Unit II – Lecture 3 by bgc15733


									Unit II – Lecture 3

  Bill to Law Process
                                                H.R. #23
Bill Introduced (House = Hopper                 S. #123
Senate = read aloud) (1st reading of the

      Committee (Most bills die here) (Calendar)
      Pigeonhole, Report New Bill,                       Standing and
      Report Amended Bill,                               Committees
      Report Favorably, Report Unfavorably               hold hearings

           Debate (House=Limited Debate,                    2/3rds vote to
           Senate=Unlimited debate-filibuster) (2nd         stop filibuster =
           reading of the bill)                             Cloture Rule
                   C-Span, Congressional   Quorum Call
                   Record and Ghosting
Floor Vote (Voice, Standing,     Quorum Call
Roll Call, Record) (3rd
reading of the bill before the

    Conference Committee
    (House and Senate

        President (Veto, Sign, Pocket          2/3rds of both
        Veto)                                  houses
                                               override veto
Keep in mind that these steps are
not usually completed in linear
fashion. For example, if the
president vetoes, the bill would have
to at least debated again.

    Or if during the conference
    committee stage, the parties fail to
    come together on language, it might
    have to go back to debate.
              Types of Legislation
•   Bills - A legislative proposal that if passed by both the House and
    the Senate and approved by the President becomes law. Each bill is
    assigned a bill number. HR denotes bills that originate in the House
    and S denotes bills that originate in the Senate.

     – Private Bill - A bill that is introduced on behalf of a specific individual
       that if it is enacted into law only affects the specific person or
       organization the bill concerns. Often, private bills address immigration or
       naturalization issues.

     – Public Bill - A bill that affects the general public if enacted into law.

     – Simple Resolution - A type of legislation designated by H Res or S
       Res that is used primarily to express the sense of the chamber where it
       is introduced or passed. It only has the force of the chamber passing the
       resolution. A simple resolution is not signed by the President and cannot
       become Public Law.

   GOVERNMENT 101: How a Bill
        Becomes Law
• Legislation is Introduced
    – House - Legislation is handed to the clerk of
      the House or placed in the hopper.
    – Senate - presiding officer announces the
      introduction of a bill. The bill is assigned a
      number. (e.g. HR 1 or S 1)
• The bill is labeled with the sponsor(s)'

    Legislation is placed on the Calendar

•    The Union Calendar – typically
     appropriations bills
•    The House Calendar - A list of all the
     public bills that do not address money
•    The Private Calendar - A list of all the
     private bills that are to be considered by
     the House. It is called on the first and
     third Tuesday of every month.

           Committee Action
• The bill is referred to the appropriate
  committee by the Speaker of the
  House or the presiding officer in the
• Bills are placed on the calendar of the
  committee to which they have been
  assigned. Failure to act on a bill is
  equivalent to killing it (Pigeonhole).
               Committee Steps
  • Committee Leadership
  • Hearings
  • Subcommittees report their findings to the
    full committee.
  • Vote by the full committee
      – Report new bill
      – Report bill favorably or unfavorably
      – Pigeonhole
      – Report bill with an amendment
  • Quorum
      – House = 218/435 or 100
      – Senate = 51/100
  • House – one hour limit
  • Senate – unlimited
      – Filibuster - Cloture rule (3/5ths)
  • C-Span
                   The Vote
  • Voice vote – Aye---Nay
  • Record vote
      – Yes
      – No
      – Present
  • Congressional Record
      – Ghosting
  • Conference Committee – H & S Compromise
           The President

  • Signs it – it becomes law
  • Veto – 2/3rds of both houses
    to override
  • Becomes law without
  • Pocket veto

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