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CPSC 332 Part 1 Database Systems Shawn X. Wang, Ph.D. Associate Professor Telephone: (657)278-7258 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org What is a database system? 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 2 Component Modules of a DBMS 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 3 A physical centralized architecture 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 4 A client/server architecture 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 5 The hierarchical model CUSTOMERS SUPPLIERD ORDERS DEPTS OFFERS ENTRIES EMPS MGR ITEMS ENTRIES OFFERS 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 6 The network model MATH80 COURSES CPSC 201 CPSC 203 ENROLL 1 A 1 C 2 B 1 A 3 A STUDENTS Grind Nerd Weenie Jock 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 7 The relational model Name SSN Telephone Address Brian 190897222 876-6723 12 David Dr Edson 239026517 789-2579 58 Deerpark Ave Jason 163899991 132-2311 90 College Blvd Karlyn 179113131 708-7821 111 State Street SSN Course Grade 190897222 CPSC 231 A 239026517 CPSC 431 A 190897222 CPSC 440 A 163899991 CPSC 231 A 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 8 Brief history of the relational model 1970 E.F. Codd “A Relational Model For Large Shared Data Banks” CACM 1973 – 1980 Mike Stonebraker developed INGRES 1980 – Stonebraker founded INGRES Corp. 1981 – E. F. Codd received Turing Award 1983 Codd’s paper of 1970 was reprinted in CACM 1986 – Codd specified 13 criteria for a DBMS to be a relational DBMS 1994 INGRES was purchased by Computer Associates 1994 Stonebraker started POSTGRES – incorporating object relational concept 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 9 Brief history of the E-R Model 1975 – Peter P. Chen “The Entity Relationship Model – Toward a Unified View of Data”, VLDB 1975 and TODS 1976 1979 – First E-R conference was held. 23rd in 2004. 1999 – Peter P. Chen “E-R Model, XML and the Web” In 2003, Dr. Chen received the IEEE Harry Goode Award and the ACM/AAAI Allen Newell Award. In June and July 2006, the TODS 1976 paper ranked 10th among the top 10 downloads from ACM’s Digital Library. It also ranked 9th among the top downloads in the year 2006 up to July 2006. 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 10 The fate of XML and SQL Don Chamberlin (IBM): “I think that XML will become the dominant format for data interchange," with its flexibility and ability to provide self-description,” Relational databases will be fitted with front ends to support XML and process queries based on the XQuery standard. SQL will not go away, but there are new data formats for which it just was not designed. 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 11 The fate of XML and SQL Rick Cattell (SUN): "I think the momentum behind relational databases is insurmountable," very few people are going to store XQuery data in an XML format. Developers will need tools to convert relational data to XML and vice versa. 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 12 The fate of XML and SQL Daniela Florescu (CTO at XQrl): Documents will be stored natively in XML. XQrl offers a version of the XQuery XML query language. Eventually, an extension of XQuery will replace both Java and SQL. (Cattell: "I don't think XQuery is ever going to replace SQL or Java," but there may be a query language to replace SQL.) 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 13 The fate of XML and SQL Jim Gray (Microsoft): “The real challenge we face is to make computers self-managing so the management cost is less than the capital cost.” "The problem with p-to-p computing for databases is you have to send a lot of data around and $1 will buy you a lot of computing." 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 14 Are we reaching the end of SQL's life? Jeffery Ullman (Stanford): No, the spirit will remain alive. SQL will adapt. There's been a lot of research into semi-structured data, of which XML is just an example. People have just begun to scratch the surface of how you optimize SQL-like queries on XML or tree-like structures. This is a very exciting area for the future. 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 15 Are we reaching the end of SQL's life? Stephen Brobst (NCR): With more and more analytics and other work coming into the database, I see SQL remaining very much alive. Advanced analytic functions like data mining are going to move into SQL. There's just a ton of stuff that's going to happen with SQL going forward. The nice thing about SQL is that it's a functional language and therefore has very desirable properties for parallelization. 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 16 Are we reaching the end of SQL's life? Ken Jacobs (Oracle): SQL will be revitalized by these trends and continued expansion, not only to handle multimedia data and analytics, but also to express business functions. We have only begun to scratch the surface of exploiting this integration. We'll be able to do data mining or OLAP on collections of documents and then drive the results back into an operational OLTP environment. 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 17 What is next for databases? Ken Jacobs (Oracle): Certainly, the integration of SQL and XML and having a single repository that can store both relational and XML data will give businesses a great deal of power. You will be able to do data mining or other BI activities on XML data. Of course, this integration is going to be critical to Web services. 8/19/2006 Dr. Wang, Cal State Fullerton 18
"CPSC 332 Part 1 Database Systems"