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Mid-Term Review

VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 101

									Mid-Term Review
      2008
An example of a population is
  – all trees in a forest.
  – all maple trees in a forest.
  – all plants in a forest.
  – all animals in a forest.
In which of the following relationships is
  neither species harmed?
• Predation
• Parasitism
• Competition
• Commensalism
Which of the following would most likely
  cause a large number of density-
  independent deaths in a population?
• winter storms
• predators
• disease-carrying insects
• limited resources
During Stage 2 of a population’s
  demographic transition, the death rate
• increases.
• remains the same.
• decreases.
• is zero.
The number of wild horses per square
  kilometer in a prairie is the horse
  populations
• density.
• size.
• dispersion.
• birth rate.
Which of the following is one of the main
  properties used to describe a
  population?
• number of individuals
• number of species
• color of individuals
• kind of adaptations
The level of biodiversity that involves a
  variety of habits and communities is
• ecosystem diversity.
• population diversity.
• genetic diversity.
• species diversity.
Competition for food cannot occur
• between two populations.
• among members of the same population.
• among populations whose niches overlap.
• between animals from two different
  ecosystems.
The difference between a predator and a
  parasite is that a predator
• usually kills and eats its prey.
• lives in or on a host.
• benefits from another organism.
• harms another organism.
Professionals who study and make
  predictions about human populations are
  called
• stenographers.
• geologists.
• demographers.
• populists.
Which of the following organisms has the
  highest reproductive potential?
• dogs
• bacteria
• elephants
• humans
Thick fur on deer is not an example of
  coevolution. Why?
• because thick fur is an adaptation
• because deer with thick fur live longer
• because thick fur evolved in response to a
  cold climate, not in response to other
  organisms
• because in the lowlands, where the climate
  was sunny and warm, deer that did not have
  thick fur became separated from other deer
  that did have thick fur
Which factor contributed most to the
  exponential growth of the human
  population?
• more food, better hygiene
• higher fertility rates
• higher birth rates
• increased immigration
Each of the following is an example of a
  parasite except
• a roundworm in a human’s intestine.
• a tick on a cat.
• a cow in a pasture.
• mistletoe on a tree.
Educating women worldwide has lowered
  birthrates partly because
• educated women need to bear many
  children to ensure that some will
  survive.
• educated women may learn family-
  planning techniques.
• educated women contribute less to their
  family income.
• All of the above
Human population growth was most rapid
  during which period of human history?
• Ice Ages
• Bronze and Iron Ages
• Stone Ages
• Modern Age
Because birth rates have begun to fall,
  Earth’s population will
• soon stabilize at the level it is today—
  about 6 billion.
• begin to decrease until it reaches 5
  billion.
• increase for a short time and then
  decrease to current levels.
• stabilize somewhere around 9 billion by
  2050.
During the _____ period(s), humans
  altered their habitats.
• hunter-gatherer
• Industrial Revolution
• agricultural revolution d.
• All of the above
Which of the following makes it difficult
  to reduce population growth?
• High literacy rates result in women
  wanting to have more children.
• Population sizes will not decline until
  some people start having to do without
  food and other necessities of life.
• Many people live in cities, where large
  families are an advantage.
• Many people have low literacy and
  limited access to healthcare.
Scientists predict population sizes by
  using
• survivorship, migration, life expectancy,
  and replacement structure.
• age structure, fertility rate, and
  migration.
• replacement rate, fertility rate, age
  rates, and survivorship.
• age structure, survivorship, fertility
  rate, and migration.
World population growth will eventually
  stop when
• the population reaches 9 billion.
• most countries have replacement-level
  fertility rates.
• most countries have higher death rates.
• the worldwide infant mortality rate
  increases.
An endangered species is
• a species in danger of extinction.
• a species growing on public land.
• an organism brought to a place where it
  has not lived before.
• a species that has disappeared entirely.
Which of the following would not be illegal
  under the Endangered Species Act?
• capturing a wild animal listed as a threatened
  species for exhibition in a zoo, provided the
  animal is well cared for
• digging up an endangered plant in a public park
  and selling it
• destroying the habitat of an endangered plant
  during the building of a federal highway
• having a permit to capture and conduct
  research with endangered species
How many species are estimated to be
  living on Earth?
• between 10,000 and 100,000
• between 1 and 2 million
• between 500,000 and 1 million
• between 10 and 50 million
Which of the following is a reason that
  wood is considered a limited resource in
  many developing countries?
• Wood is used in place of money to buy
  food.
• Fuelwood allows people to purify their
  water by boiling it.
• Excess wood is used to construct
  shantytowns.
• People cut down trees faster than they
  can grow.
In what part of the world are the
  greatest number of extinctions
  occurring?
• in tropical rain forests
• in the Arctic
• in deserts
• in Europe and the United States
The current rate of species extinction is
• slower than at any other time in this
  century.
• attributable to the actions of humans.
• the result of natural environmental
  processes.
• of little consequence to Earth’s long-
  term survival.
The fact that organisms are adapted to
  survive in particular environments helps
  to explain why
• captive-breeding programs are often
  ineffective.
• non-native plant species never flourish
  in new areas.
• habitat destruction accounts for most
  extinctions.
• compromise is impossible on
  environmental issues.
What groups of organisms are most in
  danger of extinction?
• with small populations
• those that migrate or need special
  habitats
• those with large populations that breed
  quickly
• Both (a) and (b)
Where are many critical biodiversity
  hotspots located?
• cities and developed areas of the world
• islands, tropical rain forests, and
  coastal areas
• desert and polar environments
• All of the above
The major human causes of extinction
  today are
• hunting and destroying habitats.
• polluting and introducing non-native
  species.
• Both
• Neither
• The _____ was not a direct result of
  the Industrial Revolution.
• overhunting of large mammals
• improved quality of life
• shift in the use of fossil fuels
• growth of cities
Using scientific information from
  chemistry and biology to devise a plan to
  clean up a lake and make it healthy again
  describes
• ecology.
• earth science.
• environmental science.
• social science.
The ―Tragedy of the Commons‖ describes
  the conflict between
• developing and developed nations.
• individuals and society.
• farmers and industrialized society.
• Canada and Mexico.
A sustainable world would be characterized by
  the
• preservation of rare animals by relocation
  from natural habitats to laboratories.
• invention of safer storage facilities for
  increased amounts of toxic wastes.
• maximum exploitation of natural resources
  using more advanced technologies.
• indefinite existence of human populations in a
  healthy and prosperous condition.
An ecological footprint is the
• mark a person’s shoe makes in soft
  earth.
• number of animals a person has killed.
• amount of land and ocean area needed
  to support one person.
• number of trees people cut down.
A resident of _____ is likely to leave the
  largest ecological footprint.
• Indonesia
• the United States
• Britain
• India
The classification and collection of data
  that are in the form of numbers is
  called
• statistics.
• distribution.
• probability.
• mean.
Your county is considering buying land to form a
  nature preserve. On this land, an endangered
  species of bird is known to breed. Which of
  the following is a possible negative short-
  term consequence to the county making this
  decision?
• The population of the endangered species
  increases.
• Habitat destruction is immediately
  decreased.
• Environmental controls are made less strict
  outside the preserve area.
• Habitats outside the preserve area become
  damaged by overdevelopment.
The group that does not receive the
  experimental treatment in an
  experiment is the
• control group.
• data.
• experimental group.
• variable.
By examining _____, scientists can test
  predictions for situations in which it is
  impossible or unethical to use
  experiments.
• correlations
• control groups
• observations
• variables
What essential characteristic does a good
  experiment have?
• A control group is given the
  experimental treatment.
• More than one variable is tested.
• A control is used.
How did the Himalaya Mountains form?
• erosion
• glacial movements
• convection
• colliding tectonic plates
Before you can make a decision using a
  decision-making model, what step must
  you take?
• Explore the consequences of each
  option.
• Consider which values apply to the
  issue.
• Gather information.
• All of the above
What step in a simple environmental
  decision-making model are you taking
  when you consider whether or not
  people will benefit financially from
  setting aside land as a national park?
• exploring consequences
• gathering information
• making a decision
• None of the above
When making a decision about whether or
  not to build a dam, you are considering
  an economic value when you ask which of
  the following questions?
• Will the dam provide new leisure
  activities?
• How many jobs will building the dam
  generate?
• Will building the dam destroy natural
  resources?
• Is it right to build a dam here?
Which of the following includes all of the
  water on or near Earth’s surface?
• geosphere
• atmosphere
• hydrosphere
• lithosphere
What are wind and water erosion not
  likely to affect?
• mountains
• tides
• rocks
• soil
Which of the following is the most
  geologically active region on the surface
  of Earth?
• glacial valleys
• boundaries between tectonic plates
• mountain peaks
• recharge zones
The ozone layer is located in the
• stratosphere.
• thermosphere.
• ionosphere.
• troposphere.
What is the estimated temperature of
  Earth’s inner core?
• 3,000ºC to 4,000ºC
• 400ºC to 500ºC
• 4,000ºC to 5,000ºC
• 300ºC to 400ºC
In the troposphere, which of the
  following decreases as altitude
  increases?
• temperature
• pressure
• radiation
Which of the following is not a mechanism
  of energy transfer through or within
  Earth’s atmosphere?
• radiation
• conduction
• condensation
• convection
Without the greenhouse effect, Earth’s
  atmosphere would be _____ to support
  life.
• too hot
• too wet
• too cold
• lacking the oxygen
When you ask the question, ―If a marsh is
  included as part of a nature preserve,
  will it protect our water resources?‖ you
  are considering which of the following
  types of values?
• aesthetic
• environmental
• educational
• social/cultural
Which of the following is not an algae
  that uses energy from the sun to make
  food?
• seaweed
• giant kelp
• phytoplankton
• gymnosperm
The average mass of a wolf in a pack of
  wolves is an example of
• mean.
• sample size.
• distribution.
• statistical population.
• molten rock that is found in the upper
  mantle is
• limestone.
• granite.
• magma.
• basalt.
Ocean water _____ than fresh water.
• freezes at a higher temperature
• supports fewer fish
• contains more salts
• is less abundant
Deep currents flow along the
• ocean floor.
• thermocline.
• ocean surface.
• halocline.
Surface currents circulate in different
  directions, depending on the _____ in
  which they occur.
• hemisphere
• hydrosphere
• troposphere
• biosphere
Which of the following is the layer of the
  ocean extending from the base of the
  thermocline to the bottom of the
  ocean?
• surface layer
• deep zone
• thermocline
• bottom zone
The community of a pond is made up of all
  the
• abiotic factors in the water.
• resources organisms need.
• habitats in and around the water.
• populations of fish, insects, and other
  living organisms.
With respect to energy, Earth is a(n)
• unstable system.
• open system.
• stationary system.
• closed system.
What part of Earth encompasses all areas
  where organisms can obtain the energy
  they need?
• biosphere
• atmosphere
• hydrosphere
• lithosphere
With respect to matter, Earth is mostly
• an open system.
• an ecosystem.
• a closed system.
• a biosphere.
The organisms most likely to belong to
  the same species are
• people at a football game.
• birds in a forest.
• bacteria inside a person’s body.
• organisms in a pond.
An organism is resistant to a chemical if
  it
• has a gene that protects it from the
  chemical.
• has been exposed to a small amount of
  the chemical over time.
• did not eat anything with the chemical
  on it.
• All of the above
In order for evolution to occur in a
  population, individuals with a trait that
  is ―naturally selected for‖ must
• live a long time.
• reproduce.
• leave the area.
• coevolve.
Which of the following converts nitrogen
  in the air into a form plants can use?
• bacteria
• protists
• fungi
• animals
In the _____ zone, the water is cool and
  dark.
• benthic
• littoral
• eutrophic
• plankton
What mainly distinguishes nekton from
  benthos?
• One lives in a freshwater ecosystem
  and the other lives in salty water.
• One swims freely and the other often
  lives attached to a hard surface.
• One is a predator and the other is a
  primary producer.
• All of the above
Estuaries
• are always saltwater ecosystems.
• are always freshwater ecosystems.
• are ecosystems where both fresh
  water and salt water are present.
• prevent the development of salt
  marshes.
Which organism produces most of the
  food in an aquatic ecosystem?
• fish
• phytoplankton
• barnacles
• zooplankton
Why doesn’t photosynthesis occur in deep
  ocean water?
• The water temperature is too cold.
• There is no sunlight.
• There are not enough nutrients.
• The salinity level of the water is too
  high.
Which ecosystem has the highest level of
  salinity?
• salt marsh
• river
• brackish marsh
• pond
What are the two main types of
  freshwater wetlands?
• lakes and ponds
• littoral zones and benthic zones
• rivers and streams
• marshes and swamps
All of the following are characteristics of
  temperate rain forests except
• high humidity and moderate
  temperatures.
• abundant mosses, ferns, and lichens.
• low rainfall in summer but abundant
  snow in winter.
• large evergreen trees, such as Sitka
  spruce and Douglas fir.
Most scientists classify organisms into
•   five kingdoms.
•   three kingdoms.
•   six kingdoms.
•   two groups.
The energy in most ecosystems comes
  from
• green plants.
• wind.
• the sun.
• All of the above
Which of the following animals is
  successful because it moves quickly,
  reproduces rapidly, and has a
  waterproof external skeleton?
• ant
• bird
• mouse
• squirrel
Which kind of organism obtains energy
  only from producers?
• decomposers
• omnivores
• herbivores
• All of the above
Which of the following describes soil and
  temperature in an ecosystem?
• abiotic factors
• unnecessary factors
• biotic factors
• selection factors
Which of the following best describes a
  population?
• members of the same species living in
  the same place at the same time
• all the red birds in an area
• all types of organisms living in the same
  place
• all members of the same species
Which of the following plants is likely to
  be a pioneer species?
• lichen
• shrub
• grass
• oak tree
What kind of natural disaster helps some
  forest communities by allowing some
  trees to release their seeds, by clearing
  away deadwood, and by encouraging new
  growth?
• fire
• windstorm
• flood
• drought
Which of the following is not true about
  temperate deciduous forests?
• Trees grow lush green leaves in the
  spring, but lose their leaves in late
  summer.
• The soil is rich, and plants cover much
  of the forest floor.
• Animals such as squirrels, bears, and
  deer find food in the form of nuts,
  berries, and leaves.
Where would an ecologist be least likely
  to go to study primary succession?
• a new island formed by a volcanic
  eruption
• a gravel-filled valley that had been
  covered by a glacier until recently
• a locked, abandoned asphalt parking lot
  in New York City
• the Amazon Rain Forest
Plants play a crucial role in the carbon
  cycle because they
• do not release carbon dioxide during
  cellular respiration.
• allow carbon to enter an ecosystem
  through photosynthesis.
• have special bacteria that live in their
  root systems.
• are chemically converted into fossil
  fuels when burned.
What type of succession occurs after a
  natural process such as a volcanic
  eruption or flood?
• primary succession
• old-field succession
• secondary succession
• climax community
Which organism is likely to be in the
  bottom trophic level of a food chain?
• leopard seal
• krill
• algae
• killer whale
If you visited a savanna, you would likely
  see
• large herds of grazing animals, such as
  rhinos, gazelles, and giraffes.
• a dense forest.
• snow and ice.
• a coastal ecosystem.
The tundra
• has a layer of soil that is permanently
  frozen beneath the top soil.
• is too cold to support insect life.
• is resistant to environmental damage
  because it is usually frozen.
• All of the above
Taiga is
• a cold, treeless, desert-like biome
  found near the North and South Poles.
• found mostly in Africa.
• a forest biome dominated by coniferous
  trees, such as pine, fir, and spruce.
• a dry, rocky biome found in the central
  part of South America.
Biomes
• contain two ecosystems, hence the
  name ―biome.‖
• are usually described by their
  vegetation.
• exist in limited regions of the world.
• All of the above
As you travel from the North Pole toward
  the equator, you would expect to see
• tropical rain forests, then deserts,
  then taiga.
• temperate deciduous forests, then
  taiga, then tropical rain forests.
• tundra, then grasslands, then tropical
  rain forests.
• taiga, then desert, then tundra.
Which of the following would you expect
  to see in the emergent layer of a
  tropical rain forest?
• grasses, insects, and small succulents
• eagles, bats, and snakes
• lichens, mosses, and dwarf woody plants
• epiphytes, small burrowing mammals,
  and burrowing toads
The distance north or south of the
  equator, as measured in degrees, is
  called
• altitude.
• longitude.
• latitude.
• magnitude.
Which of the following is located
  primarily in coastal areas that have
  Mediterranean-style climates with
  warm, dry summers and mild, wet
  winters?
• tallgrass prairie
• tundra
• savanna
• chaparral
In the _____ zone, life is diverse and
  abundant.
• benthic
• littoral
• eutrophic
• plankton

								
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