Vocabulary Acquisition by hcj

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									                     Vocabulary Acquisition

       Marzano, R.J. (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement:
        Research on what works in schools. Alexandria, VA, ASCD.
       Marzano, R. & Pickering, D. (2005). Building academic vocabulary: Teacher's
        manual. Alexandria, VA: ASCD
       Marzano, R., Pickering, D. & Pollock, J. (2001). Classroom instruction that works.
        Alexandria, VA: ASCD
       Allen, J. (1999). Words, words, words: Teaching vocabulary in grades 4-12. Maine:
        Stenhouse Publishers
       Allen, J. (1999). Inside words: Tools for teaching academic vocabulary grades 4-12.
        Maine: Stenhouse Publishers
       Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2003). Bringing words to life: Robust
        vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press
       Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2003). Bringing words to life: Creating robust
        vocabulary instruction: Frequently asked questions & extended examples. New York:
        The Guilford Press
       Vaughn, S. & Linan-Thompson, S. (2004). Research-based methods of reading
        instruction: Grades K-3. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. (See chapter 5)
       Teaching Mathematic Vocabulary in Content by Miki Murray
       G is for Google a Math Alphabet Book by David Schwartz
       Q is for Quark A Science Alphabet Book by David Schwartz
       Jen Madison’s web site http://manila.esu6.org/jmadison/vocabulary
       Lenny VerMaas’s web site http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
       http://www.amathsdictionaryforkids.com/
       http://quizlet.com/

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Lenny VerMaas                          updated February 2009             http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
                Vocabulary Notebook Format
Students need to have a method to collect and organize the vocabulary words that they are
collecting. One idea is to create note cards with the following information: term, level of
understanding (which may change as student learns more about the word), description in the
students own words, and a picture. These note cards could be punch and place on a ring in
alphabetical order.

ASCD. (2005). Building Academic Vocabulary: Student Notebook. Retrieved September 20,
2006, from http://shop.ascd.org/productdisplay.cfm?productid=105154e

Personal Dictionary
A table of contents can be created by drawing
rectangles on a paper (oak tag) so that there are 6
to a page. If X, Y and Z are placed together 24
boxes are needed. This page serves as the table of
    • These pages allow for quickly finding
        terms that are needed.
    • When additional information is provided
        or new information is acquired the page
        can easily be found.
    • Teachers can easily determine what
        vocabulary words the student has been
    • A two column and three column chart is
        provided in the resources.

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Lenny VerMaas                           updated February 2009              http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
Dictionary pages (allow at least one-half page per word.
   • Words are entered in the pages of the dictionary in the order they are encountered.
   • Definitions are entered in the students own words
   • Students should be encouraged to draw pictures, give examples and make connections to
       other terms
   • Because additions and connections may be made in the future allow lots of room between
       entries. Consider having one or two words per page.

Two column and three column table of contents pages are available on my web page and as a
part of this packet.

                    Vocabulary Matrix
Students can place a word in the left hand section and then fill in the requested information.

    Word          Description          Word Parts                Related Words                Visual
                                      prefix: in- (not)
                                                             equation                        < , >, ≤, ≥
                                      root: equal            equal
                a relationship                                             joviality
inequality                                                   inoperable    individuality
                that is not equal                                          neutrality
                                      suffix: -ity           inedible
                                      (changes from          independent
                                      adj to noun)

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Lenny VerMaas                            updated February 2009                    http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
            Ideas for Distributive Practice and
                    ―Mucking‖ around
***indicates that a word or EXCEL document is available
***Flash Card Plus—this spreadsheet can be used to create 3 different sets of
cards. Terms and definitions are entered into the first sheet called ―Data Entry‖ and this list is
used to generate the following types of cards.
     Flash Cards—print ―sheet A‖ and ―sheet B‖ and put these sheets back to back and
        laminate. Cut into cards with the term on one side and the definition on the other.
     Table Tent Style—printing these sheets will produce cards that can be folded into
        a ―V‖ shape than can stand on a table with terms on one side and the definition on the
     I Have, Who Has—printing these cards will create a set of cards that can be used
        to play the game I Have, Who Has? If 20 terms are entered reenter the definition for term
        1 into the definition for term 21. Run off the sheets and cut into cards.

Ways to Use Cards
I Have, Who Has—pass all of the cards to students; some students could get more than
one card. Any student may start. Pick one student and have them read the bottom part or "WHO
HAS" portion of their card. Someone with the correct answer will say "I Have" and says the
answer. This person immediately reads the "WHO HAS" portion of their card. This continues
until the student who started the game calls out the answer. Teacher may run off the data entry
sheet so that the progression of cards can be followed. When the game is halted because a
student did not hear or know the ―I Have‖, teacher provides hints so that play may resume.
Cards can be redistributed and the game played again. Measure the time needed to completed a
round and see if you can do better the second time.

Inside-outside circle—use flash cards
       Pass out cards to every student, duplicate cards can be used
       Number off students by 1 or 2
       1’s form the inside circle facing out, 2’s form an outside circle facing in
       match up so that each person is paired up
       Outside circle can provide term and ask for definition or provide definition and ask for
       Inside circle does the same
       SWITCH CARDS this will require the student to learn different words rather than always
        having the same work
       Outside circle rotates to their left, repeat as needed.
       Flash cards could have term on one side and picture on the other.

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Lenny VerMaas                           updated February 2009               http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
Jeopardy—use flash cards
Cards are arranged in rows and columns with definitions showing. Cards can be randomly
placed or grouped by common themes. Dollar amounts are placed on the right by rows. Teacher
picks up a card and reads the definition and students respond with ―What is …..‖. This game can
be played with the whole class or can in small groups.

**Bingo—use flash cards
    •   Students are provided a list of words that will be used. A word is written in each box of a
        4 by 4 grid or 5 by 5 grid.
    •   Teacher reads the definition
    •   Students place beans on the words that match the definition read by the teacher
    •   The winner says the word and the definition or ..
    •   Uses the words in a sentence that shows the meaning of the word.

Classifying—use flash Cards
Divide the students into groups. Each group is provided a set of cards. Students need to put the
words into sets based on common characteristics of the words. Groups of students can rotate and
try to decide what rationale was used to put the words into sets or students explain the rationale
for the sets.

**What is my shape (word)???                   Place names of geometric shapes or vocabulary
words on a piece of paper. Tape the word on each student’s back without letting them see the
word. Their task is to create yes and no questions which will identify the term. Students move
around the room, meet someone, and ask one yes or no question about properties of their shape.
Students may not ask is my shape a ….., they must focus on characteristics of the shape.
Students continue until each student has their shape identified. To provide accountability have
students record
           – The question asked and answer
           – Why they asked the question
           – How does this effect the next question
           – When completed they write ―My shape is ______ because …..‖

Word Power          This strategy does not utilize a lot of words but it does show the power of
vocabulary. During the 2006 Nebraska Volleyball season which saw the team crowned National
Champions each Husker selected a word as a guide during the 2006 season. Some of the words
were belief, presence, love, fearless, trust, impact, discipline, serve, intensity, impact, moxie, and
passion. Have your students create a word for year and explain why that word work for them.
Jordon Larson’s word was passion, ―I want to come into every match showing the love for the
game, how much I want to play it.‖ Sarah Pavan’s word was impact, ―I wanted to make a bigger
impact both on and off the court this year in terms of leadership and my play.‖
        Words could be math terms. The students introduce themselves and say why they are
like that term or why that terms describes them.

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Lenny VerMaas                             updated February 2009                http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
Relevance      Find vocabulary words used in the newspaper, television, magazine, or
conversations with other people.

Can you put that vocabulary word(s) in a sentence?
    •   Students are provided or have a list of vocabulary words.
    •   Begin a topic of interest or relevant to the students (curfew, athletics, famous person,
    •   Students then need to use the vocabulary words in a sentence that demonstrates the
        meaning of the word and is related to the topic.
    •   Bonus points are given for using two words in a sentence.

Math is Like …….
    •   Complete the simile and provide a rationale.
    •   Student responses can provide insights into the perceptions of students.
    •   Examples to get students started
           • Math is like a skyscraper, because it can take you to great heights.
           • Math is like a set of Lincoln logs. You have to build a good foundation so
               everything doesn’t come tumbling down.
           • Math is like a lollipop it sucks.
           • Math is like a hula hoop because once you learn some basics, they just keep
               coming round and round.

Choral Response
    •   Think of a time when you knew the answer and someone else blurted out the answer or
        when you didn’t know the answer and were called on.
    •   How did that make you feel?
    •   We are going to practice a way to respond when answers are short and the same.
    •   Reinforce thinking, say together.
    •   Hands up—think, what does this look like
    •   Hands down say answer-used for answers that are short and the same
    •   Practice, What day of the week is today? Say together and with confidence, if not
        practice response,
    •   What day of the week is tomorrow?
    •   When using this answers are the same and ______ (short). Answers are short and (the
    •   What did the strategy and process observer see?
    •   Like singing music in the church, can sing when part of a group.
    •   Choral response is also good for repeating the word and short rules.
    •   Can be used in the middle of a lesson to bring the class back together. OK class when
        you see me raise my hand you are going to raise your ___ (hand) and listen for directions.
        The name for an 4 sided object with all sides the same length and a 90 degree angle is a

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Lenny VerMaas                            updated February 2009                 http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
Writing/Question/Review Activities
**Word Bank—Create a list of related words.         Students write a paragraph that uses all or
a set number of the words. The paragraph needs to demonstrates the meaning of the word and be
related to the topic.

                 Word Bank
 Write a paragraph using all the words below to
 describe how two people walking would create the
 graph at the right.
 Intercept           slope             decreasing
 Parallel            constant          intersection
 Increasing          quadrant          perpendicular

       Use 15 of the 20 terms listed above in a meaningful paragraph, story, poem or letter to
        convince me of your understanding. Put a check mark next to the terms you choose and
        underline them in the writing.
       Provide an opportunity for choice and creativity. Create a list of words. Students use most
        of the words in a favorite genre; paragraph, story, letter, song, poem or something else.
        The medium used must show an understanding of the vocabulary.

**Find Someone Who …….
Student Directions
Please move around the room. Find someone who can answer each question. Have them tell you
the answer and sign their name on the line. You must find a different person to sign for each of
the questions.
Sample questions:
_______________________ Can give examples of ―state change‖ and explain why it is
_______________________ Can compare and contrast ―massed and distributive practice‖.
_______________________ Can tell what it means to go ―limbic‖ and what this means in your
_______________________ Can give the slope intercept form of the equation 2x + 3y = 12
_______________________ Can describe how to walk with a slope of -2

Once everyone has their sheets filled, select a student at random. That student indicates who has
signed their first line. The student who signed the first line provides the answer and indicates
who has signed their second question. Continue until all of the questions have been answered.

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Lenny VerMaas                           updated February 2009                http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
The first two activities below create a ranked list of words or concepts. The objective is not
necessarily to rank the concepts but to help the participants become familiar with a number of
concepts. Comparing and contrasting the concepts to determine which is stronger also creates a
better understanding. The following prompts could be used:
     Which of the words is more intense?
     Which word works best in a specific context?
     Which word do you understand best? Or least?
     Which word would you be able to place in a sentence to demonstrate meaning?
     Which synonym best represent this word?

Running the Tournament
    •   Place the words on a card
    •   Become familiar with the concept that is on
        your card.
    •   Place the cards on the table in a bracket
    •   From each pair decide which card moves on to
        the next round.
    •   Complete the rounds until a single card is left.
    •   You may select a runner up from all of the cards
        that did not advance.

Musical Cards
    •   Walk around the room shake hands and introduce yourself to people in the room.
    •   When the music stops, remain with that person.
    •   Read your concept and have your partner read their concept.
    •   You have 7 points to award based on which word is better according to the desired
    •   Points may awarded 7-0, 6-1, 5,2 or 4-3 (not 3.5-3.5)
    •   Write the points on the sticky note on the back of each card.
    •   Trade cards and walk around the room until the music stops again.
    •   Share the information on the cards, assign points and trade cards.
    •   After several rounds stop and add up the total number of points for each card.
    •   Cards with the highest point total do the best at meeting the desired criteria.

***Clock Partners
    •   Cooperative learning activity
    •   Students fill in partners around the clock.
    •   The teacher designates a time, the students meet, and share ideas on designated topic.
    •   A specific time, for example 12:00 is designated as homework partner. That clock
        partner is responsible for getting assignments and handouts when either is absent.

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Lenny VerMaas                           updated February 2009                http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
Vocabulary Clock Partners
    •   Place vocabulary words around the clock.
    •   When the students meet with their 2 o’clock person, they begin by sharing their
        understanding of the word then share ideas on designated topic.
    •   A similar strategy could be used with lotus notes. Place names in the concept boxes.
    •   Label the coordinate plane and students fill in partners on those names.
            • Quadrants, origin, axis ….
    •   Label parts of conic sections and students fill in partners on those names.
            • Vertex, focus, directrix, point of inflection

Writing Vocabulary Stories
From Richard Carter (Richard_Carter@dpsk12.org), a teacher at Rachel B. Noel Middle School
in Denver, Colorado:
"To build on vocabulary, I place important and new words from the next novel we are about to
begin on the board. We take a few days to define and use them in creating our own short stories.
I never tell the students the title of the book we will be reading until each student has created his
own short story. They are always excited in finding the words and seeing how the author used
the words in his novel. The result is better focus on reading for meaning."

Quick Draw Developing Spatial Sense and Communication Skills
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, September 2008, p 101-107 Kerry Richardson and
Catherine Stein Glance at a geometric figure for no longer than 3 seconds, then draw what you
saw. When completed look at the image and compare it with your drawing. What did you see?
How did you draw it? Compare with a colleague. Did he or she draw the diagram differently?
How did you describe the image differently from your colleague?
       Students explain their thinking in multifaceted ways and teachers need to establish social
norms in their classroom that enable students to communicate openly and freely. Students see or
describe the image differently than how they draw the object. Teachers should avoid making
judgments about the correctness of the drawing. Quick draw sees to draw out not only
communication about spatial tasks but also mathematical language.
       Sample Shapes Shown below

Pattern Block Activity
Set up a book between two students so that a small work area can not be seen by either student.
Student A creates a design using pattern blocks. Once the design is completed student A gives
directions to student B about how to build the design. Student A can not see what student B is
creating. Student B can not ask questions. When student A has provided all of the directions
remove the books and compare shapes.

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Lenny VerMaas                             updated February 2009                http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
Taboo—In the game of Taboo a word is provided.          The objective is to provide hints so that
the player will say the word. The difficulty is that 4 words are provided that can not be used as
hints. For example the key word is president and the ―taboo‖ words are white house, Bush,
Washington, and Lincoln. Let the students do the work. Your may provide the word and have
them determine the ―taboo‖ words that can’t be used. Students could even be asked to provide
the key word along with the ―taboo‖ words.

    •   Students are provided a list of words that will be used. A word is written in each box of a
        4 by 4 grid or 5 by 5 grid.
    •   Teacher reads the definition
    •   Students place beans on the words that match the definition read by the teacher
    •   The winner says the word and the definition or ..
    •   Uses the words in a sentence that shows the meaning of the word.


Pictionary—Provide a vocabulary and a student draws a picture of the word tying to see
who will be the first to say the word.

Apples to Apples


Word Wall Password
Students pair up, one student faces the board or overhead and the other sits with their back to the
board. Place a single word or list of words on the board. The student who can see the word
provides hints or clues to get their partner to say the word.

Crosswords Puzzles

Pattern or Attribute Blocks—Player one creates a shape with a set of number pattern
or attribute blocks. The shape is hidden from the view of player 2. Player 1 describes how to
create or build the shape while player 2 tries to build the shape from the directions. Remove the
barrier to determine if the directions were sufficient. Take some time to discuss how to improve
the final results.

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Lenny VerMaas                            updated February 2009               http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
Word Toss—Students are provided words.
       Handout one Word Toss game board, a die, and a set of vocabulary cards to each partner
        set or each small group.
       First player draws a card and rolls the dice.
       That player performs the task that corresponds to the die. The other partner/players
        coach and praise.
       Rotate play clockwise.
       Possible actions on the role of the die could be
            o 1-non-example
            o 2-use in a sentence
            o 3-synonym
            o 4-antonym
            o 5-description or meaning
            o 6-demonstrate
       Multiple intelligences activities could be
            o 1-sing the word and description
            o 2-act it out
            o 3-sculpt it
            o 4-draw it
            o 5-describe it
            o 6-give a statement and decide if fact or fiction

Name That Concept
       Partner A faces the board or overhead
       Partner B faces the other direction
       If needed Partner C faces away from the board also.
       Be close enough so that hints can be given with soft voices
       Place 5 to 8 words on the overhead or board
       Partner A: Provide clues to your partner without using the actual words, derivatives, or
       Partner B: Name the concept or component or say ―pass‖ to move on to the next item.
       Goal to successfully communicate all terms in one minute or less.

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Lenny VerMaas                            updated February 2009               http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
Concept Maps and Graphic Organizers
**Frayer Model—This is a graphic organizer that contains a place for the word in the
middle surrounded by four areas to provide information about the word. Typically the areas are
labeled definition, essential characteristics, examples and non-examples. One of the boxes could
include a picture. A sample for the word prime is shown below.

                                                Essential Characteristics
                                                2 is the only even prime
    A whole number with exactly two
                                                0 and 1 are not prime
    divisors (factors)
                                                Every whole number can be written
                                                as a product of primes


       Examples                                                Non-Examples

       2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13                                      1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10

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Lenny VerMaas                          updated February 2009                       http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
                                                              Words that can by used in various models.

                                                                             • Analyze
                                                                             • Explain
        Liebherk Model                                                       • Decide Between
                                                                             • Why did
                                         Word                                • Compare
                                                                             • Contrast
                                                                             • Identify
                                                                             • Classify
                                 Definition   Facts                          • Define
                                                                             • Retell
                                                                             • Interpret
                                                                             • Expand
                                                                             • Predict
                                                                             • Paraphrase
                                                                             • Show
                                                                             • Simplify
                                                                             • Infer
                                                                             • Formulate
            Summarization Pyramid                                            • Suppose
                                                                             • Invent
                                                                             • Devise
                                                                             • Combine
                                                                             • Recommend
                                                                             • Justify
                                                                             • Choose
                                                                             • Create
                                                                             • Construct
                                                                             • Examine
                                                                             • Modify
                                                                             • Plan
          Great prompts for each line: Synonym, analogy,
          question, three attributes, alternative title, causes,
                                                                             • Critique
          effects, reasons, arguments, ingredients, opinion,                 • Evaluate
          larger category, formula/sequence, insight, tools                  • Organize
                                                                             • Interview
                                                                            **Semantic Feature
                                                                             • Develop
                                                                             • Criticize
                                                                             • Deduce

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Lenny VerMaas                                  updated February 2009                http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
***Semantic Analysis—A semantic feature analysis task requires students to use their
reasoning skills to compare and contrast concepts among related vocabulary terms. Identifying
similarities and differences was rated at the one of the best instructional strategies that affects
student achievement in a study done by McREL. Instead of giving isolated answers students look
for patterns and generalizations. Creating Venn diagrams and graphic organizers are similar
strategies that increase student learning and retention.

                Natural   Whole       Integers     Rational     Irrational   Real           Imaginary
                Numbers   Numbers                  Numbers      Numbers      Numbers        Numbers
Place an X in the appropriate places in the grid. Once the grid is completed, what conclusions or
generalizations can be found? Are there any patterns? What attributes are common to each set
of numbers? How are the numbers similar and how are they different?

Other ideas for a semantic feature analysis
    Equations on the left side and across the top positive slope, has a negative slope, has a
       slope of zero, has an undefined slope, has a non-zero x-intercept, has a negative y
       intercept and passes through the origin.
    Various quadrilaterals could be compared with the properties of their sides such as
       parallel sides, opposite sides parallel, four right angles, etc.
    Conic section and properties such as shape, focus,
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School November 2002, p 146-148

***Comparison matrix
This graphic organizer compares square and rectangle in the areas of definition of the shape,
formula for area, and formula for volume. Areas of the organizers ask for similarities and
differences and then ask for conclusions and observations.

See the word document.

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Lenny VerMaas                           updated February 2009                 http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
Word Wall—place terms on the wall as they are introduced. Classifying, organizing,
connecting related terms with string can be completed as the terms are placed or as review
activities after all terms are on the wall as a
review for an assessment.

Concept maps show relationship between and
among terms and use nonlinguistic learning

Ways to identify similarities & differences…
  • Comparing
          – Process of identifying similarities
             and differences between or among
             things or ideas
  • Classifying
          – Process of grouping things that are
             alike into categories.
  • Creating metaphors
          – Process of identifying a basic pattern in two topics that appear at first to be
  • Creating analogies
          – Process of identifying relationships between two pairs of concepts.

Compare and Contrast
        Instead of listing the characteristics of a rectangle, plant cell or civil war students will
learn more and remember more if they create similarities and differences. Have them compare
and contrast a rectangle and parallelogram, plant cell and animal cell, or civil war and
revolutionary war. A better understanding of both areas is developed. Remember that the brain
learns by similarities and remembers by differences. A Venn diagram is one of many strategies
that will helps with comparing and contrasting.

Classifying is a process of grouping things that are alike into categories on the basis of their
characteristics. Once a grouping has been determined challenge the students to find a different
way to group the objects.

Metaphor is a process of identifying a general or basic pattern in a specific topic and then finding
another topic that appears to be quite different but that has the same general pattern. Students
need to:
   • Identify important info of the situation and notice a general pattern
   • Realizing two items are connected by abstract relationship
   • Identify a general or basic pattern in a specific topics and then find another topic that
       seems quite different at the literal level but has the same general pattern

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Lenny VerMaas                            updated February 2009                 http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas
    •   Explains how the two situations are related
    •   Examples
           • How is solving an equation like the digestive system?
           • How is the human heart like a heat pump?
           • How is the internet like a superhighway?

Analogies—Analogies deal with comparing relationships, and thus can be the most complex
form of identifying similarities and differences. Analogies usually take the following pattern: "A
is to B as C is to D." For example: Teacher centered lessons are to student centered lessons as
passive learners are to active learners.
     • Similar Concepts
            – Hungry to ravenous as tired is to exhausted
     • Dissimilar Concepts
            – Grim to cheerful as hilly is to flat
     • Part to whole
            – Spark plug to engine as variable is to function
     • Change
            – Caterpillar is to butterfly as tadpole is to frog
     • Function
            – Pilot to airplane as lawn mower to grass
     • Quantity or size
            – One minute is to two years as one penny is to ten thousand dollars

Using analogies in the classroom
   • Give analogies to students at the beginning of class to complete.
          – Challenge them to find alternative solutions and justify their solution.
   • Have students create analogy and then share with the rest of the class.
   • Have students write and justify their completion of the analogy.

Graphic organizer for analogy

                    Addition                                    Subtraction

                        One undoes or is the opposite of the other.

            A. multiplication                           A. Division
            B. square #                                 B. Square Root
            C.                                          C.

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Lenny VerMaas                           updated February 2009               http://manila.esu6.org/lvermaas

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