Chapter 14The Nation Divided

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					  Chapter 14
The Nation Divided
Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery
Section 2: Compromises Fail
Section 3: The Crisis Deepens
Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War
 Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery
 Slavery and the Mexican – American War
    Maintaining the balance
       Between 1820 and 1848 – 8 new states were admitted
          4 slave and 4 free
          Totals of 15 slave and 15 free states
       Remember the Missouri Compromise?
          It did not apply to the lands claimed after the Mexican-
           American War
       Wilmot Proviso
          David Wilmot of PA proposed this law
          Congress ban slavery in all territory that might become
           part of the U.S. as a result of the M-A War.
                It passed in the house (population) and failed in the senate
          Wilmot Proviso never became law, but it was viewed as
           an attack on slavery by southerners
Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery
  An Anti-Slavery Party
     Free Soil Party
        Formed on the basis of the Wilmot Proviso – they wanted to stop the
         spread of slavery – especially in the newly acquired territory from
     3 candidates run in the election of 1848
        Democrats – Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan
        Whigs – General Zachary Taylor (hero of the M-A War)
        Free Soil – former president Martin Van Buren
     Democrat votes are split between Van Buren and Cass
        This allows Taylor to win
 Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery
 A Bitter Debate
    California‟s Gold Rush
    With the inflow if gold seekers – California had enough people to
     become a state
    Both sides realized that the admission of California would upset
     the balance between free and slave states
    Northerners
       Argued that CA become a free state because most of the land there
        was north of the Missouri Compromise line
    Southerners
       Knew that another free state would upset the balance in the senate
           They would be unable to block laws like the Wilmot Proviso
       Began threatening to secede from the union
Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery
  Other issues dividing the North and South
     Northerners
         Wanted the slave trade abolished in Washington D.C.
     Southerners
         Wanted fugitive slave laws
               Would force the return of runaway slaves to their owners
  Henry Clay
     Presents a series of proposals to deal with the issue
     This sparks one of the greatest debates in American history
     John C. Calhoun
         Argues against the compromise
         The admission of CA as a free state leaves only 2 solutions for the South
               1 – an amendment protecting states rights must be passed OR…
               2 – The South would leave the Union
Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery
     Daniel Webster
        Argues in support of the compromise
        He calls for an end to the sectionalism that divides the country
              Argues for Clay‟s proposal in order to preserve the union
 Section 2: Compromises Fail
 The Compromise of 1850
    In September 1850 Congress passes 5 bills based on Clay‟s
          Zachary Taylor had opposed the compromise, but he died in 1850
          Millard Fillmore took over the presidency and signed the bills into law
    To Please the North
       CA would be admitted as a free state
       Slave trade would be banned in Washington D.C.
    To Please the South
       Popular sovereignty would decide slave issues in other new states
        from the Mexican Cession
       Southerners got a tough new Fugitive Slave Law
Section 2: Compromises Fail
     Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
           Allowed government officials
            to arrest ANYONE accused
            of being a runaway slave
           The accused had no right to a
            trial – no way to defend
           All that was required was a
            witness to swear that the
            individual “was a slave”
           Law also required northern
            citizens to help capture
            accused runaways if
            authorities requested
  Outrage in the North
     Northerners were upset to see
      people accused of being
      fugitives lose their freedom
           Many African Americans fled
            to Canada to escape being
           Many Northerners resisted
            the laws
 Section 2: Compromises Fail
        Calhoun had hoped that the law would force northerners to
         admit that slave owners had rights to their property
              Calhoun was wrong – it convinced more northerners that slavery
               was evil
 Uncle Tom‟s Cabin
   Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
        Daughter of an abolitionist minister
    Book was written to show the nation what a horrible thing
     slavery was
        Focused on a fictional tale of Uncle Tom – a kind slave who
         suffers cruelty from his owner Simon Legree
    Book was a best-seller in the North
        Southerners called it Propaganda
              False or misleading information to spread or further a cause
        They claimed it did not give an accurate portrayal of the lives
         of slaves
 Section 2: Compromises Fail
 The Kansas-Nebraska Act
   Nation moved closer to war after Congress passes the
      KS-NE Act in 1854
         Proposed by Stephen Douglas
               Wanted to form two new territories – Kansas and
         Southerners objected
               The two new territories were in areas closed to slavery
               When they became states they would be free
         To win southern support, Douglas proposed popular
          sovereignty in the territories
         Because of this proposal, the act passed in Congress
         It was signed into law by Franklin Pierce, (D – 1852)
               According to Pierce „the question of slavery would be
                forever banished from the halls of Congress‟
 Section 2: Compromises Fail
 Bleeding Kansas
    Both pro and anti slavery settlers flooded into the new territory of
       Each side was determined to hold a majority when it was time to
           Thousands of MO residents entered Kansas on election day
           KS only had 3,000 residents but 8,000 votes were cast to elect a
                 In that legislature, 36 of the 39 elected were pro-slavery
       Anti-Slavery settlers refused to accept the results
           They held a second election
           KS now had 2 governments each claiming a right to impose their
            government on the territory
Section 2: Compromises Fail
  Growing Violence
     In April 1855 a pro-slavery sheriff was shot when he tried to arrest
      some anti-slavery settlers in Lawrence
        A month later he returned with 800 men and attacked the town
     Three days after the attack on Lawrence more violence occurred
        John Brown led 7 men to a pro-slavery settlement near Pottawatomie
         Creek and murdered 5 men and children
     These incidents set off widespread violence throughout the territory
Section 2: Compromises Fail
  Bloodshed in the Senate
     Charles Sumner – Abolitionist senator from MA
        Denounced the proslavery legislature in Kansas
             Then went on to attack southerners singling out Andrew Butler from SC
        Butler‟s nephew – a congressman, Preston Brooks marched into the
         senate chamber and beat Sumner with a cane – Sumner never fully
             Many southerners felt he got what he deserved and sent canes to Brooks to
              show their support
 Section 3: The Crisis Deepens
 A New Anti-Slavery Party
    In 1854 the Whig party split apart
       Many northern Whigs joined the Republican Party
           Main goal was to stop the spread of slavery in the western territories
       Republican Victories
           In the 1854 elections, republicans won 105 of the available 245 seats in
           They also gained control of most free state legislatures
       First Republican presidential candidate
           John C. Fremont (leader of revolution in California)
                 He won 11 of the nations 16 free states
           Defeated by James Buchanan
 Section 3: The Crisis Deepens
 Dred Scott Decision
    Decision was made by the U.S. Supreme Court
       Facts of the Case
          Dred Scott was a slave owned by a U.S. Army Doctor. The doctor and
           Scott lived in Illinois and later in Wisconsin, both were places where
           slavery was illegal. Later the Doctor and Scott settled in Missouri.
          Scott, with the help of abolitionist lawyers sued for his freedom
           claiming that since he lived where slavery was banned, that he should be
    The Court Decides
       Opinion written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
          Scott was not a free man for 2 reasons
                First, he had no right to sue in federal court because he was not a citizen
                Second, merely living in a free territory did not make a slave free, slaves
                 were property, and property rights were protected by the Constitution.
Section 3: The Crisis Deepens
     Taney‟s decision went further….
        Taney said that Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in
         any territory
              This meant that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
  Reaction
     Supporters of slavery rejoiced.
        Decision meant that slavery was legal everywhere
     Northerners were stunned
        The decision brought out many abolitionists because of outrage
        One key player was an attorney from Illinois
        Abraham Lincoln
              Said that the idea that African Americans could not be citizens was based on
               a false view of American History
 Section 3: The Crisis Deepens
 The Lincoln Douglas Debates
    Lincoln had a brief beginning in politics
       Served one term as a representative for IL
           Then returned to his law practice
    Lincoln was a long time rival of Stephen Douglas
       Both politically and personally
           Both men had courted Mary Todd, who married Lincoln
    A House Divided
       In 1858 the Republican party chose Lincoln to run against Douglas
        for the Senate
           In his nomination acceptance speech, Lincoln claimed that a nation
            divided by issues such as slavery cannot continue to stand
 Section 3: The Crisis Deepens
    Debating Slavery
             Douglas held firm to his position on Popular Sovereignty
                 States had a right to decide what was and was not legal within
                  their borders
             Lincoln claimed that „if slavery is not wrong, nothing is
       Douglas won the election, but the 2 would face off again
             Both ran for the presidency later
 John Brown‟s Raid
   Brown had a plan
       Lead abolitionists on a raid at Harpers Ferry
             Goal was to acquire guns the military had stored there
             Blacks would join in his uprising, and he would form an
              army to lead the enslaved to freedom
       Brown‟s plan fell short
             While he took over Harpers Ferry, he and his men were soon
              surrounded by Col. Robert E. Lee
Section 3: The Crisis Deepens
  John Brown‟s Trial
     Brown sat quietly as he was convicted of treason at his trial
     He received a death sentence and was hung in Virginia
        December 2, 1859
     That day, church bells across the North rang out
        Many considered him a hero
     Southerners were stunned
        How could the north support a man convicted of treason
 Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War
 The Nation Divides
    Election of 1860
       Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln
       The Democratic party splits
           Southern Democrats nominate Vice President John Breckenridge
           Northern Democrats nominate Stephen Douglas
           A third party was formed by Southerners hoping to heal the split
            between North and South, they form the Constitutional Union and
            nominate John Bell
       Douglas felt that Lincoln would win and pleaded with southern
        voters to stay with the Union no matter what happened
           He was pelted with eggs and garbage as a result of his efforts
    The election showed the division of the country
       Look at the map on page 500
Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War
  Southern States Secede
     Lincoln‟s election shocked the south
     They felt that a government would
      move to take away their „rights‟
     On December 20, 1860
        South Carolina passed a declaration
        In that document was stated
        “The union now subsisting between
         South Carolina and the other states,
         under the name of the United States
         of America, is hereby dissolved”
Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War
  The Confederate States of America
     Six more states followed SC out of the union
        Some moderates in Tennessee and Texas opposed
              Sam Houston and Andrew Johnson
     The 7 seceding states met in Montgomery Alabama to form a new
     By the time Lincoln took office, they had written a constitution and
      appointed a president – Jefferson Davis of Mississippi
 Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War
 The Civil War Begins
    On March 4, 1861 Abraham Lincoln became President
       He had to face the greatest crisis in the short history of the U.S.
    Lincoln tried to give assurance to the seceded states
       He said that:
           I have no intention of interfering with slavery where it exists
           Warned the southern states about continuing on their present course
                 Read the quote on page 501
       The south rejected Lincoln‟s proposal
           They took over forts, post offices, and other federal lands
       Lincoln now had to decide how to respond
Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War
  Fort Sumter
     The commander of Fort Sumter refused to surrender and turn his
      post over to the southern states
        The southern states had cut the fort off from supplies since December
        They knew that the men inside would starve and be forced to give up
     Lincoln did not want to give up the fort either
        He announced that the north was sending unarmed supply ships to the
     The southern states did not give them a chance to arrive
     On April 12, 1861 Confederate artillery opened fire on Fort Sumter
        This was the beginning of a Civil War
              War between opposing groups of citizens of the same country

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