good feelings. Since they tend to put all their eggs in one basket, their
jobs, they can be helped by spreading these eggs into several baskets. So, to be a healthy person
physically and psychologically, one should try to regain more of a balance in his life.


III. New Words and Phrases
1. … and having a life other than work. (Para. 2)
  other than: 1) instead of, except for
               Have we anything to drink other than milk?
               You can’t get there other than by swimming.
               2) not; anything but
               She can hardly be other than grateful.
               The truth was quite other than what he thought.
2. … one-dimensional lives. (Para. 2)
  dimensional: a. of a particular factor
               three-dimensional films
               Space is considered to be three-dimensional and time is thought of as the fourth
               dimension.



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               A square is two-dimensional and a cube is three-dimensional.
  dimension: n. 1) [C,U] measures of length, width, etc.
               What are the dimensions of the suitcase?
               It will be a building of vast dimensions.
                 2) a particular side or part of a problem, subject, etc.; aspect
               We should not forget that education has an important spiritual dimension.
               His character has several different dimensions.
3. … like those who are constantly drunk, … (Para. 3)
  constantly: ad. all the time, or very often
               The direction of the wind is constantly changing.
               As I walked through the playground, I was constantly reminded of my school life.
  constant adj. 1) going on all the time; happening again and again
               He's in constant trouble with the police.
               They make constant use of their computers.
                 2) unchanging; fixed
               Pressure in the container remains constant.
               We've kept a constant speed all the journey.
4. … negative consequence. (Para. 3)
  consequence: n. 1) [C] sth. that happens as a result of a particular action or set of conditions
               Such a mistake would perhaps lead to terrible consequences.
               These pilots must now face the consequences of their actions and be brought to trial.
                    2) [U] importance
               a man of great consequence
               It is of little consequence to me.
               He may be a man of consequence in his own country, but he's nobody here.
   "Was anything interesting said at the meeting?" "Nothing of any consequence."
5. … that automatically sanctions workaholism. (Para. 3)
  sanction: vt. officially accept or approve of sth.
               They officially sanctioned the project.
               He tried to get the government to sanction his plan.
             n. 1) approval, official approval for (sth.)
               I need my parents’ sanction to stay out late.
                2) a law or rule that punishes or takes away sth. from sb.
               The United States applied economic sanctions against Cuba.
               The international community imposed sanctions on that country for its terrorist actions.
                3) [C] a reason that stops people going against laws, rules, etc.


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               Is prison the best sanction against a crime like this?
               Shame once served as an effective sanction against wrongdoing.
6. Despite lip service to the contrary … (Para. 3)
   to the contrary: showing that the opposite is true
               I’ll come next month, unless you write to the contrary.
               I know she’s unhappy, despite all her arguments to the contrary.
   compare
   on the contrary: (used for expressing strong opposition to what has just been said)
               It isn’t a good thing; on the contrary, it’s a huge mistake.
               I believe you like your job. On the contrary, I hate it!
7.…workers unwilling to burn the midnight oil are at risk. (Para. 3)
   at risk: in danger
               The whole future of the company is at risk.
               A young woman out alone at night is at risk.
8. Certainly, they hazard their jobs by working normal hours. (Para. 3)
   hazard: vt. risk, subject to danger
               He hazarded his life to save the child.
               His father hazarded all his savings in an investment.
               I don't know where he is but I could hazard a guess.
            n. a danger or risk
               There are many serious health hazards associated with smoking.
               That big box of papers is a fire hazard.
9. … to rack up their expectations. (Para. 3)
   rack up: increase gradually, collect; gather
               The team has racked up ten points to win the game.
               Great losses were racked up by the airlines during this period.
               Still greater sales are racked up by putting the designer's name on the package.
10. … that needs discharging. (Para. 6)
   discharge vt. 1) send out (gas, liquid, smoke, etc.), or allow it to escape
               The chimney discharges smoke.
               The poison was discharged into the river and killed all the fish.
                 2) give official sanction for sb. to leave
               Patients were discharged from hospital because the beds were needed by other people.
               Because of the depressed economy, almost one third of our employees were discharged.
               vi. give or send out
               The oil, which discharged into the sea seriously, harmed a lot of birds and animals.


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               n. [U,C] sth. that is discharged
               Thousands of fish were killed by a discharge from a nearby factory.
               Thousands of fish were killed as a result of a discharge of poisonous chemicals from a
               nearby factory
               Discharges from the factory are entirely safe.
11. … such as grief, frustration or guilt. (Para. 6)
     grief n. 1) great sadness, deep or violent sad feeling
               His grief at the death of his mother was terrible.
               The dog died of grief when its master did not return.
             2) [C] sth. causing such feelings
               His marriage was a great grief to his parents.
               The son and mother were unable to communicate their grief.
12. Workaholics presumably view their work habits through denial and rationalization. (Para. 8)
     presumably ad. used to say that you think sth. is likely to be true
               If she can write, presumably she can read too.
               The bomb was presumably intended to go off while the meeting was in progress.
13. They deny the excessive time … (Para. 8)
     deny v. declare untrue; refuse to accept as a fact
               He flatly denied the charge.
               He denied being a Christian.
               They denied this to be the case.
     Notice that if “deny” is followed directly by another verb, the second verb has to be in the -ing
     form.
               He denied knowing anything about the matter.
     denial n. 1) [C] a statement that sth. is not true
               His denial of responsibility for the accident was not convincing.
               Nobody believes their repeated denials of guilty.
               2) the act or an example of refusing to give or accept
               We criticize the denial of basic human freedoms.
               Prejudice on grounds of race is the most basic denial of equal opportunities.
14. Workaholics presumably view their work habits through denial and rationalization.(Para.8)
     rational a. 1) not foolish; having common sense; reasonable
               There must be a perfectly rational explanation for what happened.
               We need to decide what would be the most rational way of action.
                 2) showing clear thought
               She was too sad to be rational.


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               Man is a rational being.
     rationalize vt. provide an explanation for
               He rationalized his decision to leave the job by saying that he wanted to spend more
               time with his family.
               Tom's parents sometimes find it difficult to rationalize his behavior.
     rationalization n.[U, C] the action of providing an explanation
15. … their schedule is for the family … (Para. 8)
    schedule n. 1) n. a plan of what sb. is going to do and when they are going to do it
               She always has a full schedule.
               The train was an hour behind schedule.
                 2) vt. plan activities by date and time
               The play was originally scheduled for October, but had to be cancelled.
               She is scheduled to arrive at ten tomorrow morning.
16. … their commitment, ambition and durable energy. (Para. 8)
     ambition: n. 1) [C, U] the desire to be successful, rich or powerful
               He’s not especially bright, but he has tremendous ambition.
               My family is more important to me than political affairs and personal ambition.
                  2) [C] a goal, objective
               Of all my ambitions, the greatest is to be a teacher.
               She has always had a burning ambition to be a film actress.




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                                             Quiz Seven
Directions: Each of the following sentences is provided with four choices. Choose the one that
best completes the sentence.
1. Cancellation of the flight _______ many passengers to spend the night at the airport.
 A. resulted              B. obliged                  C. demanded                   D. recommended
2. Sometimes patients suffering from severe pain can be helped by “drugs” that aren’t really drugs at
 all ______ sugar pills that contain no active chemical elements.
 A. or rather             B. rather than                 C. but rather         D. other than
3. The prisoners were _______ of his civil liberty for three years.
 A. discharged            B. derived                     C. deprived           D. dispatched
4. The government has decided to ______ budget on military.
 A. cut out               B. cut up                      C. cut down           D. cut in
5. Thomas Edison______ his success to 10% inspiration and 90% perspiration.
 A. devoted               B. contributed                 C. attributed         D. executed
6. The truth is quite _______ than what you think.
 A. better                B. other                       C. more               D. rather
7. He will ______ resign in view of the complete failure of the research project.
 A. doubtfully            B. adequately                  C. presumably         D. reasonably
8. You'll have to pay ______ postal charge on this letter.
 A. excess                B. excessive                   C. access             D. assess
9. After listening to him for three hours they became______.
 A. tense                 B. anxious                     C. nervous            D. restless
10. Alone in a deserted house, he was so busy with his research that he felt______ but lonely.
 A. nothing               B. everything                  C. anything           D. all
11. The _____ of the play is clear to the audience.
 A. title                 B. headline                    C. headings           D. theme
12. Mr. Lin is the chief _____ of China to the United Nations.
 A. representative        B. deputy                      C. delegate            D. commissary
13. He still denies _____ in the bank before the robbery.
 A. to be                 B. to have been                C. having been        D. having to be
14. The disease is spreading rapidly in this region, and all children under five years old are ____ risk.
 A. at                    B. to                          C. with               D. in
15. As for the youngsters, playing rock music is a good______ for energy.
 A. method                B. outlet                      C. means              D. way
16. Generally speaking, applause reacts ______ a speaker.



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 A. to                    B. against                      C. upon              D. at
17. When Tom was a boy, he ________ helped those in trouble.
 A. continually           B. constantly                   C. faithfully        D. wholly
18. Psychologists find that one's attention ______ has a limit. So a break between classes is
 A. space                 B. span                         C. spin              D. period
19. I was quite _______ by excitement when my team won the game
 A. overwhelmed           B. defeated                     C. destructed        D. recommended
20. The ______ of her emotions showed that she was on the edge of going mad.
 A. intensity             B. tension                      C. intention         D. tense
21. We usually take a _______ of the school campus after supper.
 A. cycle                 B. circuit                      C. round             D. walk
22. The book was trying to ______ discussion of the problem of global warming
 A. inspire               B. stimulate                    C. motivate          D. stir
23. My father will ______ when he sees what happened to the car.
 A. blow his top          B. blow up                      C. blow out          D. blow into
24. The management did not seem to take _______ over the office safety.
 A. previous              B. power                        C. priority          D. prior
25. Time is sometimes called the fourth _______.
 A. dimension             B. aspect                       C. character         D. size
26. The team has _______ full scores to win the competition.
 A. racked out            B. racked up his brains         C. racked up         D. racked with
27. A shy man will _______ meeting strangers.
 A. shrink away           B. shrink back                  C. shrink into       D. shrink from
28. The young man who killed a boy may suffer the last ______ of the law.
 A. sanction              B. allow                        C. permit            D. approve
29. She did not show her ________ when her son died.
 A. brief                 B. greet                        C. grief             D. grieve
30. The manager was unable to attend but sent his deputy as a _____.
 A. substitution          B. supersede                    C. replace           D. substitute


KEYS: 1-10 BCBCA BDADA 11-20 DCCAB ABBAB                            21-30 BBACA CDACD




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                                                Unit One Book Two



                      Unit Eight           There's a Lot More to Life than a Job
  Time Allotment: (4.5 periods)
  Section A and language points (3 periods)
  Exercises and writing (1.5 period )



  Teaching Aims: The teaching of this text aims to enable students
1. to master the new active words and useful phrases.
2. to learn about the role of education.
3. to get acquainted with skills of developing a paragraph     by argument.
4. to get acquainted with skills of distinguishing between facts and opinions.
5. to practice what has been learned.


  I. Background Information

           The word college is used in several different ways. It is generally used instead of university to
  refer to the education after high school, as in the expressions “go to college,” and “get a college
  education.” It is also used to refer to the school, as in “Where do you go to college?” often people use
  the word college to refer to a small school that does not offer graduate degrees, and universities refer
  to large schools that offer both undergraduate and graduate degrees. Universities often call the
  divisions within them colleges, as in “the College of Arts and Sciences” of Georgetown University.


  II. Warm-up Questions
  1. How do you see the role of education?
   The most important thing for a broad education is that in studying the accumulated wisdom of ages,
   and we improve our moral sense.
  2. What is a quality life?
   A quality life is not only to be financially well off, but also to develop a meaningful philosophy of
   life.
  3. What must educators prepare students for?
   Let's hope our educators answer students' cries for career education, but at the same time let's ensure
   that students are prepared for the day when they realize their shortsightedness




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                                             Unit One Book Two



III. Text Structure Analysis
1. Outline of the text
Part I
Introduction: People regret that young people waste youth. (Paras.1-3)
Part II
Main Body (Paras. 4-18)
A. Today’s college beginners are more practical and less idealistic than ever before.(Paras. 4-8)
B. We can educate people for life as well as for a career. (Paras. 9-13)
C. Education helps us to see what is beyond our immediate needs. (Paras. 14-18)
Part III
Conclusion: Convince students that there is a lot more to life than a job. (Para.19)

2. Summary of the Text
     A survey on college freshmen has revealed that today’s college beginners are more financially
realistic, more consumeristic and less idealistic. They want to be financially well off while they are
attaching much less importance to the development of a meaningful philosophy of life. The author
believes education is able to prepare people for life and for a career as well. We are not taking a job
only to fulfill our own needs; we should have a good understanding of the world beyond the confines
of our occupation; we are living and working to be able to serve our fellow men and the society we are
in. More importantly, education teaches us to see the connections between things, as well as to see
which they are crying for, they should also prepare students for their realization someday; there’s a lot
more to life than a job.


IV. New Words and Phrases
1. I recalled the regret, … ( Para. 2)
    recall: v. deliberately remember a particular fact, event, or situation from the past, esp. in order to
             tell someone about it.
               I seem to recall that Barry was with us at the time.
               I don’t recall ever meeting her.
               Afterwards, Olivia could not recall what they had talked about.
2. “If only I knew then what I know now.” (Para. 2)
    if only: 1) used to express a wish that past events had been different
               If only I had gone by taxi.
               If only he’d remembered to bring her here.
               If only I had enough money to buy a car now.



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           2) used to express a wish or a desire, esp. one that cannot be fulfilled
                If only I could be there and talk with the pop singer!
                If only she would marry me!
                If only I could swim.
3. What I had already suspected from informal polls of students both in Macon and at the Robins
  Resident Center (Para. 3)
     suspect: vt. have an idea that one thinks is possibly true
                The young man is more intelligent than we suspected him to be.
                I suspected that this event was just the beginning of a lot of trouble.
     informal: adj. not formal; not according to rules or practices one expects from officials
                an informal agreement
                informal talks between the two leaders
                The opposite of “informal” is “formal”. An example:
                This letter was written in very formal language.
     poll: n. 1) [C] a survey of public opinion
                We are conducting a poll to find out how many people are in favor of nuclear power.
                A recent poll gives the President’s Party a 5% lead.
              2) (pl.) giving of written choices at an election; a place where people make election
               choices
                The result of the poll won’t be known until after midnight.
                The people of England will go to the polls in the autumn.
     resident: 1) living in a place
                British people are now resident in Spain.
                2) living or work in a particular place or institution
                resident doctor
                resident physician
                resident population
      residence n.
      residential adj.
4. if it (whatever it may be) won’t compute and you can’t drink it, smoke it or spend it, then “it” holds
  little value. (Para. 3)
     compute: v. count; work out
                He computed his losses at 3000 dollars.
                Mother computed the cost of our trip.
                Here the verb “compute” is used in notional passive, that is, it is active in form but
                passive in meaning. More examples of notional passive:


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               The book translates well.
               This material washes easily.
               The clock winds at the back.
5. According to the survey based on responses from over 188,000 students,…(Para 4)
     base sth. on sth.: use sth. as grounds, evidence, etc. for sth. else
               Direct taxation is usually based on income.
6….the students’ major objective “is to be financially well off. ...” (Para. 5)
     objective: n. purpose, aim
               His sole objective is to win a gold medal at the Olympic Games.
               All our main objectives have been achieved.
               adj. impartial (antonym: subjective)
               I firmly believe that any report should be as objective as possible.
     well-off: rich, in a good position, esp. financially
                These people are very well-off.
                He didn’t know when he would be well-off.
                to build a well-off society
                The government claims that most people are better off than they were five years ago.
                Only those who are well off can afford this house.
7. Accordingly, today the most popular course is not literature or history but accounting. (Para. 5)
     accordingly: ad. 1) for the reason; so; therefore
               He was asked to leave the city and accordingly he went.
               She was angry and accordingly refused to attend the meeting.
                       2) in a manner that is suggested by what is known or has been said
               Please inform us of your decision and we will act accordingly.
               She’s an expert in her field, and is paid accordingly.
8. Interest in teaching, social service and the humanities is at a low, along with ethnic and women’s
 studies. (Para. 6)
     at a low: at a low level or figure
               Share prices have been at an all-time low.
               The economy has been at a bit of a low.
     along with: together with
               Jack escaped from the prison along with two other prisoners.
               Many fresh vegetables are on sale along with some canned food.
               The president, along with his wife and daughter, visits his hometown 3 times a year.

     ethnic and women’s studies: the study of ethnic and women’s issues (e.g., Black-American



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                                       History, Works of Women Writers, etc.)
     ethnic: connected with a particular race, nation or tribe and their customs and traditions
               The city’s population includes a wide range of different ethnic groups.
               In America there are several ethnic cultures.
9. Was making twice the salary of college instructors … (Para. 7)
     salary: n. the fixed amount of money given every week, month, or year as pay for an employee,
                esp. for those in a profession such as law, teaching, or medicine
               He is on a very good salary now.
               Her law firm job has a starting salary of thirty thousand pounds a year.
               He gets a good salary, but he always borrows money from his friends and never pays it
               back.
     compare
     Salary is usually paid monthly, sometimes three months or a year, for a job, esp. as for workers
             of higher skill and rank. Teachers, government officials and clerks receive salaries.
               He told me that the firm could not afford to pay such large salaries?
               What's your salary?
               She draws a substantial salary.
               Wages are paid weekly for a job, esp. as for laborers or workers.
               The young wage-earner often earns good money
               His wages are high, prices are high, too.
               His average wages are ¥250 a week.
     Pay includes salary and wage(s)(pay is paid for a job). It is uncountable.
               I get my pay on time every month.
     Fee is the payment for doctors, musicians, lawyers and artists.
               The doctor's fee is $ 25 a visit.
               School fees are high in that country.
10. “I’ll tell them what they can do with their (music, history, literature, etc. )” she was fond of
   saying.
     fond of sb. /sth. : having a great liking for sb./ (doing) sth.
               Joan’s extremely fond of pointing out other people’s mistakes.
11.Can’t we educate people for life as well as for a career? (Para. 9)
     as well as: in addition to
               He was appointed general manager for his rich experience as well as excellent
               educational background.
               He gave the poor woman a temporary job as well as some money.



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               He grows flowers as well as vegetables.
     compare
               Are they coming as well?
12. If we can not, then that is a conviction against our educational system… (Para. 10)
     conviction: n. the thing (or things) one deeply believes in
               He had a firm conviction that he was always right.
     convict: vt. (of a jury or judge) declare in a law court that sb. is guilty (of a crime)
               He was convicted of murder and sentenced to death.
13. In a time of increasing specialization, a time when 90 percent of all the scientists who have ever
    lived are currently alive, more than ever, we need to know what is truly important in life. (Para.
    10)
     specialization: n. [U, C] specializing; limiting all or most of your study or work to one subject or
                       activity
               There is too much specialization of subjects too early in our school.
               The lawyer said that he was unable to help us because our case fell outside his
               specialization.
     specialize (in): vi. limit all or most of your study or work to one subject or activity
               Professor Smith specializes in the early history of Europe.
               After she qualified as a lawyer, she decided to specialize in business law.
               This company specializes in selling home computers that were made in other countries.
14. finally arrive at the inevitable conclusion that they were meant to do more than serve a
     corporation,… (Para. 11)
     arrive at: come to / draw / reach (a conclusion, etc.)
               Both sides arrived at an agreement eventually.
     be meant to: be supposed to; intend to
               You are meant to take your shoes off before you enter a temple in India.
               We are meant to fill in a tax form and pay income tax every year.
                The boy was meant to stand up and run away, but he found himself sitting there rooted.
     corporation: n. a business company
               a multi-national corporation
               Mary now works for a large American corporation.
15. Most of us finally have the insight that quality of life is not entirely determined by a balance sheet.
  (Para. 12)
     balance sheet: a statement of how much money has come in and how much money has gone out
16. Sure, everyone wants to be finally comfortable, but we also want to feel we have a perspective on
  the world beyond the confines of our occupation; we want to be able to render service to our


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  fellow man and to our God. (Para. 12)
   --------but we also want to feel that we have an understanding of the world outside our career...
    have a perspective on: have a your own way of looking at and judging (sth.)
    confines: n. (pl.) limits or borders
              within the confines of campus life
              Completely solving the mystery of the space is beyond the confines of human
              knowledge
              v. 1) keep sb. /sth. within certain limits
               confined to bed/ wheelchair
                2) keep sb in a place that he can’t leave such as a prison
    occupation: n. 1) [C] a job; an employment
              “What’s your occupation?” “I’m an insurance agent.”
              Please tell me your name, age and occupation.
                     2) [C] a regular activity; an activity done in one’s spare time
              His favorite occupation is reading.
              She has many occupations, including gardening and wine-making.
    render: vt. 1) give, offer (help, assistance, service, etc.)
              The staff rendered first-class service and all the guests were quite satisfied.
              You have earned a reward for the help you have rendered.
              He had to render an apology for his rudeness.
              We should not render good for evil.
              We must render help to disaster victims.
                      2) cause sb. / sth. to be in a particular state
              His fatness renders him unable to touch his toes.
              His rudeness rendered me speechless.
              Your action has rendered our contract invalid.
              render homage/ obedience/ allegiance
              render sb. a service
              render a service to sb.
        render sth up: to give up
              He render up his soul to god.
17.the meaning of life does not dawn until middle age,… (Para. 13)
    dawn (on / upon): vi. Gradually become clear to one’s mind; become evident to sb.
              The truth began to dawn upon the poor man.
              It had just dawned on him that he had been fooled by the woman.
              It finally dawned (on me) that he had been lying.


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18.... is it then not the duty of educational institutions to prepare the way for that revelation? (Para.
  13)
     educational institution: a school, college or university
     institution: n.1) [C] (building of)an organization, (sometimes) an organization for helping people
                          with special needs
               The Royal Institution is an organization for scientists in England.
               Now he is living in an institution.
                   2) [C] a custom, system or organization that has existed for a long time and is
                           accepted as an important part of a particular society
               The institution of marriage is still popular despite the high divorce rate.
               Eastern European countries are eager to copy the financial institutions of the West.
19. …resent the Social Security deductions from their pay, … (Para. 13)
     resent: vt. feel anger and dislike about (sth. that hurts, offends or annoys one)
               He resented his father for being so strict with him.
               Do you resent my leaving here without you?
               The young man resents being dependent on his parents.
20.preferably a prosperous one,… (Para. 14)
     preferably: ad. desirably above anything else
               Doing some exercise, preferably in the fresh air, will surely be good for your health.
               I can meet you at any time tomorrow, but preferably not before 11 o’clock in the
               morning.
     preferable (to): a. more desirable
               A house with a garden in an area outside the city is preferable to an apartment
               downtown.
               A day with friends is always preferable to staying at home alone and doing nothing.
     prosperous: a. successful or well off financially, wealthy, being well-paid
               a prosperous industry
               a prosperous businessman
               a prosperous job
21.…it is equally true that our civilization has collected an incredible amount of knowledge in fields
  far removed from our own. (Para. 14)
     incredible: a. impossible or very difficult to believe
               He was absent from class and he gave an incredible excuse.
               That’s the most incredible story I’ve ever heard!
     incredibility n.
     compare


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                                            Unit One Book Two



    incredulous: unable or unwilling to believe sth.
    incredulity n.
22. And we are better for our understanding of these other contributions — be they scientific or
  artistic. (Para. 14)
    contribution: n. [U,C] action of giving (money, support, help or ideas) towards a particular aim
                           or purpose; sth. given towards a particular aim or purpose
               He has made an important contribution to the company’s success.
               His last novel is his greatest contribution to the literature of Spain.
               He was awarded the Nobel Prize for his contribution to world peace.
               She didn’t make much of a contribution at the meeting this morning.
23.as well as to see beyond our immediate needs. (Para. 14)
    immediate: adj. existing at present, pressing
               The immediate problem is where to find a person to take this risk.
               We cannot only think about our immediate needs. Instead, we should think
               more about the future.
24. Weekly we read of unions that went on strike for higher wages, only to drive their employer out of
    business. (Para. 15)
    weekly: 1) ad. once a week or every week
               The group meets weekly.
               This is a magazine published weekly since 2 January, 1909.
              2) a. happening once a week or every week
               We go and do the weekly shopping every Saturday.
               Every course is made up of 10 - 12 informal weekly meetings.
             3) n.[C] a newspaper or magazine which is published once every week
               Two of the four national daily papers are to become weeklies.
    read of: find out about sb. / sth. by reading
               I once read of this place in one of the books piled here.
               It was a great surprise to read of this film being awarded the best film prize in this
               morning’s newspaper.
    out of business: no longer able to operate as a business
               Lately, shops have had to pay more every month for the space they use. These increases
               could put a lot of small shops out of business.
25. But the most important argument for a broad education is that in studying the accumulated wisdom
    of the ages, we improve our moral sense. (Para. 16)
    argument (for / against): n. a statement used to convince people that sth. is correct
               Can you tell us your argument for making the price lower?


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                 The managers will declare their arguments against the plan next week.
       accumulate: v. make to become greater in quantity
                 Work hard, and you will accumulate a fortune someday.
                 Dust accumulates quickly, even if you clean the house every few days.
26. “could you please send in someone who can distinguish right from wrong?” (Para. 16)
       distinguish: 1) distinguish (one thing) from (another) / distinguish between (two things):
                        understand the difference between
                 I can’t distinguish Jack from his twin brother since they look so much like each other.
                 How can he be a judge if he can’t distinguish right from wrong?
                 Some people who have difficulty distinguishing between colors are said to be
                 color-blind.
                    2) behave or perform noticeably well
                 The monitor distinguishes himself by his excellent performance in the examination.
                 The young officer distinguished himself many times in battle.
27. In the long run that’s what education really ought to be about. (Para. 17)
       in the long run: after a long period of time, in the end
                 It’ll be cheaper in the long run to use real leather because it will last longer. The
                 opposite of this expression is “in the short run”.
                 Of course plastic is cheaper than leather in the short run, but it won’t last long.
                 In the long run prices are bound to rise.
28. But he also hosted a classical music show on the college’s FM station... (Para. 17)
       host: vt. act as a host of (i.e. to introduce, invite and/or take care of the guests during an event,
                  TV show, etc.)
                 Beijing is going to host the 2008 Olympics.
                 She has been hosting the TV program for two years now.


V. Difficult Sentence Analysis:
1. It has often been remarked that the saddest thing about youth is that it is wasted on the young. (Para.
  1)
  -------- It has often been said that the saddest thing about youth is that, i.e. the opportunities, good
  health, etc. that are available when people are young, are wasted or not appreciated by young
  people.
2. If it (whatever it may be) won’t compute and you can’t drink it, smoke it or spend it, then “it” holds
  little value. (Para. 3)
  -------- If something (no matter what it may be) cannot be counted in terms of money and you



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                                             Unit One Book Two



  cannot drink it, smoke it or spend it, then it is of little value. In short, only material things are of
  value to young people.
  If it ... won’t compute: if it ... can’t be counted in terms of money
  Here the verb “compute” is used in notional passive, that is, it is active in form but passive in
  meaning.
3. … today’s college beginners are “more consumeristic and less idealistic” than at any time in the
  seventeen years of the poll. (Para. 4)
  ------- The poll has been conducted for 17 years and it reveals that college beginners nowadays
  think of consuming goods more than ever, and believe in idealism less than ever.
4. Interest in teaching, social service and the humanities is at a low, along with ethnic and women’s
  studies. (Para. 6)
  -------- Students show little interest in subjects like teaching, social service and the arts; nor are they
  interested in ethnic or women’s studies.
  at a low: at a low level or figure
5. I tremble to think what she’s earning now. (Para. 8)
  --------I am shocked when I think of the amount of money she must be making now (that is, she
  must be making a tremendous amount of money now).
6. If we can not, then that is a conviction against our educational system - kindergarten, elementary,
  secondary and higher. (Para. 10)
  -------- If we can’t do this, then it shows a serious problem with our educational system -
  kindergarten, elementary, secondary and higher.
7. In a time of increasing specialization, a time when 90 percent of all the scientists who have ever
  lived are currently alive, more than ever, we need to know what is truly important in life. (Para. 10)
  --------Nowadays, people are becoming more in favor of specialization and 90% of all the scientists
  are still alive, i.e. there are far more scientists working today than ever before in human history. So
  it is now more critical and important than ever for us to know what is really important in life.
8. This is where age and maturity enter. (Para. 11)
  --------Age and maturity help people realize what is truly important in life.
9. Most of us finally have the insight that quality of life is not entirely determined by a balance sheet.
  (Para. 12)
  --------Most of us finally understand that our quality of life is not totally decided by our financial
  situation.
  balance sheet: a statement of how much money has come in and how much money has gone out
10. but we also want to feel we have a perspective on the world beyond the confines of our
  occupation … (Para. 12)
  --------but we also want to feel that we have an understanding of the world outside our career have


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   a perspective on: have a your own way of looking at and judging (sth.)
11. And we are better for our understanding of these other contributions — be they scientific or artistic.
  (Para. 14)
  --------And we are better off through understanding these contributions       — no matter which field
  they are in, science or art.
12. More importantly, perhaps, education teaches us to see the connections between things. As well as
  to see beyond our immediate needs
  ------- What is more important, perhaps, is that education enables us to be far-sighted and to see the
  relationship between individual things.
13. Weekly we read of unions that went on strike for higher wages, only to drive their employer out of
  business. (Para. 15)
  --------Every week we read about labor unions that started strikes to demand higher pay for laborers,
  but the unexpected result was that the employer had to close his business.
14. But the most important argument for a broad education is that in studying the accumulated wisdom
  of the ages, we improve our moral sense. (Para. 16)
  --------But the most important thing that supports the need for a broad education is that by gaining a
  lot of different knowledge from the work of others, we can better tell what is right and what is
  wrong.
15. Oscar Wilde had it right when he said we ought to give our ability to our work but our genius to
  our lives. (Para. 18)
  --------Oscar Wilde was right to say that people should develop their career/work through the use of
  their abilities, but also should give the fullness of their mental skills and artistic abilities to make
  their lives more complete.
16. Let’s hope our educators answer students’ cries for career education, …
   ------- Let’s hope our educators can meet the demand of students and prepare them for future.


VI. Writing:
Structured Writing:
     The purpose of exposition is to inform; the purpose of argumentation, on the other hand, is to
convince. While an expository paper makes know something and explains it to make the reader
understand, an argumentative essay tries to make the reader agree with its point of view and support it,
to persuade him to change his mind or behavior, and to approve a policy or a course of action that it
proposes. Speeches on policies, editorials of newspapers, articles on political or theoretical questions,
and various proposals are often argumentative.
     Argumentation frequently makes use of the other three types of writing- description, narration,



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and above all exposition, for argumentation and exposition are very closely related to argumentation is
actually exposition with the additional purpose of convincing or persuading.
Sample:
                                       For a Job or For Life?
     Influenced by the new marketing system, students have quite different opinions about the aims of
their study. Some hold that a diploma is the most important for them for it will enlarge the
opportunities in their job hunting after they graduate. Even some teachers believe that skills and
professional knowledge are the primary aim for college students to learn at college. However, a
diploma can hardly be regarded as a sure way to success in the future. And the role of education is
more than to provide knowledge by which they can get jobs.
     Under the new market system, many college students tend to challenge themselves to learn more
than a diploma requires. They believe that it is the most important way to widen their personal
interests and develop various abilities and especially to learn how to think and to enhance their moral
level to prepare themselves for the future. For this reason, they learn philosophy, music, education,
psychology…. They learn the wisdom of others and teach themselves beyond their majors.
     As a college student, I firmly believe that college is a place where we raise our quality and
wisdom as well as knowledge. And the role of education is not only to educate people for a career, but
also to educate them for life. By studying the wisdom of others and learning how to think, in the long
run, you will become well –off as well as happy.


VII. Dictation:
You may choose one of the following paragraphs as you like:
Passage 1
                                       A Clear Conscience
     The whole village soon learnt that a large sum of money had been lost. Sam Benton, the local
butcher, had lost his wallet while taking his savings to the post-office. Sam was sure that the wallet
must have been found by one of the villagers, but it was not returned to him. Three months passed,
and then on morning, Sam found his wallet outside his front door. It had been wrapped up in
newspaper and it contained half the money he had lost, together with a note, which said: ‘A thief, yes,
but only 50 percent a thief! ’ Two months later, some more money was sent to Sam with another note:
‘only 25 percent a thief now!’ In time, all Sam’s money was paid back in this way. The last note said:
‘I am 100 percent honest now!’


Passage 2
                                           Strategy and Risk


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                                             Unit One Book Two




     To laugh is the risk appearing a fool
     To weep is the risk appearing sentimental
     To reach out for another is the risk involvement
     To expose your feelings is to risk rejection
     To place your dreams before the crowd is to risk ridicule
     To love is to risk not being loved in return
     To go forward in the face of overwhelming odds is to risk failure
     But risk must be taken because the greatest hazard in life is to risk nothing
     The person who risks nothing, does nothing, has nothing, is nothing
     He may avoid suffering and sorrow, but he cannot learn, feel, change, grow or love
     Chained by his certitude, he is a slave
     He has forfeited his freedom
     ONLY the person who takes risks is free



VIII. Homework
1. Do the exercises of Sections A, B and C.
2. Preview the next unit.




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                                              Unit One Book Two



                 Section B          What Youngsters Expect in life
I. Outline of the Text
Part Ⅰ
People’s choice in life (Para.1)
Part Ⅱ
Young people’s expectations in life (Paras. 2-4)
1. Young people are not satisfied with the society
2. Young people are not happy with their prospect for the future.
Part Ⅲ
Young people tend to be destructive forces of resistance in society and the society might take
backward steps. (Paras. 5-7)



II. Summary of the Text
     People today no longer expect to play it safe with a salaried job in life. All of us are going to be
creators and pioneers over the next ten years. Survey implies that young people are not satisfied with
the world they lived in and they are not happy with their prospects for the future. In this case, their
expectations don’t match reality and they are likely to be destructive forces of resistance in society. So
the situation of this scary moment forecasts possible backward steps of society in the near future.


III. New Words and Phrases
1. Back in the good old days of stable economic expansion ---- the 1950s and 1960s ----… (Para. 1)
  expansion: n. [U] action of expanding; state of being expanded
               Free expansion of a gas causes it to cool.
               Expansion into new areas of research might be possible.
2. … and two-thirds of all high-school seniors surveyed by Scholastic magazine say ….
  Scholar: n. 1) [C] a person who studies a subject deeply
               a history scholar
               Dr. Miller was a distinguished scholar of Russian history and government.
                  2) [C] a student who has been awarded money after a competitive exam
               a Rhodes scholar        罗兹奖学金获得者
3. No wonder they are not motivated to learn. (Para. 2)
  motivate: vt. 1) cause to want to do sth.
               A good teacher is one who can motivate his students.
               We are looking for someone who will be able to motivate our staff to work hard.


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                                             Unit One Book Two



               2) be the reason for (sb.'s action); cause (sb.) to act in a particular way
               What motivates Derek is simply an unhealthy desire for more and more.
               They are motivated by a desire to help people.
 4. Young men, in particular, are not happy with their prospects for the future. (Para. 3)
   prospect: n. 1) (pl.) chance of success
               The prospects for this year's wine harvest are poor.
               If she can bring in a few more good customers like that, her prospects with this
               company look excellent.
               2) [C, U] possibility or strong chance of sth. happening
               There's a reasonable prospect of reaching the trapped child before it gets dark.
               There's not much prospect that this war will be over soon.
5. … they list all kinds of roles they want to fill, like doctors, lawyers, engineers, accountants, civil
  servants, police and fire men, and fighter pilots. (Para. 3)
  accountant: n. [C] sb. who keeps or examines the records of money received, paid, etc. by a
                 company or person
               Elaine's just got a job with a firm of accountants.
               Irving is the accountant for Robson Rhodes.
  civil: adj. 1) of or relating to ordinary people rather than the armed forces or the Church
               civil servant 文职人员,公务员
               civil government 文职政府
            2) within the country
               The country looks as though there is going to be a civil war.
               Thousands of people have been driven from their homes by civil war.
6. By comparison, nearly half of male high-school students express their preference for a
  traditional, … (Para. 4)
  comparison: n. 1) [U] the act of comparing
               In comparison with Shanghai, this city is small.
               He's a good writer but he doesn't bear comparison with Shakespeare.
                 2) [C] a statement of the points of similarity and difference between two things
               She drew a comparison between life in the army and life at school.
7. A large proportion of America’s young men ---- one third or more ---- simply say they don’t know
  what they’re going to do as adults. (Para. 4)
  Proportion: n. 1) [C] a comparative part or share of a whole
               A large proportion of the earth's surface is water.
               A higher proportion of women are now working.



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                                              Unit One Book Two



                 2) [U] relation of one thing to another in quantity, size, etc.
               What is the proportion of men to women in the population?
8. If these people do not acquire some constructive vision of purpose for themselves, … (Para. 5)
  vision: n. 1) [C] an imagined mental image of sth., including one's goal or dream
               We see in his novels the vision of the dark and destructive forces at work in human
               nature.
               Johnny was late getting home and, as usual, I had visions of him lying dead in some
               street.
            2) [U] power of seeing; sight
               The blow on the head damaged his vision.
               The tiger has come within my field of vision.
9. These are the folks who are joining the Gangs in inner cities and swelling the ranks of the rural
    military gangs. (Para. 5)
     swell: v. 1) (cause to) become greater
               Twenty-five employees have joined the union in this month alone, swelling its number
               to 110.
               The soft rain swelled into a storm.
             2) (cause sth. to) become larger
               His face was swollen up with toothache.
               His heart swelled with pride as he stood watching his son win the race.
    rank: n. 1) (usu. the ~s or the ~ and file) ordinary members of an organization, esp. of the armed
               forces
               The party leadership seems to be losing the support of the ranks.
               Twenty-five new soldiers have joined the army, which swelled its ranks to110.
             2) [C, U] position higher or lower than others', showing the importance or the degree of
               responsibility of the person having it; (high) social class
               Having a large income is one of the advantages of rank.
               The exhibition is open to people of all ranks and classes.
             3) [C] a row, esp. of people or things standing side by side
               In Cambridge, ranks of bikes line the streets outside the colleges.
10. … and the gloomier prospects implicit in the projection of those trends, industrial societies ----
    fearful for the future ---- might very well take backward steps. (Para. 7)
    implicit: adj. 1) understood without being directly expressed, clearly intended even though it is
                    not said
               Implicit in the poem's closing lines are the poet's own religious doubts.
               You must fulfill the duties which are implicit in the agreement.


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                   2) unnecessary to be questioned
              I have implicit trust in your abilities.
              All her life she had implicit faith in God.
    fearful: adj. 1) nervous and afraid
              He hesitated before ringing her, fearful of what she might say.
              She's fearful that we might wake the baby.
                 2) terrible, causing fear
              There was a fearful railway accident yesterday afternoon.
              There was a fearful fight when he demanded his money back.
11. These steps will principally serve the interests of the economically dominant groups… (Para. 7)
    principal: adj. first in rank or importance; main
              The Danube is one of the principal rivers of Europe.
              The principal reason for moving was to find a house in a more peaceful neighborhood.
                 n. [C] the head in an organization, esp. in certain schools and colleges
              the Principal of St. James' College
              If you talk any more in class, I'm sending you off to see the principal.




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                                                Quiz Eight
Directions: Each of the following sentences is provided with four choices. Choose the one that
best completes the sentence.
1. You see the lightening______ it happens, but hear the thunder later.
    A. the instant          B. for an instant               C. on the instant   D. in an instant
2. The dress my father bought for me is too big. I have to ask a tailor to ______ it.
    A. revise               B. alter                        C. transform        D. vary
3. However, at times this balance in nature is ______, resulting in a number of possibly unforeseen
effects.
    A. troubled               B. disturbed                  C. confused         D. puzzled
4. Although the students dislike die materials they are now studying, their instructor has no ______ to
  change the syllabus.
    A. purpose                B. motivation              C. ambition            D. authority
5. ______government I have die honor to deliver a speech here.
    A. On die occasion of                                   B. On receipt of
    C. Oil behalf of                                        D. On account of
6. It is said that the math teacher seems ______ towards bright students.
    A. liable                 B. part                       C. beneficial       D. preferable
7. I didn't ______ to take a taxi but I had to as I was late.
    A. assume                 B. suppose                    C. mean             D. hope
8. In such a changing and complex society, ________ simple solutions to informational needs become
  complicated.
    A. formally               B. formerly                   C. familiarly       D. firmly
9. Only a selected number of landladies in the neighborhood have been allowed by the university to
  take in ______.
    A. residents              B. lodgers                    C. settlers         D. inhabitants
10. Eating too much fat can ______ heart disease and cause high blood pressure.
    A. attribute to           B. attend to                  C. contribute to    D. devote to
11. _____ energy under the earth must be released in one form or another, for example, an earthquake.
    A. Accumulated            B. Gathered                   C. Assembled        D. Collected
12. The car club couldn't ______ to meet the demands of all its members.
    A. assume                 B. ensure                     C. guarantee        D. confirm
13. The clothes a person wears may express his ______ of social position.
    A. curiosity              B. determination              C. significance     D. status
14. The computer revolution may well change society as ______ as did the Industrial Revolution.



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   A. certainly             B. insignificantly           C. fundamentally        D. comparatively
15. Our new house is very ______ for me as I can get to the office in five minutes.
   A. adaptable             B. comfortable               C. convenient           D. available
16. Many western countries planned to ______ die capital punishment for its cruelty.
   A. abolish               B. diminish                  C. exclude              D. eliminate
17. Physics is ______to the science which was called natural philosophy in history.
   A. alike                 B. equivalent                C. likely               D. uniform
18. New York, ______second in the production of apples, producing 850,000,000 pounds this year.
   A. ranked                B. occupied                  C. arranged             D. classified
19. The ______ from the top of the mountain is breathtaking.
   A. eyesight              B. insight                   C. vision               D. outlook
20. A dark suit is ______ to a light one for evening wear.
   A. preferable            B. opposite                  C. relative             D. respectable
21. We hadn't met for 20 years, but I recognized her ______ I saw her.
   A. the moment                                         B. for the moment
   C. the moment when                                    D. at the moment when
22. _____that my head had cleared, my brain was also beginning to work much better.
   A. For                   B. Now                       C. Since                D. Despite
23. ______he works hard, I don't mind when he finishes the experiment.
   A. As soon as            B. So far as                 C. As well as           D. So long as
24. Although he knew little about the large amount of work done in the field, he succeeded _______
  other more well informed experimenters failed.
   A. which                 B. that                      C. what                 D. where
25. We'll visit Europe next year ______ we have enough money.
   A. lest                  B. until                     C. unless               D. provided
26. You must write dearly ______ the typist can read your manuscript without difficulty.
   A. so as                 B. so that                   C. in order to          D. as to
27. ______much is known about what occurs during sleep, the precise function of sleep and its
   different stages remain largely in the realm of assumption.
   A. Because               B. For                       C. Since                D. While
28. Criticism and self-criticism is necessary _____ it helps us to find and correct our mistakes.
   A. by that               B. at that                   C. on that              D. in that
29. He will surely finish the job on time________ he's left to do it in his own way.
   A. in that               B. so long as                C. in case of           D. as far as
30. I was half way back to the cottage where my mother lived _______ Susan caught up with me.
   A. when                  B. while                     C. until                D. though


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KEYS: 1-10 ABBDC BCBBC 11-20 ACDCC ABABA     21-30 ABDDD   BDDBA




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                             Unit Nine            Stop Brain Drain
Time Allotment: (4.5 periods)
Section A and Language Points (3 periods)
Exercises and Writing(1.5 period)

Teaching Aims: The teaching of this text aims to enable students
1. to master the new active words and useful phrases.
2. to learn about what happens when highly trained people leave the developing world to work in the
    West.
3. to get acquainted with skills of developing paragraphs of contrast.
4. to get acquainted with reading skills for the key idea in a sentence.
5. to review what has been learned.


I. Background Information
1. Microsoft
     Microsoft is the manufacturer of the Windows operating system that includes MS-DOS/
Windows3 /Windows 95 /98 /NT /2000 /Me /XP and other software applications such as Microsoft
Office and Internet Explorer. It was built in July, 1975, by Bill Gates and his classmates and rebuilt in
June, 1981.
2. Silicon Valley
     Silicon Valley is an area that located on the San Francisco, California, Peninsula, radiates
outward from Stanford University. It is contained by the San Francisco Bay on the east, the Santa
Cruz Mountains on the west, and the Coast Range to the southeast. It is best known for its high tech
industry.
3. Eton College
     It is located in Eton, a town in Southern England, west of London. Founded by King Henry VI in
1440, it is a private secondary school for boys in Eton, Berkshire, England. Eton’s academic and
social importance is so great that children are registered at birth to attend there when they are older.
Many of England’s most famous and admired men were educated there. Eton has an educational
system similar to those at Oxford and Cambridge universities, in which each student (or small group
of students) has a single, private teacher.
4. The green revolution
     The green revolution is a popular term created in the 1960s to talk about how agricultural
technology from the technologically developed countries was being widely spread among and




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transferred to less technologically advanced agricultural areas. Wheat seed from Mexico and rice seed
from the Philippines have greatly increased grain production in India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Turkey.
5. Welfare State
     The term “welfare state” has been used since World War II to refer to the acceptance by some
governments of the responsibility to make the lives of all their people socially and economically
satisfactory. The programs of the welfare state have been aimed primarily to reduce the hardships
caused by unemployment, disability, and old age and to secure a minimal but appropriate amount of
medical care and other essential services for all, regardless of income.


II. Warm-up Questions
1.Why do you think big countries and big companies offer jobs to people from abroad?
2. One of your friends wants to accept a job overseas. What advice would you give him or her?
3. If a company hires many people from a different country, does it have any responsibilities toward
  that country? Explain your answer.
4. What happened to many students at the India Institute of technology?
  Many students in this University dream of America, so they go to U.S. after their graduation and
  never return.
5. What kind of nation does the author describe India as?
    India has gone from an agricultural society to the cyber-revolution, without passing through
    intermediate stages such as the welfare state and the creation of social services.
6. What kind of attitude do you hold towards the people who go abroad and never return?
    Wherever we are we should be responsible, honest, kind to people around us. We should be
    responsible to our jobs no matter what it is. But we’d better work for our native country.


III. Text Structure Analysis
1. Outline of the Text
Part I
A bill which designs to keep the US high- tech industry on top now is before Congress. (Paras. 1-3)
A. The American government wants to give preferential treatment to those who have advanced degree
  in science and engineering. (Paras.1-2)
Question:
What would the bill now before American Congress give?
It would give preferential treatment to foreign students with advanced degrees .
B. All these are to fill the need for skilled technology workers. (Para. 3)
Question:


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What is the real purpose of the bill, according to the author?
To stop the Brain Drain.
Part II
During the 1960s and 1970s, a lot of students left for the lucrative shores of England and
America.(Paras. 4-10)
A. Though we think everything foreign was considered contaminated by colonialism, we must admit
  the benefit of science and technology . (Paras. 4-6)
Questions:
What were Indian politicians’ attitudes towards “Brain Drain” during the 1960s and 1970s?
They used to wave the slogan “ stop brain Drain”, but it was very useful.
B. A lot of students who are studying in our institute built with European and American aid now think how
  to go to America. (Paras.7-8)
Question:
Why do you think students dreamed of going abroad?
They often think they may get better jobs, better houses, more money, and the environment is much
better.
C. So the government did something to tempt students , but few of them came back. (Paras. 9-10)
Question:
What defeated the Indian leaders’ purposes? when they wanted their foreign graduates to come home
to fulfill their promises?
They can’t provide equal opportunities for the students who come back.
Part III
The effect of Brain Drain on India. (Paras. 11-19)
A. Brain Drain let America develop fast in science and technology. (Paras. 11-12)
Question:
What will happen if America has not enough skilled labors?
America will be left behind other countries.
B. We criticize Brain Drain, on the other hand we think highly of all the things that come from
America (Paras. 13-16)
Question:
How has the attitude of India’s new leaders changed from the attitudes of the 1960s?
India’s conscious leadership has been replaced by a new generation, riding on the wave of the Internet.
C. The country is disintegrating, so we have to call for a “Brain Trust”. (Para 17-19)
Question:
How can India create a social structure needed in the next century, according to the author?
Pass the legislation calling for a “ brain trust.”


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2. Summary of the Text
     “Brain drain” has become a serious problem in the third world countries. Take India for example,
most of the skilled personnel trained in this country went abroad, never to come back. So Indian
government set up special programs to temp foreign graduates to come back for the reconstruction of
the country. But few foreign graduates came home. At last the author calls for a “ Brain Trust” funded
by some large companies in order to train students in social thought.



IV. New Words and Phrases
1.Stop Brain Drain (Title)
    drain: n. 1) [on] something that empties or uses up
               All this spending is a drain on my savings.
               The drain of young talent by emigration from the country is a serious problem.
               I think looking after her elderly mother is quite a drain on her energy.
              2) a means of draining, such as a ditch or underground pipe that carries waste water
                 away
               Your kitchen drain has become blocked by tea leaves.
               The drains overflowed after the heavy rain.
            v. 1) [of, off] to (cause to) become gradually dry, as water or other liquid is removed
               Let the wet glasses drain before you put them away.
               She was so afraid that her face was drained of blood.
              2) [away, off, out]to (cause to) flow off gradually or completely
               The water drained slowly out of the sink.
               Boil the vegetables for 20 minutes then drain off the water.
               The rainwater drained off/away.
               This country is being drained of its best doctors.
               The old lady’s strength is draining away.
     drainless adj. 无排水设备的,取用不竭的
     drainer n.下水道装置,滤水器
     Syn: deprive, dry, empty, exhaust
2. A bill now before Congress would give preferential treatment to foreign students with advanced
  degree in science and engineering who want to work in the United Sates. (Para.1)
   before: prep. under the consideration or jurisdiction of
               The case is now before the court.
  preferential: of , giving, receiving, or showing preference



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              The theatre gives preferential booking privileges to its regular patrons.
              Employees who have worked here for many years will be given preferential treatment
              over newcomers.
              We give preferential treatment to those who invest in this area.
  advanced: adj. 1) highly developed
              These are the advanced industrial nations of the world.
              The factory has installed advanced machines at enormous expense.
                 2) beyond the beginning, elementary, or intermediate
              The professor is engaged in advanced studies.
              She said she had an advanced text in physics.
                 3) old
              a person of advanced age
              Despite his advanced age, he is learning to drive.
     advancement n.
     advantage n.
     Syn. promotional
3. To those of us who are immigrants, the bill seems simply to sanction a policy…(Para. 2)
   immigrant: a person who leaves one country to settle permanently in another
              Illegal immigrants are sent back across the border if they are caught.
              London has a huge number of immigrants, coming from different parts of the world.
    compare
    emigrant: a person who leaves one’s own country to go and live in another country
              They are emigrants from China.
     immigrate v.
     immigration n.
4.…namely, stealing brains from the third world. (Para. 2)
     namely: adv. (and) that is (to say)
              Only one person can do the job, namely you.
              Only one student passed the exam, namely Peter.
              There is one more topic to discuss, namely the question of your salary.
              The railroad connects two cities, namely, New York and Chicago.
5. In general, the “ 21st Century Technology resources and Commercial Leadership Act”, …which
  Sen. John McCain brought to the Senate in late 1999…(Para. 3)
     commercial: adj. of or related to business
              A commercial college teaches things that would be useful in business.
              This city serves as an important commercial center in the western region.


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leadership: n.1) the position of a leader
                He was elected to the leadership of the Labor party.
                Britain has lost her leadership in the shipbuilding industry.
                  2) the ability to lead
                She showed strong leadership during her first term in office.
                She lacks leadership.
                  3) a group of people who lead
                The leadership is/are in agreement on this issue.
6 .…by filling the need for skilled technology workers.(Para. 3)
     fill: to satisfy or meet; fulfill
                Anyone who wants to get this job has to fill the requirements.
     skilled: [in, at ] having or need skill
                We need skilled workers in welding for this job; it’s a highly skilled job.
                She was skilled enough in French to translate a novel.
                Tom is skilled in business.
      skillful adj.
      Syn: mastery, practiced
7. One provision of the bill states that, among…(Para. 3)
     provision:
    1) a condition in an agreement or law
                According to the provisions of the agreement the interest on the loan must be paid
                monthly.
                The doctor agreed to go to Africa, with the provision that he could take his family with
                him.
                This provision ensures to / for us a voice in the subject.
                Both sides have to act according to the provisions of the agreement.
    2) the act of providing
                The provision of a new library has been of great benefit to the students.
    3) (pl.) supplies of food and other necessary things
                The provision of food for all the children was difficult. All provisions for the island
                have to be sent by boat.
   4) [for, against] preparation for the future
                They spend all their money and make no provision for the future.
   provisional adj.
   provisionally adv.
                Syn; offer, provide, supply


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   state: to set forth in words; declare
               State your name and address.
               The witness stated that he had not seen the woman before.
8. a reference to the fact that the cream of India was leaving for…(Para. 4)
  reference: n.
              1) [to]( an example of ) mentioning
               King William II was known as “Rufus”, a reference to his (=because he had) red hair.
               When I spoke to him about the expedition, he didn’t make any reference to (=mention)
               your coming with us.
               Her speech contained only a passing reference to (=a quick mention of ) the problem of
               unemployment.
              2) [to]looking at something for information
               Use this dictionary for easy reference.
              3) (a person who provides) a statement about a person’s character or abilities
               My former boss said that I could use him as a reference.
               Ask your teacher to act as one of your references.
               We will need to have references from your former employers.
   cream: n. the best part (of)
               The wedding was attended by the cream of New York society.
9. In that post-independence era, …(Para. 5)
  “post-”: a prefix, means “later than” or “after”. For example:
  Post-modernism refers to a style of building, decoration, art, etc. esp. in the 1980s, which uses an
  unusual mixing of old and new forms.
               post-war years
  The opposite of “post-” is “pre-”, which means “before” or “in advance”. Examples:
               Last year the company offered to buy pre-1971 cars for 700 dollars each.
   era: a very long period of time in the history of human society
               We are now in a great new era of information.
10. We threw Coca-Cola out and invented “Thumbs Up Cola.” (Para. 5)
   threw out: 1) to get rid of; force to leave
               You really should throw out that filthy old sofa and get a new one.
                  2) reject; refuse to accept
               The committee threw out my suggestions.
    thumb: n. the short thick finger that is set apart from the other four
   thumbs up: an expression of satisfaction, victory, or approval
                  The chairman has given our plan the thumbs up. (=approved it)


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    thumbs down: an expression of dissatisfaction or disapproval
                Our plan got the thumbs down. (=was not accepted)
    all thumbs: very awkward with the hands
                I seem to be all thumbs today.
    stick out like a sore thumb 惹人注目,碍手碍脚
    under one’s thumb 受他人的压制,受他人支配,被人牵着鼻子走
    thumb a lift 向(过路的汽车)竖起拇指要求搭车
11. …offered students free room and board,…(Para. 7)
   board: (the cost of) meals
               I pay $30 a week for board and lodging/bed and board.
12. Indian taxpayers footed the bill in the hope that one day he graduates would help reconstruct he
   nation. (Para. 7)
   foot the bill: pay the bill
               My parents footed the bill for the wedding.
   in the hope that/of: hoping
               We left the house early in the hope that we could avoid traffic jams.
               He studied hard in the hope of going to college.
13. So our government set up special programs… (Para. 9)
   set up: to establish or arrange (an organization, business, plan, etc.)
               The council set up a committee to look into unemployment.
               He set up a trust fund for his niece.
14. Our leaders saw parallels to the independence movement… (Para. 9)
   parallel:
  1) n. [between, with] (a point of) similarity
               There are some interesting parallels between the educational systems of these tow
               countries.

               The present famine is almost on a parallel with the disastrous one of ten years ago..
  2) adj. [to, with] (of one line or row) running side by side with another line but never getting
     nearer to or further away from it; similar
               Draw a line parallel to/with this one.
               Parallel lines never meet.
               My feelings in this matter are parallel to yours.
    3) v. to be similar to
               Your experience parallels my own.
     parallelism n.平行;类似;相似



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     parallelogram n.平行四边形
15.… to “pay their pledge”, …
 pledge: 1) n. a solemn promise or agreement
                They are pledged to secrecy.
                The government has given a pledge that it will halt the bombing.
         2) n. something given or received as a sing of faithful love or friendship
                Take this ring as a pledge of our friendship.
         3) v. to make a solemn promise of
                They have pledged their support for our case.
                The government pledged to look into the matter.
16.…the emphasis on symbol manipulation… (Para. 10)
    symbol: n.
           1) [of] something which represents or suggests something else, such as an idea or quality

               In the picture the tree is the symbol of life and the snake is the symbol of evil.
               The dove is a symbol of peace.
            2) [for]a letter, sign or figure which expresses a sound, operation, number, chemical
                substance, etc.
               H2O is the symbol for water.
    symbolize: v.
               1) to be a symbol of
                A wedding ring symbolizes the union of husband and wife.
17. … much scope for.. (Para. 10)
   scope: n.
           1) [for]space or chance for action or thought; opportunity
               There’s considerable/not much scope for initiative in this job.
               I asked at the job interview whether there would be any scope for me to use my English.
           2) [of] the area within the limits of a question, subject, action, etc; range
               I am afraid that problem is beyond the scope of my lecture.
18.…the greedy outcomes of capital-driven business. (Para. 10)
   drive: v. to force to go
                The farmer was driving his cattle along the road.
                The bad weather has driven the tourists away.
                The firemen were driven back by the flames.
                The Shortage of bread will probably drive prices up.
19.…educated at the expense of Indian taxpayers…(Para. 11)



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   at the expense of: with somebody paying; by harming or causing a loss to
              He took a trip at the expense of the company.
              He finished the job at the expense of (=causing the loss of) his health.
   at someone’s expense: with someone paying the cost
              He had his book printed at his won expense.
20. …made the demand for skilled labor mushroom to such tremendous proportions… (Para. 11)
   mushroom: v. grow rapidly and in great numbers
              New houses have mushroomed on the edge of the town.
              The population mushroomed in the postwar decades.
21.…even if every American child were to study nothing but science from now on, …(Para. 11)
   were to: This structure is used in an if-clause to make the reader imagine a future condition, esp.
             one that is not likely, not possible, or unreal.
             If it were to rain tomorrow, the match would have to be cancelled.
             If it were to reveal its secrets, that organization would collapse in shame.
  nothing but: only
              He is nothing but a criminal.
              The child is nothing but trouble.
22.…be unable to keep pace with demand…(Para. 11)
  keep pace with: move forward, develop or increase at the same rate as (sb./sth.)
              She works so fast I can’t keep pace with her.
              We must keep pace with new developments in computer technology.
23. In other words, the legislation …(Para. 12)
 in other words: expressing the same thing in different words; which is the same as saying
              Your performance in the exam did not reach the required standard----in other words,
              you failed.
24.…but American industry which would be crippled without it. (Para. 12)
   cripple: 1) damage or weaken seriously
              The country was crippled by the war.
              The ship was crippled in the storm.
           2) to hurt so that use one or more of the limbs is made difficult or impossible
              The accident crippled him for life.
              She was crippled in the car accident.
25. In India in the meantime, the entire education… (Para. 12)
    in the meantime: at the same time, meanwhile
    The new secretary won’t come until next week; in the meantime we’ve arranged for a temporary
    one.


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26. …the entire education system has shifted gears to… (Para. 12)
   shift: 1) to change (gear in a vehicle)
              I shifted into top gear.
         2) to change in position or direction; move from one place to another
              There were four of us trying to lift the heavy box, but we couldn’t shift it.
              Shall I shift the chairs?
              The wind shifted to the south.
              He shifted impatiently in his seat during the long speech.
              Don’t try to shift the blame onto me.
         3) shift for oneself: to take care of oneself
              When their father died the children had to shift for themselves.
    gear: n. one of several speeds in a vehicle
              Does your car have four or five gears?
27. …every street corner now sports billboards… (Para. 12)
   sport: wear sth., esp. to show it to others; show publicly (and sometimes proudly)
              The front of the car sported a German flag.
              She came in today sporting a fur coat.
28. …don’t hold much water…(Para. 14)
   hold water: (usu. in questions or negatives) to be or seem true, reasonable, or believable
              His explanation of where he got the money from just doesn’t hold water.
29. …why bother rebuilding the nation when the only goal is to abandon it? (Para. 15)
   abandon: vt.
             1) to leave completely and for ever; desert
              He abandoned his wife and children.
              When the fire got out of control, the captain told the sailors to abandon ship.
             2) to give up or bring an end to, without finishing it
              The bad weather forced them to abandon their search.
              They abandoned all hope of finding the child.
    abandoned adj.
    abandonment n.
    Syn: indulge
30. …in favor of market economics. (Para. 16)
   in favor of: 1) on the side of, in support of
              Are you in favor of the manager’s decision.
              The original plan was abandoned in favor of a new idea.
                2) choosing instead


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               He turned down a university appointment in favor of a political career.
31. Indians now put flowers around Bill Gates’ neck and offer him the kind of reception once offered
   only to the Queen. (Para. 16)
   reception: n.
               1) a particular kind of welcome
               I got a warm/ a very friendly reception.
               The Senator was given a cool reception by the crowd.
               2) a large formal party
               They’re giving/holding a reception to welcome the new ambassador.
32…their workers generate demand for…(Para. 17)
   generate: produce; cause to exist
              The accident generated a lot of public interest in the nuclear issue.
               The Personnel department seems to be generating a lot of paperwork these days.
33. But the nation is slowly disintegrating. (Para. 17)
   disintegrate: vi. break up into small pieces; fall apart
               The box was so old that it disintegrated when I picked it up.
               The company disintegrated owing to lack of financial backing.
34. …its interior framework in water, transportation ad health care is fast falling apart;(Para. 17)
    interior: adj. Inside, indoors, or domestic
               An interior decorator is a person who plans the colors and furnishings for the inside of
               a house.
     fall apart: fall to pieces, disintegrate
               The old house fell apart yesterday
35. Perhaps it is time to pass legislation calling for… (Para. 19)
   call for: 1) need or deserve
               That remark was not called for. (=was nasty6 or unfair)
               This sort of work calls for a lot of patience.
               You’re getting married? This calls for a celebration.
               The occasion calls for a cool head.
            2) to demand
               Call of the waiter.
               The opposition have called for an immediate inquiry into the behavior of the police.
36. …the trust could set up new institutes in India…(Para. 19)
   trust: 1) n. an organization or group that has controlled over money that will be used to help
              somebody else
               Housing trusts help to provide houses for people who are not well off.


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          2) firm belief in the honesty, goodness, worth, etc. of someone or something; confidence;
              faith
               I don’t place any trust in the government’s promises.
               Don’t worry about a thing; put your trust in me.




V. Difficult Sentence Analysis:
1. A bill now before Congress would give preferential treatment to foreign students with advanced
    degree in science and engineering who want to work in the United Sates. (Para. 1)
    --------The bill that is waiting to be passed by the American Congress would give favorable
    treatment to foreign students with higher degrees in science and engineering who hope to find
    jobs in the United States.
2. To those of us w2ho are immigrants, the bill seems simply to sanction a policy secretly
    implemented by U.S. industry for nearly four decades----namely, stealing brains from the third
    world. (Para. 2)
    --------To those of us who left India and are now living in the U.S., the bill seems only to approve
    officially a policy which has been secretly carried out by U.S. industry for almost forty years ----
    that is, draining the third world of intellectual resources.
3. …which Sen. John McCain brought to the Senate in late 1999…(Para. 3)
    --------which Sen. John McCain brought to be passed in the Senate in the latter part of 1999…
4. …filling the need for skilled technology workers. (Para. 3)
    --------meeting the demand for workers who are technologically skilled.
5. During the 1960s and 1970s, politicians in my native country, India, used to wave the slogan
    “Stop Brain Drain”----a reference to the fact that the cream of India was leaving for the lucrative
    shores of England and America. (Para. 4)
    --------During the 1960s and 1970s, politicians in my home country, India, would protest by
    waving the slogan “Stop Brain Drain”, which referred to the fact that the most talented Indians
    had abandoned their own country to leave for such rich countries as England and America.
6. In that post-independence era, when everything foreign was considered contaminated by
    colonialism, we talked of cottage industries and economic imperialism. (Para. 5)
    --------In the years after India achieved its independence, everything which came from other
    countries was though to be marked by colonialism and we then turned our attention to small
    national industries that could be conducted at home, hoping to be independent of those economic
    powers.
7. We threw Coca-Cola our and invented “Thumbs Up cola”. (Para. 5)



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    --------We stopped drinking Coca-Cola and made a new drink named “Thumbs Up Cola”.
8. But it was also the era of Sputnik, of nuclear power and the green revolution. (Para. 6)
    --------But it was also the age when the Soviet Union had sent three man-made satellites named
    Sputnik into space, when nuclear power started to be extensively used and when the green
    revolution had greatly increased the world’s grain production.
9. …offered students free room and board, … (Para. 7)
    --------provided students with accommodation and meals free of charge, …
10. Indian taxpayers footed the bill in the hope that one day the graduates would help reconstruct the
    nation. (Para. 7)
    --------Indian taxpayers paid the instruction fee as well as the cost of living for students (of IIT),
    hoping that one day these graduates would help rebuild their country.
11. Our leaders saw parallels to the independence movement founded by people like Nehru and
    Gandhi who, after absorbing Western political thought at institutions like Eton and Oxford,
    returned home to serve their native land. (Para. 9)
    --------Our leaders saw likenesses between their programs and the independence movement led by
    Nehru and Gandhi who, after receiving education at Eton and Oxford and learning and
    understanding Western political thought, later returned home to get India out of Britain’s control.
12. Bur few foreign graduates came home to “pay their pledge”, as Nehru and put it. (Para. 10)
    --------But few Indian students who had studied abroad came back to fulfill their promises to use
    their training to help India (which Nehru called “paying their pledge”).
13. Our leaders had failed to see that the emphasis on symbol manipulation at IIT left little room for
    social thought and much scope for the greedy outcomes of capital-driven business. (Para. 10)
    --------Our leaders did not realize how the emphasis on symbol manipulation (that is, computer
    programming) at IIT affected the rest of our development. We did not have much time to think
    about our responsibilities to society while thinking about the chance to become rich and famous.
14. In other words, the legislation would benefit not immigrants, but American industry which would
    be crippled without it. (Para. 12)
    --------To put it in another way, the law under discussion would be of advantage to none but
    American industry, which would be damaged or weakened seriously if there were no such law.
15. In India in the meantime, the entire education system has shifted gears to feed the appetite of the
    American computer industry. (Para. 12)
    --------In India in the meantime, the entire education system has adapted itself to meet the demand
    of the American computer industry.
16. Comments about “Brain Drain” don’t hold much water when every politician has a son or
    daughter aiming to go abroad. (Para. 14)




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    --------Although politicians complain about “Brain Drain”, their deeds do not match their words
    because each of them is planning to send his child abroad.
17. …why bother rebuilding the nation when the only goal is to abandon it? (Para. 15)
    --------why take the trouble to rebuild the nation when the only goal is to leave the country
    forever?
18. At the Nagpur book show, for example, the latest American social publications were conspicuous
    by their absence and India’s politically conscious leadership has been replaced by a new
    generation, riding on the wave of the Internet, making fortunes within a span of years. (Para. 15)
    -------- At a book show held in Nagpur, a city in India, for instance, the recently published
    American books, magazines, newspapers concerning Western social thought were obviously
    absent when they should have been present. Furthermore, India’s national leaders who used to be
    concerned about political ideas or needs have been replace. The new leaders come from those who
    have made a lot of money in a short time because of the Internet (so no wonder they are more
    concerned with technology than with society!).
19. This new leadership has abandoned all talk of economic imperialism in favor of market
    economics. (Para. 16)
    --------These new leaders have showed no interest in the subject of economic imperialism. On the
    contrary, they support market economics.
20. Indians now put flowers around Bill Gates’ neck and offer him the kind of reception once offered
    only to the Queen. (Para.16)
    --------Indians now pay high respects to Bill Gates by putting flowers around his neck and offering
    him the kind of reception that had once been offered only to the Queen.
21. And Thumbs Up is a branch of Coca-Cola. (Para. 17)
    --------And the company which produces Thumbs Up Cola has now become a branch of the
    Coca-Cola company.
22. …its interior framework in water, transportation and health care is fast falling apart;…(Para. 17)
    --------…the domestic system for providing water, transportation and health care is in terrible
    condition and is quickly getting worse;…
23. …Microsoft and Intel which have drained India of its brains for decades, …(Para.19)
    --------…Microsoft and Intel which have made India lose its most talented people for decades, …
24. Such and effort is our only hope of creating the social structure needed in the next century. (Para.
    19)
    --------Only by training students intellectually, morally and socially can India hope to provide
    itself with the balanced social structure it will need in the next century.




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VI. Writing:
                                Develop a paragraph of contrast.
     Contrast deals with differences and dissimilarities. It is very useful in making the unknown
known to the reader by calling his attention to the connection that exists between the two. The method
of contrast is often used. We contrast the present and past of China, the cultures of the West and the
East, Chinese and English and we contrast Tom with Peter in some way. By contrast, we may get a
clear picture of people or things.
     There are two major ways of organizing paragraphs of contrast. One way is to examine one thing
or one person thoroughly and then examine the other. This is called block contrast. The other way is
to examine two things at the same time, discussing them point by point. This method is called
alternative contrast/ point contrast.


Sample:
                                         Winners and Losers
     It is easy to be a winner. A winner can show his joy publicly. He can laugh and sing and dance to
celebrate his victory. People love to be with winners. Winners are never lonely.
     Unlike winners, losers are the lonely ones of the world. It is difficult to face defeat with dignity.
Losers cannot show their disappointment publicly. They can not cry or grieve about their defeat. They
have nothing to celebrate and no one to share their sadness.
The transitional words used in paragraph of contrast:
unlike/distinguish/opposed/conversely/even so/instead of/be different from/differ from/distinction
between/unlike/on the other hand/however/on the contrary/nevertheless/in spite of/although/in
contrast/by contrast/A is everything that B is not


VII. Dictation:
     Chinese Americans today have higher incomes than Americans in general and higher
occupational status. The Chinese have risen to this position despite some of the harshest
discrimination and violence faced by any immigrants to the United States in the history of this country.
Long confined to a narrow range of occupations they succeeded in those occupations and then spread
out into other areas in later years, when opportunities finally opened up for them. Today much of the
Chinese prosperity is due to the simple fact that they work more and have more (usually better)
education than others. Almost one out of five Chinese families has three or more income earners
compared with one out of eight among Whites. When the Chinese advantages in working and
education are held constantly, they have no advantage over other Americans. That is a Chinese family




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with a given number of people working and with a given amount of education by the head of the
family, the income is not above average for such families, but often a little less than average.


VIII. Homework
1. Do all the exercises of Unit Nine.
2. Preview the next unit.




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                    Section B           Borderline Ridiculous
I.Outline of the Text
Part I
How hard it is to get into America.(Paras.1-4)
Part II
How hard it is for my wife and I to be in America for a holiday. (Paras. 5-10)
A. It is quite easy for me, a stranger in Italy, to establish residency.(Para. 5)
B. To be safe and easy we played a small trick in getting into the America.(Paras. 6-10)


II.Summary of the Text
     In this passage the author describes a policy which he doesn’t like at all. That is, when you go to
the U.S. you are obliged to list every country you visited, and make a declaration of all purchases and
gifts acquired abroad. If you are not an American you have to complete rather longer form. So there
are a lot of forbidden for his wife to have a vacation in America. The author and his wife have to
arrive the airport separately to avoid the “ unnecessary troublesome”.


III New Words and Phrases
1. Borderline Ridiculousness
  ridiculous :adj. Deserving to be laughing at , absurd
                You look ridiculous in those tight jeans.
                What a ridiculous idea!
  ridiculousness     n.
  ridiculousness     adv.
  syn. funny, laughable
2. Likewise in other European countries….
    likewise: adv. In the same or a similar way
                Conj. Also, moreover
                 Watch him and do likewise.
3. I am obliged to list every country I visited.
    obliged: v. 1) force or require sb. By law, agreement or moral pressure to do sth.
                  2) compel
                  3) do sth for sb. As a favor or in answer to request
                  The law obliges parents to send their children to school.
                  They were obliged to sell their house in order to pay their debts.


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    obliging adj.
    obligingly adv.
    obligation n.
4...in export control violation
    export v. send to another country for purposes of trade
            n. sth. Exported
               What are the chief exports of your country?
               This country exports cotton goods.
     exporter n.
     exportable adj.
     exportation n.
    violation n.
     violate v. 1) act contrary to ,break an oath or a treaty
               2) disturb
               This is a kind of behavior which may violate one’s privacy.
5.……any illegal purpose?
     illegal: adj. Contrary to law
               You can’t do something illegal.
6.…..in the torture of any person……
    torture: v. cause severe suffering to
             n. the act of causing great pain
               They tortured the young man to make him confess the crime he committed.
7.or allied with the Nazi Government of Germany
    ally: v. unite by treaty, marriage etc.
         n. persons or states ally to each other
               Great Britain was allied with the united States in both World wars.
               The English language is allied to the German language.
               ally oneself with
               be allied to
8. maybe they can deport you for denying you pushed them before
    deport: v. expel away from a country
             n. deporting or being deported
               The spy was imprisoned for two years and then deported.
               Years ago criminals in England could be sentenced to deportation to Australia.
     deportee n.
     deportation n.


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9.and why such a particular fuss about Nazis
     fuss: n. show of worry or excitement, often one which is greater than usual
           v. give too much attention to small unimportant matters
           Don’t make so much fuss about trifles.
           Don’t make so much fuss of children.
      fussy adj.
      fussiness n.
10.……I inquired (Para. 7)
     inquire: v. ask to be told
              A waiter came to inquire what we want to have for dinner?
              I want to inquire about the trains to London.
      inquirer n.
      inquiring adj.
11. lest it provoke inconvenient questions (para.10)
       lest: conj. In order to prevent any possibilities that
               He ran away lest he might be seen.
       provoke: v. 1) make angry
                     2) cause or arouse
               If you provoke the dog, it will attack you.
               His rudeness provoked her into slapping his face.
       provoking adj.




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                                              Quiz Nine
Directions: Each of the following sentences is provided with four choices. Choose the one that
best completes the sentence.
1. Experts in every field of scientific study are finding it more and more difficult, if not impossible, to
  ________ the development even in their own specialized realm.
    A. catch up with       B. put up with          C. keep pace with       D. catch on to
2. The book looks like a(n) ________ economics text to me.
    A. advanced            B. progressive          C. developed            D. integrated
3. Employees who have worked here for many years will be given ________ treatment over
  newcomers.
    A. preferential        B. preferable           C. favorite             D. favorable
4. Chinese Americans used to be blamed for working for lower wages and taking jobs away from
  white men, who were in many cases recent ________ themselves.
    A. immigrates          B. immigrants           C. emigrants            D. emigrates
5. Higher education institutions are mot always ________ the needs of society so they need reform
  from time to time.
    A. applied to          B. accustomed to        C. geared to            D. attached to
6. It was President William H. Taft who made the first official ________ for the arrangement of the
  stars on the national flag in 1912, for previously the arrangement of the stars had been left to the
  flag-makers’ fancy.
    A. assumption          B. presentation         C. legislation          D. provision
7. Although he had looked through all the ________ materials on the subject, he still found it hard to
  understand this point and her explanation only added to his confusion.
    A. reference           B. preference           C. parallel             D. reverence
8. We stayed up throughout the night watching the live broadcast of the contest ________ witnessing
  the great moment when the winner was declared.
    A. on the grounds of                           B. on account of
    C. in the hope of                              D. at the cost of
9. In his speech, he attempted to draw a ________ between the high level of unemployment and the
  rising crime rate.
    A. reference           B. provision            C. parallel             D. manipulation
10. The construction of the new hospital will be completed next year, but ________, we’ve got to live
  with the overcrowded conditions of the old one.
    A. in the meantime B. at the same time         C. during the time      D. from time to time
11. During the discovery and settlement of what is now the United States, the flags of various



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  European nations were flown over the land, as ________ of possession.
    A. symbols            B. signals              C. tokens               D. signs
12. This job is ________ a piece of cake to me, and I can accomplish it at any time convenient to both
  of us.
    A. anything but                               B. nothing but
    C. everything except for                      D. nothing except
13. The day’s events completely drained me ________ all strength.
    A. with               B. in                   C. for                  D. off
14. Only one student passed the exam, _________ Peter.
    A. that is to say     B. namely               C. however              D. hence
15. Beijing is the ________ center in our country.
    A. partial            B. beneficial           C. commercial           D. advantageous
16. He ________ the nose at my suggestion.
    A. laughed            B. thumbed              C. turned               D. pointed
17.Spring is the ________ time for planting trees.
    A. prime              B. primary              C. primitive            D. principle
18. My experience in selling is ________ to yours.
    A. same               B. alike                C. likely               D. parallel
19. I will put my house ________ pledge.
    A. for                B. in                   C. as                   D. of
20. The treasurer was arrested for trying to ________ the company’s financial records.
    A. manipulate         B. manage               C. manufacture          D. manuscript
21. We should give full ________ to the initiative of the masses.
    A. scrape             B. script               C. scope                D. scare
22. We should work hard to make ________ for the future.
    A. provision          B. provision            C. the provision        D. provisions
23. New houses have sprung up like ________ on the edge of the town.
    A. a mushroom         B. mushroom             C. mushrooms            D. the mushroom
24. When their father died the children had to shift ________ themselves.
    A. with               B. to                   C. for                  D. of
25.The food here is ________ my appetite.
    A. to                 B. for                  C. of                   D. in
26. Do not ________ yourself to despair.
    A. abundant           B. abuse                C. abandon              D. absorb
27. The teachers are trying to integrate all the children ________ society.
    A. into               B. in                   C. out                  D. out of


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28. The extracted case was so old it just ________ when a worker picked it up.
    A. distinguish       B. distinct             C. district            D. disintegrated
29. This bridge over the river has a steel ________
    A. plan              B. form                 C. work               D. framework
30. Gray is ________ between black and white.
    A. intermediate      B. medium               C. minimum            D. maximum


KEYS: 1-10 CAABC DACCA 11-20 ABDBC BADBA 21-30 CACCA CADDA




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                                           Unit One Book Two



             Unit Ten Reports on Britain Under the Bombs
Time Allotment: (4.5 periods)
Section A and Language Points (3 periods)
Exercises and Writing (1.5 period)


Teaching Aims: The teaching of this text aims to enable students
1. to master the new active words and useful phrases.
2. to learn about a historical event: How British people fought under Nazi’s bombing.
3. to get acquainted with skills of developing a paragraph of general statement supported by specific
  details.
4. to get acquainted with figurative language.
5. to practice what has been learned .


I. Background Information
1. World War II
     World War II also called the Second World War, was a conflict that involved virtually every part
of the world during the years 1939-1945. The principal parties were the Axis powers—Germany, Italy,
and Japan, and the Allies---France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union and China. The
war was in many respects a continuous of the conflicts left unsettled by World War I. The 40-50
million deaths in World War II make it the bloodiest conflict as well as the largest war in history.
2. The Allied Nations:
     The main countries involved in World War II were the Axis powers---Germany, Italy, and Japan,
and the Allies (the Allied Nations)---France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union and
China. The war ended with the victory being won by the allied nations in 1945.
3. Royal Air force (RAF)
     Royal Air force (RAF) is the youngest of the three British armed services, charged with the air
defense of the United Kingdom and fulfillment of international defense commitments. At the
beginning of World War II in September 1939, the first-line strength of the RAF in the United
Kingdom was about 2,000 airplanes. The RAF fighter pilots, however, distinguished themselves
during the Battle of Britain in the early stages of the war against the many more German Luftwaffe.
4. Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS)
     It is in the late 1920s. William Paley put money into the Columbia Broadcasting System, which
was then a small, struggling radio network, in 1928. In 1974 it adopted the name CBS, Inc. In 1995




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                                           Unit One Book Two



CBS, Inc. was bought by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, which change the name in 1997 to
the CBS Corporation. The main offices are in New York City.
5. Marshal Goering
     He was born in Bavaria. Trained for an army career, Goering received his assignment in 1912
and served with distinction during World WarⅠ. Later, Goering met Adolf Hitler and joined the small
National Socialist German Workers’ (Nazi) Party in 1922. Since then, Goering worked tirelessly as
Hitler’s most loyal supporter. He was Reich official for air fighters and head of the newly developed
Luftwaffe (German air force). He had, at one time, been responsible for the Gestapo and the
concentration camps. Goering was the most popular of the Nazi leaders, not only with the German
people but also with the representatives and agents of foreign powers. But he was shamed when the
Luftwaffe failed to win the battle of Britain or prevent the Allied bombing of Germany. After Hitler’s
suicide, he surrendered himself to the Americans. He was sentenced to be hanged, but instead he
drank some poison and died in his prison room at Nurnberg the night he was given his death sentence.



II. Warm-up Questions
1. Why was the Nazi air force repeatedly bombing London?
Because Hitler and Goering believed that when London became a burned city like Warsaw and
Rotterdam, England would surrender.
2. What did Edward R. Murrow say about eventual victory for the ordinary people?
He said that Mark it down that these people is both brave and patient, that all are equal under the
bomb, that this is a war of speed and organization, and that whichever political system best provides
for the defense and decency of the little man will win.
3. What are the Allied Nations?
The main countries involved in World War II were the Axis powers---Germany, Italy, and Japan, and
the Allies (the Allied Nations)---France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union and China.
The war ended with the victory being won by the allied nations in 1945.


III. Text Structure Analysis
1. Outline of the Text
Part I
Introduction: It broadcast that London was under the Nazi’s bombers then, but no matter what
happened to London, it could not be destroyed. (Paras.1-2)
Questions:
What was Mr. Murrow’s job in 1940?



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                                            Unit One Book Two



What did Murrow feel sorry for?
Part II
The Body (Paras. 3-14)
A. The raids began in the middle of August and the England’s Home Guard prepared to fight till the
  last person died or the invaders were driven off.(Para. 3)
Question
What was the preparation of the English?
B. Hitler and Goering believed that England would surrender like the Poles and the Dutch ,but they
  were convinced at last that the English did not intend to give in. Therefore their bombing
  upgraded .(Paras. 4-7)
Questions:
1. What were the German pilots sure about?
2. What did Hitler and Goering believe about London at first?
3. Why were the English more fortunate than the Poles and the Dutch?
C. But the city endured all the hardships because of the resolution of its people. (Paras. 8-14).
Question:
What did London citizens do during the wartime?
Part III
The Conclusion: The Nazi powers were finally defeated by the Allied nations. (Para.15)
Question:
What was the result of the war?

2. Summary of the Text
     During the World War II, in order to let England surrender, Nazi bombs started to fall on
England in the middle of August, 1940. And on September 7, nearly 400 German bombers hammered
the city of London with bombs in broad daylight. It seemed impossible for this city to continue to fight
in the war, but the city endured. The pilots met the flocks of Nazi bombers day after day and night
after night and the people of London were also in the front line. The eventual victory went to London
and its people. Nazi powers were finally defeated by the Allied nations.



IV. New Words and Phrases
1. Night after night …a deep, steady voice came over the Atlantic Ocean…(Para.1)
     night after night: regularly every night
               He goes out drinking night after night.
2.…telling of England’s battle for survival…(Para.1)
    survival: n.


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                                              Unit One Book Two



              1) The act or process of surviving.
                  The man's survival was surprising, as the doctors thought he would die.
                  We need food and water for survival.
              2) Something, such as an ancient custom or belief, that has survived.
                  That fashion is a survival from the 1970s.
3.…under the waves of German bombers. (Para.1)
    wave: n. (of) a particular feeling or pattern of behavior or activity that suddenly begins to happen
              in an uncontrollable way, and is often passed on from person to person
                  I feel a wave of nausea.
                  a wave of indignation.
                  a wave of emotion
                  A wave of panic swept through the crowd.
4.…an American voice with a slight accent of North Carolina, …(Para.1)
    slight: a. of small importance or consideration; trifling; small in degree; not considerable,
              noticeable, or serious
                  slight matters
                  a slight difference / pain / improvement
                  There’s been a slight change in the plans.
                  I haven’t the slightest idea (=I have no idea) what you’re talking about.
5. “This is London,” said Murrow, while the bombs fell and flames spread on the streets of the
  city.(Para.2)
    flame: n. [C;U] (a area of) red or yellow burning gas seen when something is on fire.
              The candle flame flickered and went out / died.
              The dry sticks burst into flames.
              The whole city was in flames. (=burning)
            v. to be brightly filled with the colors of flame
              The evening sky flamed with red and orange.
              Her cheeks flamed (red).
6. His voice had a tone of sorrow for the suffering of that ancient city, and a tone of confidence,
 too...(Para.2)
   sorrow: n. (a cause of) unhappiness over loss or wrong-doing; sadness; grief
              We all share your sorrow over this sad loss.
              the conventional expressions of sorrow and sympathy
     ancient: a. 1) of great age; very old
                  ancient Rome
                  to study ancient history


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                                             Unit One Book Two



               2) old-fashioned; antiquated
              a very ancient-looking dress
7.…no matter what it had to endure. (Para.2)
    endure: v. 1) to carry on through, despite hardships; undergo:
              endure an Arctic winter
              I can't endure loud music.
              I can't endure her endless complaint noise a moment longer.
               2) to continue in existence; last:
              buildings that have endured for centuries
              His fame will endure for ever.
8.The heavy raids began in the middle of August, …(Para.3)
    raid: n. 1) a surprise attack by a small armed force
               a cross-border raid
               make a bombing raid on enemy bases
            2) sudden, forcible entry into a place by police
               a raid on a gambling den
               a police drugs raid
9.…Nazi bombs started to fall along England’s Channel Coast. (Para.3)
    channel: n.
              1) the deeper part of a river or harbor, especially a deep navigable passage; a broad
                  strait, especially one that connects two seas
                  The English Channel is between France and England.
              2) a course or passage through which something may move or be directed
                  new channels of thought
                  a reliable channel of information
                  through diplomatic channels
              3) a specified frequency band for the transmission and reception of electromagnetic
                  signals, as for television signals
10. The German bombers cast dark shadows over the white cliffs of Dover, …(Para.3)
    cast: v.1) to throw (something, especially something light)
              The angler cast the line.
              The fishermen cast their nets into the sea.
           2) to throw with force; hurt
              waves that cast driftwood far up on the shore
           3) to turn or direct
              She cast a glance in his direction.


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                                              Unit One Book Two



              Would you just cast an eye over (=look through quickly) this letter before I put it in the
              post?
       n. 1) sort; type:
               fancied himself to be of a macho cast
          2) the act or an instance of casting or throwing.
11.…England would surrender. (Para.4)
    surrender: v.
              1) to give up in favor of another; to give up or give back (something that has been
                 granted):
               surrender a contractual right
               You must surrender your old passport when applying for a new one.
               He surrendered his insurance policy.
              2) give up or give in to the power (esp. of an enemy), as a sign of defeat
               Surrender to the enemy? We will die first.
               We advised the hijackers to surrender themselves to the police.
               We shall never surrender our liberty.
12.…nearly four hundred German bombers hammered the city with bombs…(Para.6)
    hammer: 1) n. A hand tool used to exert an impulsive force by striking, consisting of a handle
                      with a perpendicularly attached head made of a relatively heavy, rigid material.
              2) to hit, especially repeatedly, with or as if with a hammer; to undergo beating in the
                 manner of a hammer:
               I wish they’d stop hammering.
               Hammer the nails in.
               My pulse hammered.
13.…German bombers hammered the city with bombs in broad daylight. (Para.6)
    in broad daylight: in the full light of day (If we say a crime is committed in broad daylight, we
                           are actually expressing our surprise that it’s done during the day when
                           everyone can see it rather than at night.)
               The burglars broke into the house in broad daylight.
14. Marshal Goering boasted, …(Para.6)
    boast: v. to glorify oneself in speech; talk in a self-admiring way
               He's just boasting.
               Nobody should boast of his learning.
               He boasted himself (to be) an all-round man.
               The boy boasted that his bicycle was of the best quality of all the bicycles in the school.
15. “This is the historic hour…” (Para.6)


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    historic: a. having importance in or influence on history
               a historic meeting between the two leaders
               May 4, 1919 is a historic day.
    compare:
         Historic and historical are differentiated in usage, though their senses overlap. Historic refers
    to what is important in history; it is also used of what is famous or interesting because of its
    association with persons or events in history: e.g. the historic first voyage to outer space; a
    historic house. Historical refers to whatever existed in the past, whether regarded as important or
    not; historical refers also to anything concerned with history or the study of the past: e.g. a
    historical novel; a historical character. The differentiation between the words is not complete.
    They are often used interchangeably: historic times or historical times.
16.…ambulances rushed from one place of agony to another, …(Para.7)
    agony: n. the suffering of intense physical or mental pain
               The wounded man was in agony.
17.…with the crash of bombs all around them and planes spitting fire in the skies above. (Para.8)
    crash: v. to undergo sudden damage or destruction on impact
               Their car crashed into a guard rail.
               The airplane crashed over the ocean.
           n. a sudden loud noise, as of an object breaking.
               The car hit the tree with a crash.
18.…and planes spitting fire in the skies above.(Para.8)
    spit: v. to throw out (liquid or other contents) from the mouth with force
               In this country it’s rude to spit.
               I didn’t want to eat the pips so I spat them out.
19.But the city endured. Trains brought commuters in from the suburbs. (Para.9)
    commuter: n. one that travels regularly from one place to another, as from suburb to city and
                   back.
               urban commuter
               commuter time
               The five o’clock train is always packed with commuters.
     Commute: v. travel regularly by bus, train or car between one’s place of work and one’s home
               She commutes from Oxford to London everyday.
20. suburb: n a usually residential area or community outlying a city.
               He lives in the suburb of Beijing and works in the city.
               Living in the suburbs you may suffer a little discomfort.
21. Buses bumped along the streets. (Para.9)


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    bump: v.
               1) to proceed with jerks and jolts:
                bumped along slowly over the rocky terrain
               2) to hit or knock against something
                I bumped my head on a low branch.
            n. a blow, collision, or jolt; the sound of something bumping:
               a bump on the head
               heard a loud bump in the dark
               In the dim light he couldn't see clearly and ran bump into a tree.
22. The fires were brought under control. (Para.9)
    under control: working properly, esp. after being in a dangerous or confused state; controlled in
                    the correct way
                They soon brought /had the fire under control.
23.…reading reports of the battle raging over London. (Para.9)
    rage: v. to spread or continue with great force or violence
                a raging storm
                The disease raged through the city.
                The argument over the new airport is still raging.
         n. 1) violent, explosive anger.
            2) A current, eagerly adopted fashion; a fad or craze:
                the latest rage
                Dresses like this used to be all the rage. (=very fashionable)
24. And Edward R. Murrow went on the air, …(Para.10)
    on the air: broadcasting on radio or television
                We shall be on the air in five minutes.
                The opposite is “off the air”, which means not being broadcast.
                This message did not reach me until the program went off the air.
25. He did not speak them with any attempt to sound heroic. He simply voiced the quiet truth of the
  city’s existence. (Para. 10)
    sound: v. to seem that heard
                It sounds as if/as though the government doesn’t know what to do.
                That sounds like (=seems) a good idea!
                She sounds to be a very strange woman.
26. voice: v. to give voice to; utter
                voice a grievance
                Yet ever since then, people at home and abroad have voiced different opinions about it.


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               He voiced the feelings of the crowd.
27. Murrow knew that Britain’s fate depended upon the resolution of the people in the shops and
  streets, …(Para.11)
    resolution: n. the state or quality of being resolute; firm determination
               the resolution of our difficulties
               show great resolution
               She's always making good resolutions.
28.…those watching for fire on the roofs, the people who had a thousand difficult and painful things
  to do. (Para.11)
    watch for: to look for; expect and wait for
               She watch for a chance to dance with him.
29. Much depended upon the handful of pilots who rose day after day and night after night to meet
  the flocks of Nazi bombers. (Para.12)
    handful: n.1) a small, undefined number or quantity:
               only a handful of people on the street
               "They invited a dozen companies, but only a handful of them came."
               2) the amount that a hand can hold.
               a handful of rice
30.…to meet the flocks of Nazi bombers. (Para.12)
    flock: n.1) a group of animals that live, travel, or feed together
               a flock of sheep
             2) a large crowd or number
               He has a flock of questions.
           v. to congregate or travel in a flock or crowd
               It rarely happened that people in the town flocked to the theatre to see the new opera.
               People came in flocks to see the new hydraulic power station beside the dam.
31. The pilots in the RAF reached the limits of exhaustion and then went beyond those limits, still
 fighting. (Para.12)
    exhaustion: n. the state of being exhausted; extreme fatigue:
               The runner collapsed from exhaustion.
   exhaust: v.1) To use up completely:
               exhausted our funds before the month was out
               tobacco crops that exhausted the soil
               I think we've exhausted this subject; let's go on to the next.
               My patience is exhausted.
               2) make (a person or an animal) very tired


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              We are all exhausted after the journey.
              The police have spent an exhausting day searching the woods.
32.They couldn’t reach up and smash the enemy planes. (Para. 13)
    smash: 1) v. to break (something) into pieces suddenly, noisily, and violently; shatter
              The car smashed into a tree.
              Although the bed was smashed to pieces, the man was miraculously unhurt.
           2) n. A resounding success
              The play was a smash on Broadway.
33. They had to dig quickly in cellars to rescue their friends who had been buried underneath the
  wreckage. (Para.13)
    rescue: 1) v. to set free, as from danger or imprisonment; save
              to rescue from the building many official papers
              We rescued the boy who fell into the river.
              Police rescued the hostages.
            2) n. an act of rescuing; a deliverance
             The rescue attempt was impeded by bad weather.
             However, rescue operations are proving difficult.
    underneath: 1) ad. in or to a place beneath; below; on the lower face or underside
              the underneath of the box
                  2) prep. under; below; beneath
              She sat underneath the tree in the shade.
              They looked down from the bridge at the water underneath.
    wreckage: n. something wrecked; the debris of something wrecked
              the wreckage of the cars
              the wreckage of the plane after the crash
    wreck: v.1) to suffer destruction or ruin; become wrecked
              After the ship wreck, the transportation trust was in trouble up to the hilt.
              The car wrecked this morning.
              2) to bring to a ruined or unusable state; destroy
              The accident wrecked his health.
              No one can wreck the friendship between us.
           n 1) fragments of a ship or its cargo cast ashore by the sea after a shipwreck; wreckage; the
              remains of something that has been wrecked or ruined
              The shores are strewn with wrecks.
             2) something shattered or dilapidated
              the wreck of her hopes


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              make a wreck of sb.’s life
34.“Mark it down that…” (Para.14)
    mark sth. down: write sth. down
              The teacher marked him down as present.
              You’d better mark these things down.
35.“…whichever political system…” (Para.14)
    whichever: prep. whatever one or ones
               Take whichever you like.
               Whichever are you going to take?
                adj. being any one or any number of a group
              Read whichever books you pleased. It's a long trip whichever road you take.
              Take whichever seat you like.
              It has the same result, whichever way you do it.
36.…provides for the defense and decency of the little man will win. (Para.14)
    provide for: to make the necessary future arrangements for
              The plans provide for road traffic increasing to twice its present volume.
37.decency: n. the quality of being decent
              I know you didn’t like him, but at least have the decency to go to his funeral!
              We must observe the decencies and attend the funeral.
   decent: adj. modest; adequate; morally upright; kind or obliging
              decent language and decent behavior
               He is quite a decent fellow.
               That was quite a decent lunch.
38.The Nazi powers were finally defeated by the Allied nations. (Para. 15)
    power: n. a person, group, or nation having great influence or control over others:
              the western powers
              the great world powers


V. Difficult Sentence Analysis:
1. Night after night…a deep, steady voice came over the Atlantic Ocean from England to America,
    telling of England’s battle for survival under the waves of German bombers.(Para.1)
    --------For many nights continuously…a deep, steady voice came through broadcasting across the
    Atlantic Ocean from England to America, reporting on England battle against repeated raids by
    German bombers.
2. …under the waves of German bombers. (Para.1)



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    --------…while attacked by German bombers time and again in an increasingly cruel way.
3. His voice had a tone of sorrow for the suffering of that ancient city, and a tone of confidence,
    too—a feeling of belief that London would be there, no matter what it had to endure.(Para.2)
    -------His voice showed, on one hand, his sorrow for what London was suffering; on the other
    hand, people could also hear confidence in his voice that London would stand in spite of
    everything and continue to exist.
4. Air Marshal Goering’s bomber pilots were sure of their ultimate triumph over England. (Para.4)
    --------German pilots under Air Marshal Goering were sure that they would defeat England
    finally.
5. They had the English channel as a barrier against the Nazi ground forces, and they had the Royal
    Air Force (RAF) to battle the Nazis in the sky. (Para.5)
    --------The English channel functioned as a natural barrier and protected the English from being
    attacked by the Nazi ground forces, and the Royal Air Force could fight against the Nazis in the
    sky.
6. The hardships of London really started in the first week of September, when Hitler was at last
    convinced that the English did not intend to give in. On September 7, 1940, nearly four hundred
    German bombers hammered the city with bombs…(Para.6)
    --------In the first week of September, Hitler was finally made to believe that the English didn’t
    have any intention to surrender. At that point, the real hardships of London began with almost 400
    German bombers attacking the city severely on September 7, 1940.
7. Marshal Goering boasted, “This is the historic hour when our air force for the first time delivered
    its bombs right into the enemy’s heart.” (Para.6)
    --------Marshal Goering said proudly that it was an important hour in history when German plans
    for the first time attacked London directly.
8. Radar sirens wailed, …(Para.7)
    --------Radar sirens made long, high-pitched, and harsh sounds, …
9. …ambulances rushed from one place of agony to another, …(Para.7)
    --------…ambulances rushed from one place to another to help people in great pain, …
10. …and firemen faced the flames hour after hour. (Para.7)
    --------…and firemen battled against the fires for many hours continuously.
11. It seemed impossible for people of the city to do their daily jobs, to work and eat and sleep and
    carry on the business of life, with the crash of bombs all around them and planes spitting fire in
    the skies above. (Para.8)
    --------It seemed impossible for people in London to live their routine life with the explosion of
    bombs everywhere and the enemy planes shooting guns from the sky.




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12. But the city endured. Trains brought commuters in from the suburbs. Buses bumped along the
    streets. (Para.9)
    --------The whole paragraph showed that the English were trying to rise above all kinds of
    difficulties and live a normal life as the battle went on.
13. And Edward R. Murrow went on the air, …(Para.10)
    --------And Edward R. Murrow started broadcasting, …
14. He did not speak them with any attempt to sound heroic. He simply voiced the quiet truth of the
    city’s existence. (Para. 10)
    --------He didn’t try to sound heroic while saying those words. In a quiet voice, he was just telling
    the simple truth: London was still standing there.
15. Murrow knew that Britain’s fate depended upon the resolution of the people in the shops and
    streets, the men in the pubs, the housewives, those watching for fire on the roofs, the people who
    had a thousand difficult and painful things to do. (Para.11)
    --------Murrow knew that Britain’s fate depended on the ordinary English people who were
    resolved to defend their homeland, staying aware all the time and doing whatever they should do.
16. Much depended upon the handful of pilots who rose day after day and night after night to meet
    the flocks of Nazi bombers. (Para.12)
    --------Britain’s fate depended to a large extent on the small number of pilots fighting against lots
    of German bombers for many days and nights continuously.
17. The pilots in the RAF reached the limits of exhaustion and then went beyond those limits, still
    fighting. (Para.12)
    --------The pilots in the Royal Air Force became very tired. But they endured and went beyond
    their physical limits to fight against Nazi bombers.
18. But the people of London were also in the front lines, and they did not have the satisfaction of
    being able to fight back. (Para.13)
    --------But the people of London were also doing their part at the front of the battle, but they were
    dissatisfied with the fact that they could not fight against the enemy directly.
19. They couldn’t reach up and smash the enemy planes. (Para.13)
    --------They could not rise to the sky and break German planes into pieces.
20. They had to dig quickly in cellars to rescue their friends who had been buried underneath the
    wreckage. (Para.13)
    --------They had to dig quickly in cellars to save their friends buried under the ruined buildings.
21. They had to stand firm and take whatever the enemy threw at them. (Para. 13)
    --------They had to keep determined and resolute and endure any kind of suffering the enemy
    caused them.
22. “…that this is a war of speed and organization, …” (Para.14)


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    --------“…speed and organization matter in the war, …”
23. “…whichever political system best provides for the defense and decency of the little man will
    win.” (Para.14)
    --------“…any political system which can develop the best method to ensure the defense and
    decency of ordinary people will win the war.”
24. Murrow’s projection of eventual victory for the ordinary people proved to be accurate. (Para.15)
    --------Murrow’s prediction about the final victory won by the ordinary people proved true.
25. The Nazi powers were finally defeated by the Allied nations. (Para. 15)
    --------The Nazi countries were finally defeated by the Allied nations.



VI. Writing:
             Develop a paragraph of general statement supported by specific details.
Sample:
                                      City Life and Country Life
     Different people have different ideas on the city life and country life. Those who live in the
city often feel tired of the busy and noisy life. But the countrymen may want to leave the countryside
and move to a city. Yet there are also people who are satisfied with their present living conditions.
     The life in the city may have its advantages and disadvantages. Living in the city, people can
enjoy all sorts of entertainment in the holidays---- the latest exhibitions, plays, films are only a short
bus or bike ride away. They can also go shopping with great convenience since there are plenty of
large department stores. But the city is often overcrowded and unhealthy: traffic is heavy, air is
polluted, which is a threat to their health of body and mind.
     The life in the country also has its strong points and weak points. Life there is simple and
quiet; people there are free. In close contact with nature they can enjoy fresh air and green vegetables.
But they have to travel miles to visit a friend or go shopping .


VII. Dictation:
     One of the most spectacular terrorist incidents in the U.S. history was the bombing of the World
Trade Center in New York City in 1993 by Islamic radicals. This incident aroused anxiety about the
treat posed by foreign residents from nations hostile to the United States. Six people died in the bomb,
which caused an estimated $600 million in property and other economic damage. Trails that followed
sentenced six people of carrying out the attack.
     In addition to foreign-sponsored terrorism, the United States has an abundant history of domestic
terrorism. Early in the 20th century, labor leaders such as William Dudley openly supported a
philosophy of revolutionary violence.


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                                      Unit One Book Two




VIII. Homework
1.Do all the exercises of Unit Ten.
2.Preview next unit.




                                            212
                                              Unit One Book Two



            Section B           Forty-Three Seconds over Hiroshima
I. Outline of the Text
Part Ⅰ
An atomic bomb dropped in the city Kaz Tanaka lives. (Paras.1-3)
Part Ⅱ
The details (Paras. 4-8)
A. What their family looked like before the bombing. (Para.4)
B. The war gave them too much pain. (Paras. 5-8)
Part Ⅲ
What they got from the terrible bombing. (Paras. 9-10)
A. Kaz Tanaka got ill from the bombing, and her feeling was so terrible. (Para. 9)
B. She will get after-effects of the history. (Para. 10)


II. Summary of the Text
      One summer morning in 1945, a nuclear bomb dropped on Hiroshima. During a short time the
city became thundering down. Kaz Tanaka had sunk into unconsciousness, and her father who was
working in the garden was injured badly: his body turned a chocolate brown. The whole were on fire.
The street was filled with the dead and barely living. Of course before it, the Kaz’s led a luxury life.
But now all family members fell ill including Kaz herself. The illness had not really left to her; it had
gone to hiding, instead, and the physical and mental after-effects of that historical August 6, 1945,
would trouble Kaz all the rest of her life.


III. New Words and Expressions
1. It was falling away from the plane, drifting down toward them. The journey took a mere 43
    seconds. (Para. 2)
    drift: vi. Move slowly, esp. as a result of outside forces, with no control over direction
              She watched the boat as it drifted out to the sea.
              The snow had drifted everywhere.
          n. 1) [C] things, esp. snow or sand, piled up by the wind
                a drift of dead leaves 一堆枯树叶
                The roadside was covered by the deep snow drifts.
                2) [U] general meaning without the details
                I caught the drift of what he said.
                Did you get the drift of the argument?



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                                            Unit One Book Two



2. When he came staggering out of the garden,… (Para.3)
    stagger: vi. walk or move unsteadily as if about to fall (from carrying sth. heavy, being weak,
                 drunk or injured, etc.)
               The drunken man staggered towards us.
               After he was attacked, he managed to stagger to the phone box to call for help.
               vt. cause (sb.) to feel shocked or surprised because of sth. unexpected or very unusual
                 happening
               Her incredible story staggered the imagination.
               I was staggered to hear who the group’s leader was.
3. … the exposed parts of his body had turned a chocolate brown. (Para.3)
  expose: vt. 1) uncover or leave sb./sth. uncovered or unprotected
                Keep indoors and don’t expose your skin to the sun.
                exposed to the wind and rain
              2) make known (a secretly guilty person or action)
                She threatened to expose me to the police.
                expose a crime/ criminal.
4. For a moment, he stood swaying at the ruins of the gate. (Para.7)
  sway: vt. 1) cause (sth./sb.) move slowly from side to side
                The branches of the trees were swaying in the wind.
               2) persuade (sb.) to believe or do one thing rather than another
                a speech that swayed the voters
5. … and dashed down the slope of the hill toward the flames. (Para.8)
   dash: v. 1) move suddenly and quickly
              He dashed across the street and disappeared around the corner.
               A motor-car dashed past us.
            2) hit with great force, esp. causing damage
               In her anger, she dashed all the plates to the floor.
        [C] (usu. sing.)1) a sudden forward movement
               The cavalry rode off at a dash.
               2) [C] a short horizontal line used to separate parts of sentences
               The dash is used in writing to show a pause.
6. … and her brother’s wounds refused to heal. (Para.9)
  heal: v. (cause to) become healthy and normal again
               The wound healed slowly.
               It soon healed up.
7. She felt sick and dizzy, almost drunk. (Para.9)


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                                           Unit One Book Two



  dizzy: a. 1) (of a person) feeling as if everything is spinning around; unable to balance; confused
                 Climbing ladders makes me dizzy.
              After another glass of strong wine, she began to feel dizzy.
           2) of or causing this feeling
              The new building reaches the dizzy height of 505 meters.
              She rose to the dizzy height of vice-president.
8. … and she knew at a glimpse that it was him. (Para. 7)
  glimpse: n. [C] a short look
              I only caught a glimpse of the thief, so I can’t really describe him.
              A glimpse of her was seen among the crowd just before she disappeared from sight.
9. … she had sunk into unconsciousness. (Para. 3)
    sink into: come to (an unpleasant, undesirable mood, situation, state, etc.)
              After crying for a long time, the baby sank into a sound sleep.
              The economy in that small country has sunken into disorder.
            … when night fell, Kaz and her brother made for the mountains;… (Para. 8)
     make for (a place): move towards (a place), head for
              The bull made for me and I had to run.
              The frigate made for the open sea.
10. That life had been a comfortable one, wanting in nothing… (Para.4)
    wanting in (sth.): lacking in (sth.)
              The young man is wanting in politeness.
              The old lady, wanting in nothing, led a contented life.
              She felt uneasy, seized with fear, not for herself, but for her parents. (Para. 8)
     be seized with: be affected by a strong feeling, desire, etc. suddenly and intensely
              He was seized with sudden chest pain.
              The woman was seized with a desire to get even.
              … her two front teeth broke off;… (Para. 3)
    break off: 1) come off or be removed by force
              The mast broke off.
              Many small branches broke off in the storm.
                 2) end (sth.) suddenly
              He broke off in a middle of a sentence.
              The two countries have broken off their political relations.
              A white dot appeared in the sky, as small and innocent-looking as slip of paper.
              (Para.2)
    innocent: a. 1) harmless


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                                         Unit One Book Two



           innocent amusements 无害的娱乐
           Innocent substances could be mistaken for illegal drugs.
              2) not guilty
           innocent of the charge 无罪
           She is innocent of the crime with which she has been charged.
              3) suffering harm although not involved
           All those who died in the terrorist attack were innocent victims.
           Thousands of innocent children were killed in the conflict.
           The air exploded in blinding lighting and color, the rays shooting outward as in a
           child’s drawing of the sun,… (Para. 3)
explode: v. 1) burst violently
           When the boiler exploded many people were hurt by the steam.
             2) (of feelings) burst out suddenly
           At last his anger exploded.
             3) increase very quickly
           The rapidly exploding population in some countries is a serious problem for their
           government.




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                                            Unit One Book Two



                                              Quiz Ten
Directions: Each of the following sentences is provided with four choices. Choose the one that
best completes the sentence.
1. The doctor told Penny that too much ________ to the sun is bad for the skin.
    A. exposure            B. extension           C. exhibition              D. expansion
2. He soon ________ every penny that he inherited from his father and went bankrupt.
    A. exhibited           B. exhaled             C. exceeded                D. exhausted
3. What remained ________ that miserable poor little car of mine after the crash was but a junk.
    A. in                  B. from                C. of                      D. at
4. Obviously there is no turning back for us. Whatever the cost, we’ll have to ________.
    A. carry on            B. carry out           C. carry through           D. carry off
5. The strong storm did a lot of damage to the coastal villages: several fishing boats were ________
  and many houses collapsed.
    A. wrecked             B. spoiled             C. torn                    D. injured
6. I caught a ______ of the taxi before it disappeared around the corner of the street.
    A. vision              B. glimpse             C. sight                   D. glance
7. She ________ at the newcomer and went on with her typing.
    A. cast a quick glance                        B. cast a quick glimpse
    C. caught a quick glimpse                     D. caught a quick glance
8. The fire that was thought to have been brought ________ flared up again this morning.
    A. under possession                           B. under control
    C. under the control                          D. in control
9. After three hours’ debate, the conference passed a ________ in favor of my proposed marketing
  strategy.
    A. revolution          B. reservation         C. repetition              D. resolution
10. The president’s speech was a ________ repetition of what he had previously stated on more than
  one occasions.
    A. merely              B. just                C. mere                    D. simple
11. He believed that the greatest of his ________ was that he’s never had a college education.
    A. grief               B. misfortune          C. disasters               D. sorrows
12. Police ________ the night club last night.
    A. attacked            B. raided              C. plundered               D. invade
13. The English ________ is between France and England.
    A. strait              B. waterway            C. corridor                D. channel
14. Germany ________ Poland in 1939.



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                                              Unit One Book Two



    A. invited            B. invaded                C. introduced             D. induced
15. The oldest general was appointed ________ of the armies.
    A. chairman           B. president              C. colonel                D. marshal
16. Practice is the ________ road to success when learning a language.
    A. royal              B. noble                  C. grand                  D. imperial
17. May 4, 1919 is a ________ day.
    A. historical         B. history                C. historic               D. hostile
18. I heard the ________ of a police siren.
    A. wail               B. cry                    C. moan                   D. howl
19. The wounded man lay in ________ until the doctor came.
    A. sorrow             B. grief                  C. comfort                D. agony
20. He ________ out the watermelon seeds on the floor.
    A. spit               B. spite                  C. split                  D. spat
21. Miners ________ between the mines and their housing estates on weekdays.
    A. communicate        B. commune                C. commute                D. command
22. His ________ action has left a deep impression on people’s minds.
    A. heroic             B. hero                   C. heroine                D. heroin
23. The lawyer’s advice led to the ________ of the difficulties.
    A. determination      B. resolve                C. resolution             D. decision
24. “When the employer arrived, the secretary handed him a(n) ________ of letters.”
    A. amount             B. quantity               C. handful                D. deal
25. People ________ to see the new hydraulic power station beside the dam.
    A. flocked            B. crowded                C. packed                 D. mobbed
26. He ________ himself by staying up all night.
    A. exerted            B. exhausted              C. exhibited              D. executed
27. It was not long before a helicopter arrived on the scene to ________ the survivors of the plane
  crash.
    A. rescue             B. resend                 C. receive                D. research
28. After the ship ________, the transportation trust was in trouble up to the hilt.
    A. wreck              B. wreckage               C. wrecked                D. wrecking
29. ________ side wins, I shall be satisfied.
    A. Whatever           B. Whenever               C. Wherever               D. Whichever
30. Those tight trousers of yours are not quite ________.
    A. fake               B. innocent               C. decent                 D. suspicious


KEYS: 1-10 ADCAA BABDC 11-20 BBDBD ACADD                          21-30 CACCA BAADC


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