Docstoc

AP SUMMER PACKET _09_

Document Sample
AP SUMMER PACKET _09_ Powered By Docstoc
					To: AP chemistry Students 2009 – 2010
From: Mrs. Ross, AP Chemistry Teacher

    Congratulations on being a member of the AP Chemistry class for next year! I hope
you are ready for a challenging year. This is an extremely fast paced course that covers a
substantial amount of material in order to prepare EVERY student for the AP chemistry
exam in May 2010. It is equivalent to a freshman college chemistry course with rigorous
math, considerable independent work and a strong laboratory component. Labs are more
complex than in Honors Chemistry and take a significant amount of time to write up and
organize in the lab notebook.
    AP Chemistry is a difficult class, but with determination and perseverance, you will
surely succeed! Like almost all AP classes, the first of many requirements is to complete a
summer assignment that is intended as a review of your first year Honors Chemistry course.
It is designed to prepare you for the rigors of the course. It is a mandatory review to prepare
you for an entrance exam that will be given during the first week of the new school year. I
know that you are thinking about your end-of-year responsibilities for the current school
year, not academic responsibilities for 2009-2010; however, the summer assignment is very
important. The AP Chemistry curriculum is extremely content-intensive…FAR more than
any science course you have taken at UHS. In order to cover all of the material prior to the
exam in May, you must be able to solve problems from last year with confidence and
accuracy. In AP chemistry, I do not re-teach major themes from Honors Chemistry. The
majority of you will find AP Chemistry to be challenging. In fact, some of you will find it
to be downright hard and may in fact struggle to get Cs. The summer work will help you
adjust to AP Chemistry and will show you areas where you need to study. If you have any
questions please feel free to email me at pross@ucfsd.org.
    For you to be prepared for next year there are several things you will need to do this
summer, prior to the school year:

   1. Memorize the items given in the handout:
         a. Common Ions and Their Charges
         b. Strong Acids and Bases
         c. Acid Nomenclature
         d. Polyatomic Elements
         e. Base Units of the Metric System
         f. Metric System Prefixes
         g. Organic Chemistry (Basic Hydrocarbons and Functional Groups)
         h. Solubility Rules
         i. Molecular Geometry Based on the VSEPR Theory
   2. Purchase the following:
         a. A Student Lab Notebook – Carbonless Duplicate (online or office store)
         b. Scientific Calculator (preferably a graphing one)
         c. Three Ring Binder
         d. Thumb Drive
         e. Access code for WebAssign (see next page)
         f. AP Chemistry Preparation Book (optional – DS Marketing, Barrons, etc.)




                                                                                             1
3. Register at www.webassign.com AND add your email to “My Options”. If you
   added the course after Mrs. Ross received the roster, or you have any trouble
   logging in, email her at pross@ucfsd.org with your name and ID number.




                                                                          Click on “log in”
                Click on the “students” tab




                                                                You will need to purchase
                                                                an access code from your
                                                                WebAssign homepage.
                                                                At the end of the purchase
                                                                you will be all set to use
                            Username: last.first
                                                                WebAssign for the rest of
                            Institution: unionville.pa
                                                                the term.
                            Password: last.first


                                                                 Change your
                                                                 password to your
                                                                 student ID
                                                                 number


4. Complete Mandatory Summer Assignment on WebAssign by posted due date.
       a. Homework based on Honors Chemistry I Material
       b. First Grade of the First Marking Period
       c. Review for Entrance Exam
5. Review safety rules, equipment and how to write a laboratory report.
6. Perform a laboratory experiment and email formal report to Mrs. Ross by August 1st.




                                                                                    2
The summer assignment and beginning of the year test covers the following:
 • Significant Figures and Measurement
 • Dimensional Analysis
 • Classifying Matter
                                       Chemistry Tutorials
 • Atomic Structure
 • Periodic Table                      http://www.ChemReview.Net
 • Nomenclature                        http://www2.wwnorton.com/college/chemistry/gilbert/tutorials/ch1.htm
 • Chemical Reactions                  http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/index.shtml
 • Mole Relationships                  http://www.chemteam.info/ChemTeamIndex.html
 • Solutions and Molarity              http://www.intute.ac.uk/sciences/reference/chemlecs/
 • Stoichiometry                       http://www.chem.vt.edu/chem-ed/genchem.html
 • Percent Composition                 http://science.widener.edu/svb/tutorial/index.html
 • Empirical & Molecular Formulae      http://www.chemtutor.com/
 • Gas Laws                            http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/cact.html
 • Electron configuration              http://www.chem.uiuc.edu/webFunChem/GenChemTutorials.htm
 • Ionic and Covalent Bonds            http://pages.towson.edu/ladon/
 • Lewis Dot Structure                 http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/index.shtml
 • Intermolecular Forces of Attraction http://chemunder.chemistry.ohio-
 • Collision Theory                            state.edu/under/chemed/qbank/quizmain.htm
 • Equilibrium Expressions
 • Acid-Base Chemistry
 • Basic Electrochemistry

Use Moodle as needed:




                                                                                     3
4!
!



    5
    !
!




        6
                                       "#$$%&!'()!*++,-.$%./!


012304!*!5!67)),.-!87/9!6(::+!

Purpose
To get mothballs (or similar item) to “bob” in a solution, take a picture or movie and explain what is
happening.

Materials
A drinking glass (or clear plastic cup), water, white vinegar, baking soda, jar with lid, one of the following
“bobbing” items: uncooked vermicelli or thin spaghetti, raisins, naphthalene mothballs. [Mothballs must be
naphthalene, not paradichlorobenzene.]

Safety
No special precautions are needed. Flush the used baking soda/vinegar solution down the drain; making
sure that the mothballs, spaghetti, or raisins do not go down the drain.

Post Lab Questions
Assuming STP, what volume of carbon dioxide gas was produced during the reaction between the vinegar
and baking soda? How is this container similar to a lava lamp and how is it different?


012304!6!5!"/7,;9,7$%/&<!=7#!>(.!2(+/%!
!
Purpose
To make a 236.5 mL serving of your own carbonated beverage using the proper amounts of unsweetened
drink mix, water, sweetener, food grade citric acid and food grade baking soda. (Note: do not use more
than 5 g each of citric acid and baking soda)

Materials
5 clean 10-ounce beverage cups, 4 paper muffin cups, plastic spoon, marker, balance, cup measure,
aspartame sweetener (for example, Equal) or sugar, package of unsweetened powdered drink mix, cold
water, food grade citric acid and food grade baking soda (which can be found at a natural food store or
pharmacy, note: canning products can not be used).

Safety
Taste only small amounts of the beverages. Ingestion of excessive amounts of baking soda may be harmful.
Read the warnings on a box of baking soda before performing this activity.

Post Lab Questions
How will the drink taste if too much citric acid is used? How will it taste if too much baking soda is used?
Why do commercial Fizzies tablets use aspartame sweetener instead of sugar? Assuming STP, what volume
of carbon dioxide gas was produced during the reaction from the drink? What are some other practical uses
of stoichiometry?


                                                                                                                 7
012304!>!5!2,;?!27;?!@,/($,.!>!>:7;?!
Purpose
To explore the effect of reactant concentration on apparent rate of a reaction by mixing two solutions (A and
B) that are both diluted using varying amounts of water, such as 2 – 6 tablespoons (30 – 90 mL) of water in
each.

Materials
Distilled or deionized water, vitamin C stock solution – 1000 mg of vitamin C tablet(s) dissolved in 60 mL
of water (note: it will be slightly hazy due to small amounts of other substances in the tablet that will not
dissolve in water), tincture of iodine (2%), hydrogen peroxide (3%), liquid laundry starch, stopwatch or
clock, plastic measuring spoons or graduated cylinders, marker pen, six 6–8-ounce colorless transparent
plastic cups, metal spoon, plastic coffee stirrers, solution “A” – 1 teaspoon (5 mL) each of the vitamin C
stock solution and tincture of iodine, and solution “B” – 1 tablespoon (15 mL) of 3% hydrogen peroxide,
and ! to " teaspoon (1.2 – 2.5 mL) of laundry starch.

Safety
Tincture of iodine is poisonous and flammable. It must be kept away from children. Before disposal, the
clock reaction mixture should be reduced by the addition of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C).

Post-Lab Questions
How could you accurately determine the amount of vitamin C in a sample of orange juice? What are the
substances in the tablet that don’t dissolve in water? Why are they included in the tablet?

012304!A!5!*!>77:!A&,.?!!

Purpose
To investigate concentration levels by using serial dilution to prepare several solutions of
Presweetened powdered drink mix. To taste the solutions (starting with the most dilute) in order to
determine at which concentration they first discern the sweetness. Additional studies on other flavors, age
and gender may be studied.

Materials
Six small cups [5 oz. (150 mL) or larger], large cup, disposable plastic spoon or measuring spoon, plastic
knife, Kool-Aid or other presweetened powdered drink mix, marker, and tap water

Safety
Do not perform this activity in a lab or use beakers or measuring devices that were used in the lab.

Post-Lab Questions
Air pollution levels are often measured the same way that you measured parts of drink mix to parts of
solution. The EPA has set a safety level for mercury at 2 parts per billion (ppb) by volume. If a person
inhales 11,000 L of air a day and 22.4 L contains 6.02 x1023 particles of air, calculate the number of mercury
particles (atoms) a person may safely inhale daily. From this number of particles, calculate the molarity of
the mercury a person may safely inhale daily.

012304!B!5!"/#C%./!3C%(D!2%(;9%&!*EE&7F%C!

                                                                                                                 8
9
                          !
                          !
                          !
                          !
                          !
                          !
"#!$#%!&'($%!%)*!+#,,#-($.!&/.*0!
                          !
!"#$%#&#'(%"#&#)*+#+$,-#.+#&#%&/),-#0-12%%$345###
                          #
6&78#%"(*-4"#9$,,#8&:-#"8-$;#.94#$4*$:$*(&,#
   &%%$34/-4"#+.;#98$78#"8-<#9$,,#%$34#()5#
                          #
"#!$#%!&'($%!%)*!+#,,#-($.!&/.*0!
                          #
                          #
                          #
Assignment Previewer                                                                   http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...




          Summer Assignment 09 (636198)
          Question
          1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

               Description
               This assignment is a review of material from Chemistry I. Students must have strong background knowledge at the start of AP
               Chemistry.


               Instructions
               This assignment must be completed prior to the beginning of the school year. Students will have a test on the information
               during the first week of school. The instructor may be reached via email throughout the summer with any questions and/or
               concerns. The summer assignment is worth 200 points: 175 points of WebAssign and 25 points for the laboratory report. A
               laboratory rubric will be provided on moodle. Good luck.




          1.     Question DetailsZumChem6 1.Q.019. [219045]

          For each of the following pieces of glassware, provide a sample measurement and discuss the number of significant figures and
          uncertainty.




          2.     Question DetailsZumChem6 1.E.030. [200175]

          Perform the following mathematical operations, and express each result to the correct number of significant figures.

                        0.102    0.0821          273
                  (a)
                                 1.01




                                                     23
                  (b) 0.13       6.022          10



                                     4                         -3                  2
                  (c) 4.0       10           5.580        10        7.34993   10



                                         6
                        8.00    10



1 of 37                                                                                                                            5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                              http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


                (d)
                                    -7
                      3.00     10




          3.   Question DetailsZumChem6 1.E.055. [200182]

                                                       36                                                            5
          A star is estimated to have a mass of 1 10 kg. Assuming it to be a sphere of average radius 7.0         10 km, calculate the
          average density of the star in units of grams per cubic centimeter.
                                         3
                                g/cm


          4.   Question DetailsZumChem6 1.E.060. [200186]

                                                 3
          The density of pure silver is 10.5 g/cm at 20°C. If 5.85 g of pure silver pellets is added to a graduated cylinder containing 11.2
          mL of water, to what volume level will the water in the cylinder rise?
                           mL


          5.   Question DetailsZumChem6 1.E.067. [219044]

          Match each description below with the following microscopic pictures.




          More than one picture may fit each description. A picture may be used more than once or not used at all. (Select all that apply.)

               (a) a gaseous compound          (b) a mixture of two gaseous elements
                         i                             i
                         ii                            ii
                         iii                           iii
                         iv                            iv
                         v                             v
                         vi                            vi




               (c) a solid element             (d) a mixture of a gaseous element and a gaseous compound
                         i                             i
                         ii                            ii
                         iii                           iii
                         iv                            iv
                         v                             v




2 of 37                                                                                                                            5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                   http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...




                       vi                                  vi




          6.   Question DetailsZumChem6 1.E.070. [200189]

          The properties of a mixture are typically averages of the properties of its components. The properties of a compound may differ
          dramatically from the properties of the elements that combine to produce the compound. For each process described below,
          state whether the material being discussed is most likely a mixture or a compound, and state whether the process is a chemical
          change or a physical change. (Select all that apply.)

                 (a) An orange liquid is distilled, resulting in the collection of a yellow liquid and a red solid.
                            mixture
                            compound
                            chemical change
                            physical change


                 (b) A colorless, crystalline solid is decomposed, yielding a pale yellow-green gas and a soft, shiny metal.
                            mixture
                            compound
                            chemical change
                            physical change


                 (c) A cup of tea becomes sweeter as sugar is added to it.
                            mixture
                            compound
                            chemical change
                            physical change




          7.   Question DetailsZumChem6 1.AE.074. [200169]

          In the opening scenes of the movie "Raiders of the Lost Ark", Indiana Jones tries to remove a gold idol from a booby-trapped
                                                                                                                               3
          pedestal. He replaces the idol with a bag of sand of approximately equal volume. (Density of gold = 19.32 g/cm ; density of
                            3
          sand    2 g/cm .)

                 (a) Did he have a reasonable chance of not activating the mass-sensitive booby trap?
                            Yes
                            No

                 (b) In a later scene he and an unscrupulous guide play catch with the idol. Assume that the volume of the idol is
                 about 1.0 L. If it were solid gold, what mass would the idol have?
                                     kg
                 Is playing catch with it plausible?
                            Yes



3 of 37                                                                                                                              5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                           http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...



                          No




          8.   Question DetailsZumChem6 1.AE.077. [219042]

          For each of the following, decide which block is more dense: the orange block, the blue block, or cannot be determined.




               (a)
                          orange
                          blue
                          cannot be determined

               Explain.




               (b)
                          orange
                          blue
                          cannot be determined

               Explain.




               (c)
                          orange
                          blue
                          cannot be determined

               Explain.




4 of 37                                                                                                                        5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                            http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...




                (d)
                           orange
                           blue
                           cannot be determined

                Explain.




          9.    Question DetailsZumChem6 1.CP.080. [200170]

          Many times errors are expressed in terms of percentage. The percentage error is the absolute value of the difference of the true
          value and the experimental value, divided by the true value, and multiplied by 100.


          Calculate the percent error for the following measurements.

                                                                                                 3                       3
                (a) The density of an aluminum block determined in an experiment was 2.69 g/cm . (True value 2.70 g/cm .)
                                 %
                (b) The experimental determination of iron in iron ore was 16.31 %. (True value 16.12 %.)
                                 %
                (c) A balance measured the mass of a 1.000 g standard as 0.9921 g.
                                 %




          10.    Question DetailsZumChem6 1.CP.086. [200171]

          An experiment was performed in which an empty 100 mL graduated cylinder was weighed. It was weighed once again after it
          had been filled to the 10.0 mL mark with dry sand. A 10 mL pipet was used to transfer 10.00 mL of methanol to the cylinder. The
          sand-methanol mixture was stirred until bubbles no longer emerged from the mixture and the sand looked uniformly wet. The
          cylinder was then weighed again. Use the data obtained from this experiment (and displayed at the end of this problem) to find
          the density of each of the following.
                                                    Mass of cylinder plus wet sand 45.2613 g

                                                    Mass of cylinder plus dry sand   37.3488 g

                                                    Mass of empty cylinder           22.8317 g

                                                    Volume of dry sand               10.0 mL

                                                    Volume of sand + methanol        17.6 mL

                                                    Volume of methanol               10.00 mL
          dry sand
                              g/mL
          methanol



5 of 37                                                                                                                         5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                              http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


                           g/mL
          sand particles
                          g/mL
          Does the bubbling that occurs when the methanol is added to the dry sand indicate that the sand and methanol are reacting?
                  Yes
                  No



          11.   Question DetailsZumChem6 2.DQ.006. [295747]

          You have a chemical sealed in a glass container filled with air. The glass container has a mass of 200.0 grams and the chemical
          has a mass of 650 grams. The total mass of the set-up is 850 grams. The chemical is ignited by means of a magnifying glass
          focusing sunlight onto the reactant. After the chemical is completely burned, what is the total mass of the set-up?
                            grams


          12.   Question DetailsZumChem6 2.E.046. [200206]

                                       A
          Choose the atomic symbol (     X)   for each of the isotopes described below.
                                        Z


                                       isotope                           atomic symbol
                                                                                  8
                                                                                              O
                                                                                      17
                                                                                  8
                                                                                          O
                                                                                      9
                (a) Z = 8, number of neutrons = 9                                 9
                                                                                          O
                                                                                   8
                                                                                  17
                                                                                              O
                                                                                          8


                                                                                  37
                                                                                               Cl
                                                                                          17
                                                                                  20
                                                                                               Cl
                                                                                          37
                (b) the isotope of chlorine in which A = 37                       17
                                                                                               Cl
                                                                                          37
                                                                                  37
                                                                                               Cl
                                                                                          20


                                                                                  27
                                                                                               Co
                                                                                          60
                                                                                  33
                                                                                               Co
                                                                                          27
                (c) Z = 27, A = 60                                                60
                                                                                               Co
                                                                                          33
                                                                                  60
                                                                                               Co
                                                                                          27


                                                                                  57
                                                                                               Fe
                                                                                          26
                                                                                  26
                                                                                               Fe
                                                                                          31
                (d) number of protons = 26, number of neutrons = 31               26
                                                                                               Fe
                                                                                          57
                                                                                  31
                                                                                               Fe
                                                                                          26




6 of 37                                                                                                                        5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                            http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


                                                                               53
                                                                                                I
                                                                                  131
                                                                               131
                                                                                       I
                                                                                   78
                 (e) the isotope of I with a mass number of 131                131
                                                                                       I
                                                                                   53
                                                                               78
                                                                                     I
                                                                                  53


                                                                               3
                                                                                       Li
                                                                                   7
                                                                               7
                                                                                       Li
                                                                                3
                 (f) Z = 3, number of neutrons = 4                             10
                                                                                           Li
                                                                                       7
                                                                               4
                                                                                       Li
                                                                                   3




          13.   Question DetailsZumChem6 3.E.050. [200243]

          How many atoms of nitrogen are present in 5.00 g of each of the following?

                (a) glycine, C H O N
                             2 5 2
                                   atoms
                (b) magnesium nitride
                                   atoms
                (c) calcium nitrate
                                   atoms
                (d) dinitrogen tetroxide
                                   atoms




          14.   Question DetailsZumChem6 2.E.057. [200211]

          Would you expect each of the following atoms to gain or lose electrons when forming ions? What ion is the most likely in each
          case?

                (a) S
                        S will gain electrons to form ions.
                        S will lose electrons to form ions.


                                                                         2-
                ion formed (Type your answer using the format [O]2- for O .)



                (b) P
                        P will gain electrons to form ions.
                        P will lose electrons to form ions.

                ion formed



                (c) I



7 of 37                                                                                                                        5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                 http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...



                              I will gain electrons to form ions.
                              I will lose electrons to form ions.

                ion formed



                (d) Fr
                              Fr will gain electrons to form ions.
                              Fr will lose electrons to form ions.

                ion formed



                (e) Cl
                              Cl will gain electrons to form ions.
                              Cl will lose electrons to form ions.

                ion formed



                (f) Na
                              Na will gain electrons to form ions.
                              Na will lose electrons to form ions.

                ion formed




          15.   Question DetailsZumChem6 2.E.068. [200219]

          Name each of the following compounds.

                (a) HC H O (aq)
                          2 3 2


                (b) NH NO
                          4        2


                (c) Co S
                          2 3


                (d) ICl

                (e) Pb (PO )
                          3        4 2


                (f) KIO
                          3


                (g) H SO (aq)
                     2         4


                (h) Sr N
                         3 2




8 of 37                                                                                                          5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                             http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


                 (i) Al (SO )
                      2        3 3


                 (j) SnO
                           2


                 (k) Na CrO
                          2     4


                 (l) HClO (aq)




          16.      Question DetailsZumChem6 2.AE.075. [219080]

          Name the following acids illustrated below.



             (a)                                 (b)                                 (c)




             (d)                                 (e)




          17.      Question DetailsZumChem6 2.AE.076. [200190]

          For each of the following ions, indicate the total number of protons and electrons in the ion. For the positive ions in the list,
          predict the formula of the simplest compound formed between each positive ion and the oxide ion. For the negative ions in the
          list, predict the formula of the simplest compound formed between each negative ion and the aluminum ion.

                      2+                                                                    3+
                (a) Ba                                                                (b) Fe
                protons                                                               protons

                electrons                                                             electrons

                compound (Type the compound using the format H2O for H O.)            compound
                                                                          2




                     3-                                                                     -
                (c) N                                                                 (d) Br
                protons                                                               protons

                electrons                                                             electrons




9 of 37                                                                                                                            5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                              http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...




                 compound                                                             compound




           18.    Question DetailsZumChem6 2.AE.077. [200191]

           The formulas and common names for several substances are given below. Give the systematic names for these substances.

                  (a) sugar of lead, Pb(C H O )
                                               2 3 2 2


                  (b) blue vitrol, CuSO
                                           4


                  (c) quicklime, CaO

                  (d) Epsom salts MgSO
                                               4


                  (e) milk of magnesia, Mg(OH)
                                                    2


                  (f) gypsum, CaSO
                                     4


                  (g) laughing gas, N O
                                       2




           19.    Question DetailsZumChem6 2.AE.078. [200192]

           Identify each of the following elements.

                  (a) a member of the same family as oxygen whose most stable ion contains 54 electrons

                  (b) a member of the alkali metal family whose most stable ion contains 36 electrons

                  (c) a noble gas with 18 protons in the nucleus

                  (d) a halogen with 85 protons and 85 electrons




           20.    Question DetailsZumChem6 2.AE.080. [295910]

           An element's most stable ion forms an ionic compound with bromine, having the formula XBr . If the ion of element X has a
                                                                                                        2
           mass number of 230 and has 86 electrons, what is the identity of the element, and how many neutrons does it have?
           element

           number of neutrons




10 of 37                                                                                                                       5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                             http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...




           21.   Question DetailsZumChem6 3.DQ.004. [200233]

           Nitrogen (N ) and hydrogen (H ) react to form ammonia (NH ). Consider a mixture of six nitrogen molecules and six hydrogen
                        2                                  2           3
           molecules in a closed container. Assuming the reaction goes to completion, what will the final product mixture be?
           number of NH molecules
                            3


           number of N molecules
                        2


           number of H molecules
                        2


           Which of the following equations best represents this reaction?
                   N+3H                     NH
                                2            3
                   N +H                 NH
                    2           2            3
                   N +3H                    2 NH
                    2               2              3
                   6N +6H                    4 NH + 4 N
                        2               2              3       2
                   2N +6H                    4 NH
                        2               2              3




           22.   Question DetailsZumChem6 3.E.022. [200236]

           An element consists of 1.40% of an isotope with mass 203.973 amu, 24.10% of an isotope with mass 205.9745 amu, 22.10% of
           an isotope with mass 206.9759 amu, and 52.40% of an isotope with mass 207.9766 amu. Calculate the average atomic mass.
                             amu
           Identify the element. (Give the symbol of the element.)




           23.   Question DetailsZumChem6 3.E.051. [200244]




11 of 37                                                                                                                        5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...



           Aspartame is an artificial sweetener that is 160 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar) when dissolved in water. It is marketed
           as Nutra-Sweet. The molecular formula of aspartame is C H N O .
                                                                        14 18 2 5

                 (a) Calculate the molar mass of aspartame.
                                   g/mol
                 (b) How many moles of molecules are present in 24.0 g aspartame?
                                   mol
                 (c) Calculate the mass in grams of 2.56 mol aspartame.
                                   g
                 (d) How many molecules are in 7.5 mg aspartame?
                                   molecules
                 (e) How many atoms of nitrogen are in 1.9 g aspartame?
                                   atoms
                                                           9
                 (f) What is the mass in grams of 5.0 10 molecules of aspartame?
                                   g
                 (g) What is the mass in grams of one molecule of aspartame?
                                   g




           24.   Question DetailsZumChem6 3.E.055. [200245]

           There are several important compounds that contain only nitrogen and oxygen. Calculate the mass percent of nitrogen in each
           of the following.

                 (a) NO, a gas formed by the reaction of N with O in internal combustion engines.
                                                            2       2
                                 %
                 (b) NO , a brown gas mainly responsible for the brownish color of photochemical smog.
                          2
                                  %
                 (c) N O , a colorless liquid used as a fuel in space shuttles.
                      2 4
                                  %
                 (d) N O, a colorless gas sometimes used as an anesthetic by dentists (known as laughing gas).
                      2
                                  %




           25.   Question DetailsZumChem6 3.E.066. [200251]

           A sample of urea contains 1.121 g N, 0.161 g H, 0.480 g C, and 0.640 g O. What is the empirical formula of urea? (Type your
           answer using the format CO2 for CO .)
                                                 2




           26.   Question DetailsZumChem6 3.E.068. [200252]

           A compound containing only sulfur and nitrogen is 69.6% S by mass; the molar mass is 184 g/mol. What are the empirical and
           molecular formulas of the compound? (Type your answer using the format CO2 for CO .)
                                                                                                   2
           empirical formula

           molecular formula



12 of 37                                                                                                                          5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                              http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...




           27.   Question DetailsZumChem6 3.E.076. [295911]

           Give the balanced equation for each of the following chemical reactions. (Use the lowest possible coefficients.)

                 (a) Glucose (C H O ) reacts with oxygen gas to produce gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor.
                                   6 12 6
                         C H O (s) +                       O (g)            CO (g) +              H O(g)
                          6 12 6                            2                           2          2
                 (b) Solid iron(III) sulfide reacts with gaseous hydrogen chloride to form solid iron(III) chloride and hydrogen sulfide
                 gas.
                         Fe S (s) +             HCl(g)           FeCl (s) +        H S(g)
                             2 3                                                        3         2
                 (c) Carbon disulfide liquid reacts with ammonia gas to produce hydrogen sulfide gas and solid ammonium
                 thiocyanate (NH SCN).
                                       4
                         CS (l) +                  NH (g)              H S(g) +             NH SCN(s)
                             2                         3                2                     4




           28.   Question DetailsZumChem6 3.E.094. [200262]

           Consider the following reaction.
                             2 H (g) + O (g)                2 H O(g)
                                       2           2            2
           Identify the limiting reagent in each of the reaction mixtures given below.

                 (a) 50 molecules of H and 25 molecules of O
                                           2                                2
                         H
                           2
                         O
                             2
                         none of the above

                 (b) 100 molecules of H and 40 molecules of O
                                               2                                2
                         H
                           2
                         O
                             2
                         none of the above

                 (c) 100 molecules of H and 100 molecules of O
                                               2                                    2
                         H
                           2
                         O
                             2
                         none of the above

                 (d) 0.50 mol H and 0.75 mol O
                                   2                        2
                         H
                           2
                         O
                             2
                         none of the above

                 (e) 0.80 mol H and 0.75 mol O
                                   2                        2
                         H
                           2




13 of 37                                                                                                                                      5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...



                         O
                             2
                         none of the above

                 (f) 1.0 g H and 0.25 mol O
                             2                 2
                         H
                           2
                         O
                             2
                         none of the above

                 (g) 5.00 g H and 56.00 g O
                                 2              2
                         H
                           2
                         O
                             2
                         none of the above




           29.   Question DetailsZumChem6 2.AE.081. [200193]

           The designations 1A through 8A used for certain families of the periodic table are helpful for predicting the charges on ions in
           binary ionic compounds. In these compounds, the metals generally take on a positive charge equal to the family number, while
           the nonmetals take on a negative charge equal to the family number minus eight. Thus the compound between sodium and
                                     +          -
           chlorine contains Na ions and Cl ions and has the formula NaCl. Predict the formula and the name of the binary compound
           formed from the following pairs of elements. (Type the formula using the format CO2 for CO . Type your answer using the
                                                                                                       2
           format copper(II) chloride for CuCl .)
                                                    2


                   elements                  formula                     name

                  (a) Ca and N

                  (b) K and O

                  (c) Rb and F

                  (d) Mg and S

                  (e) Ba and I

                  (f) Al and Se

                  (g) Cs and P

                  (h) In and Br




           30.   Question DetailsZumChem6 3.E.100. [200263]

           A student prepared aspirin (C H O ) in a laboratory experiment using the following reaction.
                                             9 8 4
                                 C H O +C H O           C H O + HC H O
                                     7 6 3   4 6 3       9 8 4     2 3 2
           The student reacted 2.50 g salicylic acid (C H O ) with 3.33 g acetic anhydride (C H O ). The yield was 2.50 g aspirin.
                                                          7 6 3                                4 6 3
           Calculate the theoretical yield and the percent yield for this experiment.
           theoretical yield



14 of 37                                                                                                                          5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                                                              http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


                                              g
           percent yield
                                              %


           31.   Question DetailsZumChem6 4.E.011. [200275]

           Show how each of the following strong electrolytes "breaks up" into its component ions upon dissolving in water. (Type your
                                                                                  +                                               2-
           answer using the format [NH4]+ for NH                                      and [Ni(CN)4]2- for Ni(CN)                       . Use the lowest possible coefficients.)
                                                                              4                                               4

                 (a) NaBr(s)
                                                           +
                 NaBr(s)                              Na (aq) +                                          (aq)

                 (b) MgCl (s)
                                      2
                                                                                                         -
                 MgCl (s)                                                         (aq) +             Cl (aq)
                              2

                 (c) Al(NO ) (s)
                                      3 3
                                                                                                                   -
                 Al(NO ) (s)                                                           (aq) +            NO (aq)
                              3 3                                                                              3

                 (d) (NH ) SO
                                  4 2             4
                                                                                                                  2-
                 (NH ) SO                                                             (aq) +             SO            (aq)
                       4 2                4                                                                   4

                 (e) HI(g)
                                                                                                 -
                 HI(g)                                                    (aq) +                I (aq)

                 (f) FeSO (s)
                                      4
                                                               2+
                 FeSO (s)                                 Fe (aq) +                                           (aq)
                              4

                 (g) KMnO (s)
                                          4
                                                            +
                 KMnO (s)                                 K (aq) +                                           (aq)
                                  4

                 (h) HClO (s)
                                      4
                                                           +
                 HClO (s)                                 H (aq) +                                       (aq)
                              4

                 (i) NH C H O (s) (ammonium acetate)
                              4 2 3 2
                                                                          +
                 NH C H O (s)                                       NH (aq) +                                             (aq)
                      4 2 3 2                                         4




           32.   Question DetailsZumChem6 4.E.018. [200276]

           Calculate the concentration of all ions present in each of the following solutions of strong electrolytes.

                 (a) 0.100 mol of Ca(NO ) in 100.0 mL of solution
                                                               3 2
                      2+
                 Ca
                                                      M
                          -
                 NO
                      3
                                                      M



15 of 37                                                                                                                                                                          5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                             http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


                 (b) 3.5 mol of Na SO in 1.25 L of solution
                                          2           4
                         +
                 Na
                                              M
                             2-
                 SO
                         4
                                  M
                 (c) 5.00 g of NH Cl in 200.0 mL of solution
                                          4
                             +
                 NH
                         4
                                              M
                     -
                 Cl
                                 M
                 (d) 1.00 g K PO in 400.0 mL of solution
                                  3       4
                  +
                 K
                                              M
                             3-
                 PO
                         4
                                              M




           33.   Question DetailsZumChem6 4.E.023. [200279]

           How much of each starting material would you use to prepare 2.00 L of each of the following solutions?

                 (a) 0.290 M NaOH from solid NaOH
                                 g
                 (b) 0.260 M NaOH from 1.00 M NaOH stock solution
                                 L
                 (c) 0.250 M K CrO from solid K CrO
                                      2           4               2       4
                                 g
                 (d) 0.280 M K CrO from 1.75 M K CrO stock solution
                                      2           4                   2       4
                                              L




           34.   Question DetailsZumChem6 4.E.032. [374360]

           For the following reactions, write the balanced molecular equation, complete ionic equation, and net ionic equation. If no
                                                                                                                                                          +
           precipitate forms, write "No reaction." (Type your answer using the format (NH4)2CO3 for (NH ) CO , [NH4]+ for NH , and
                                                                                                                         4 2            3             4
                                              2-
           [Ni(CN)4]2- for Ni(CN)                  . Type the cation before the anion. Use the lowest possible coefficients. If no reaction occurs, type "NR"
                                          4
           into all the answer boxes for that reaction.)
                      (a) AgNO (aq) + Na PO (aq)
                                      3                   3   4
                         balanced molecular equation
                                AgNO (aq) +          Na PO (aq)                                         (s) +                                  (aq)
                                              3                       3       4
                         complete ionic equation
                                      +                                                                                            3-
                                  Ag (aq) +                                       (aq) +                  (aq) +         PO             (aq)
                                                                                                                               4
                                       (s) +                                       (aq) +                  (aq)
                         net ionic equation




16 of 37                                                                                                                                                  5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                                       http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


                                                          (aq) +                             (aq)                               (s)

                    (b) CaCl (aq) + Na SO (aq)
                                2                    2    4
                    balanced molecular equation
                           CaCl (aq) +        Na SO (aq)                                                       (s) +                                   (aq)
                                          2                           2     4
                    complete ionic equation
                                     2+                                                                                                         2-
                                Ca (aq) +                                           (aq) +                             (aq) +         SO             (aq)
                                                                                                                                            4
                                  (s) +                                             (aq) +                             (aq)
                    net ionic equation
                                                          (aq) +                             (aq)                               (s)

                    (c) Pb(NO ) (aq) + KCl(aq)
                                     3 2
                    balanced molecular equation
                           Pb(NO ) (aq) +                              KCl(aq)                                 (s) +                                  (aq)
                                              3 2
                    complete ionic equation
                                     2+                                                                                                 -
                                Pb (aq) +                                           (aq) +                             (aq) +         Cl (aq)
                    (s) +                                          (aq) +                           (aq)
                    net ionic equation
                                                          (aq) +                             (aq)                               (s)

                    (d) Al(NO ) (aq) + Ba(OH) (aq)
                                    3 3                       2
                    balanced molecular equation
                           Al(NO ) (aq) +       Ba(OH) (aq)                                                        (s) +                                     (aq)
                                              3 3                               2
                    complete ionic equation
                                    3+                                                                                                   -
                                Al (aq) +                                           (aq) +                             (aq) +         OH (aq)
                                  (s) +                                             (aq) +                             (aq)
                    net ionic equation
                                                          (aq) +                             (aq)                               (s)



           35.   Question DetailsZumChem6 4.E.038. [200287]

           A sample may contain any or all of the following ions.
                                             2+      2+       2+
                                    Hg            , Ba , Mn
                                         2
           No precipitate formed when an aqueous solution of NaCl or Na SO was added to the sample solution. A precipitate formed
                                                                                               2     4
           when the sample solution was made basic with NaOH. Which ion or ions are present in the sample solution? (Select all that
           apply.)
                        2+
                   Mn        ions
                        2+
                   Hg         ions
                      2
                      2+
                   Ba        ions




           36.   Question DetailsZumChem6 4.E.058. [200296]

           Assign oxidation states for all atoms in each of the following compounds.




17 of 37                                                                                                                                                            5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                              http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


                               2+
                  (a) UO                  U             O
                           2

                  (b) As O                As            O
                           2 3

                  (c) NaBiO               Na            O                Bi
                                    3

                  (d) As                  As
                           4

                  (e) HAsO                H             O                As
                                 2

                  (f) Mg P O              Mg            O                P
                       2 2 7

                  (g) Na S O              Na            O                S
                           2 2 3

                  (h) Hg Cl               Hg            Cl
                           2     2

                  (i) Ca(NO )             Ca            O                N
                                  3 2




           37.   Question DetailsZumChem6 4.CP.092. [200269]

           A 10.00 mL sample of sulfuric acid from an automobile battery requires 35.03 mL of 1.50 M sodium hydroxide solution for
           complete neutralization. What is the molarity of the sulfuric acid? Sulfuric acid contains two acidic hydrogens.
                            M


           38.   Question DetailsZumChem6 4.AE.070. [200264]

           A 230. mL sample of a 0.270 M CaCl solution is left on a hot plate overnight. The following morning, the solution is 1.10 M.
                                                             2
           What volume of water evaporated from the 0.270 M CaCl solution?
                                                                              2
                                     mL


           39.   Question DetailsZumChem6 5.E.024. [219095]

           Consider the following samples of gases at the same temperature.




           Arrange each of these samples in order from lowest to highest with respect to the following properties.

                 (a) pressure
                               ii = vi < i = iv = v = viii < iii = vii
                               ii < i = iv = vi < iii = v = viii < vii
                               v = vi = vii = viii < i = ii = iii = iv
                               all equal



18 of 37                                                                                                                          5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                              http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...



                 (b) average kinetic energy
                         ii = vi < i = iv = v = viii < iii = vii
                         all equal
                         v = vi = vii = viii < i = ii = iii = iv
                         ii < i = iv = vi < iii = v = viii < vii

                 (c) density
                         ii = vi < i = iv = v = viii < iii = vii
                         all equal
                         ii < i = iv = vi < iii = v = viii < vii
                         v = vi = vii = viii < i = ii = iii = iv

                 (d) root mean square velocity
                         ii = vi < i = iv = v = viii < iii = vii
                         all equal
                         ii < i = iv = vi < iii = v = viii < vii
                         v = vi = vii = viii < i = ii = iii = iv




           40.   Question DetailsZumChem6 5.E.029. [200318]

           A diagram for an open-tube manometer is shown below. If the flask is open to the atmosphere, the mercury levels are equal.




           Now assume a gas is contained in the flask.




                 (a) Calculate the pressure in the flask in torr, atmosphere, and pascals if h = 144 mm.
                                                                                           a
                                     torr
                                     atm
                                   pascals
                 (b) Calculate the pressure in the flask in torr, atmosphere, and pascals if h = 200. mm.
                                                                                           b




19 of 37                                                                                                                       5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


                                   torr
                                   atm
                                   pascals
                 (c) Calculate the pressures in the flask in parts a and b (in torr) if the atmospheric pressure were instead 640. torr.
                 case (a)
                                   torr
                 case (b)
                                   torr




           41.   Question DetailsZumChem6 5.E.032. [200321]

                                                       2
           A balloon is filled to a volume of 3.00   10 mL at a temperature of 14.0°C. The balloon is then cooled at constant pressure to a
                                       2
           temperature of 1.00 10 K. What is the final volume of the balloon?
                            mL


           42.   Question DetailsZumChem6 5.E.033. [200322]

           If 0.500 mol of nitrogen gas occupies a volume of 10.4 L at 0°C, what volume will 2.40 mol of nitrogen gas occupy at the same
           temperature and pressure?
                              L



           43.   Question DetailsZumChem6 5.E.034. [200323]

           Consider the following chemical equation.
                             2 NO (g) N O (g)
                                   2           2 4
           If 20.4 mL of NO gas is completely converted to N O gas under the same conditions, what volume will the N O occupy?
                            2                                   2 4                                                           2 4
                             mL


           44.   Question DetailsZumChem6 5.E.038. [200326]

           A 6.0 L flask contains 0.70 g O at a temperature of 12°C. What is the pressure (in atm) inside the flask?
                                           2
                             atm


           45.   Question DetailsZumChem6 5.E.047. [200332]

           A sealed balloon is filled with 2.30 L of helium at 23°C and 1.00 atm. The balloon rises to a point in the atmosphere where the
           pressure is 250. torr and the temperature is -30.°C. What is the change in volume of the balloon as it ascends from 1.00 atm to
           a pressure of 250. torr?
                             L


           46.   Question DetailsZumChem6 5.E.049. [200334]

           What mass of helium is required to fill a 2.8 L balloon at STP?
                           g


           47.   Question DetailsZumChem6 5.E.059. [200341]



20 of 37                                                                                                                               5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                              http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...



           A gas consisting of only carbon and hydrogen has an empirical formula of CH . The gas has a density of 2.20 g/L at 27°C and
                                                                                         2
           734 torr. Determine the molar mass and molecular formula of the gas. (Type your answer using the format CH4 for CH .)
                                                                                                                                 4
           molar mass
                           g/mol
           molecular formula




           48.      Question DetailsZumChem6 5.E.064. [200344]

           A mixture of 1.15 g H and 1.38 g He is placed in a 1.00 L container at 28°C. Calculate the partial pressure of each gas and the
                                          2
           total pressure.
           P
            H
               2

                                    atm
           P
            He
                                    atm
           P
            total
                                    atm


           49.      Question DetailsZumChem6 6.E.032. [224960]

           Are the following processes exothermic or endothermic?

                    (a) the combustion of gasoline in a car engine
                                 exothermic
                                 endothermic

                    (b) water condensing on a cold pipe
                                 exothermic
                                 endothermic

                    (c) CO (s)       CO (g)
                             2                2
                                 exothermic
                                 endothermic

                    (d) F (g)       2 F(g)
                         2
                                 exothermic
                                 endothermic




           50.      Question DetailsZumChem6 6.E.033. [224961]

           The overall reaction in commercial heat packs can be represented as shown below.
                              4 Fe(s) + 3 O (g) 2 Fe O (s)     !H = -1652 kJ
                                                  2       2 3

                    (a) How much heat is released when 4.72 mol iron is reacted with excess O ?
                                                                                             2
                                   kJ
                    (b) How much heat is released when 1.26 mol Fe O is produced?
                                                                     2 3




21 of 37                                                                                                                         5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                               http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


                                kJ
                 (c) How much heat is released when 2.40 g iron is reacted with excess O ?
                                                                                          2
                                kJ
                 (d) How much heat is released when 13.6 g Fe and 1.77 g O are reacted?
                                                                               2
                                      kJ




           51.   Question DetailsZumChem6 6.E.040. [224964]

           It takes 535 J of energy to raise the temperature of 114.9 g mercury from 20.0°C to 53.5°C. Calculate the specific heat capacity
           and the molar heat capacity of mercury.
           specific heat capacity
                              J/g!°C
           molar heat capacity
                              J/mol°C



           52.   Question DetailsZumChem6 6.E.042. [297213]

           A 5.00 g sample of aluminum pellets (specific heat capacity = 0.89 J/°C!g) and a 10.00 g sample of iron pellets (specific heat
           capacity = 0.45 J/°C!g) are heated to 100.0°C. The mixture of hot iron and aluminum is then dropped into 98.9 g of water at
           20.1°C. Calculate the final temperature of the metal and water mixture, assuming no heat loss to the surroundings.
                            °C


           53.   Question DetailsZumChem6 6.E.054. [297189]

           You are given the following data.
                                                    NH (g)     1/2 N (g) + 3/2 H (g) !H = 46 kJ
                                                         3          2           2

                                                    2 H (g) + O (g)     2 H O(g)      !H = -484 kJ
                                                         2      2          2

           Calculate !H for the following reaction.
                             2 N (g) + 6 H O(g) 3 O (g) + 4 NH (g)
                                  2         2            2          3
                             kJ
           On the basis of the enthalpy change, is this a useful reaction for the synthesis of ammonia?
                      Yes
                      No
                      Not eNough information to decide

           Explain.




           54.   Question DetailsZumChem6 7.E.040. [224988]

           An FM radio station broadcasts at 96.9 MHz. Calculate the wavelength of the corresponding radio waves.
                            m




22 of 37                                                                                                                          5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                              http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...



           55.      Question DetailsZumChem6 7.E.043. [219105]

           Consider the following waves representing electromagnetic radiation.




           Which wave has the longer wavelength?
                     wave a
                     wave b
                     neither

           Calculate the wavelengths.
           wave a
                            m
           wave b
                            m
           Which wave has the higher frequency and larger photon energy?
                     wave a
                     wave b
                     neither

           Use the wavelength of the wave selected to calculate the values.
           frequency
                                    -1
                                s
           photon energy
                          J
           Which wave has the faster velocity?
                     wave a
                     wave b
                     neither

           What type of electromagnetic radiation is illustrated?
                     infrared
                     ultraviolet
                     gamma rays
                     X-rays



           56.      Question DetailsZumChem6 7.E.068. [225003]

           How many electrons in an atom can have the following designations?
           7p
                y


           5f

           n=3




23 of 37                                                                                                                      5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                              http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


           5p

           1p

           n=4




           57.   Question DetailsZumChem6 7.E.073. [225006]

           Write the expected electron configurations for each of the following atoms. (Type your answer in noble gas notation using the
                                              2   10    2
           format [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p2 for [Ar]4s 3d 4p .)

                 Eu

                 Te

                 Br

                 Si

                 Pt

                 V

                 Nd

                 Fe




           58.   Question DetailsZumChem6 8.E.026. [297205]

           Using Figure 8.3 predict the order of increasing electronegativity in each of the following groups of elements.




                                Figure 8.3

                 (a) S, O, F
                  ---Select---         < ---Select---       < ---Select---
                 (b) C, Al, O




24 of 37                                                                                                                         5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                                      http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


                  ---Select---                          < ---Select---            < ---Select---
                 (c) C, F, In
                  ---Select---                          < ---Select---            < ---Select---
                 (d) B, O, Ga
                  ---Select---                          < ---Select---            < ---Select---

           Using Figure 8.3, predict which bond in each of the following groups will be the most polar.

                 (a) C-H, Si-H, Sn-H
                               C-H
                               Si-H
                               Sn-H
                               All bonds have the same polarity.

                 (b) Al-Br, Ga-Br, In-Br, Tl-Br
                               Tl-Br
                               Ga-Br
                               In-Br
                               Al-Br
                               All bonds have the same polarity.

                 (c) C-O or Si-O
                               C-O
                               Si-O
                               Both bonds have the same polarity.

                 (d) O-F or O-Cl
                               O-F
                               O-Cl
                               Both bonds have the same polarity.



           59.   Question DetailsZumChem6 8.E.036. [225033]

           For each of the following groups, place the atoms and/or ions in order of decreasing size.

                               5+         3+        +
                 (a) V, V , V , V
                                     5+                              5+                      5+                    5+
                                V                                V                       V                     V
                                V                                V                       V                     V
                                V
                                     +                  >        V
                                                                     +        >          V
                                                                                             +        >        V
                                                                                                                   +
                                     3+                              3+                      3+                    3+
                                V                                V                       V                     V

                       -        3-             2+           +
                 (b) F , N , Mg , Na
                                     3-                              3-                      3-                    3-
                                N                                N                       N                     N
                                     -                               -                       -                     -
                                F                                F                       F                     F
                                Na
                                         +              >        Na
                                                                         +    >          Na
                                                                                                 +    >        Na
                                                                                                                       +
                                         2+                              2+                      2+                    2+
                                Mg                               Mg                      Mg                    Mg

                           -        3+          2+          3-
                 (c) Cl , Sc , Ca , P




25 of 37                                                                                                                                              5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                                                                       http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


                                                  2+                                             2+                      2+                                    2+
                                      Ca                                             Ca                      Ca                                    Ca
                                                  -                                              -                       -                                     -
                                      Cl                                             Cl                      Cl                                    Cl
                                      P
                                           3-                         >              P
                                                                                         3-              >   P
                                                                                                                 3-                    >           P
                                                                                                                                                       3-
                                                  3+                                             3+                      3+                                    3+
                                      Sc                                             Sc                      Sc                                    Sc

                      -               2-                  3+              +
                 (d) I , Te , La , Cs
                                                  3+                                             3+                      3+                                    3+
                                      La                                             La                      La                                    La
                                                  +                                              +                       +                                     +
                                      Cs                                             Cs                      Cs                                    Cs
                                      Te
                                              2-                      >              Te
                                                                                             2-          >   Te
                                                                                                                     2-                >           Te
                                                                                                                                                           2-
                                          -                                              -                       -                                     -
                                      I                                              I                       I                                     I

                          -           -                -          -
                 (e) Cl , I , Br , F
                                          -                                              -                       -
                                      I                                              I                       I                                         -
                                                  -                                              -                       -
                                                                                                                                                   I
                                      Br                                             Br                      Br                                                -
                                                                                                                                                   Br
                                      Cl
                                                  -                   >              Cl
                                                                                                 -       >   Cl
                                                                                                                         -             >                       -
                                              -                                              -                       -
                                                                                                                                                   Cl
                                      F                                              F                       F                                             -
                                                                                                                                                   F




           60.   Question DetailsZumChem6 8.E.065. [225051]

           Write Lewis structures for the following. Show all resonance structures where applicable. (Do this on paper. Your instructor may
           ask you to turn in this work.)

                                  -                       -
                 (a) NO , NO
                              2                       3
                                      -                       -           -                                                    -               -
                 (b) OCN , SCN , N                                            (Carbon is the central atom in OCN and SCN .)
                                                                      3




           61.   Question DetailsZumChem6 8.E.078. [225056]

           Predict the molecular structure and bond angles for each molecule or ion given below.
                                                                                                 2-                          SO                                                -               3-
                                                                                    SO                                         2                                     ClO               PO
                                                                                             3                                                                             3               3

                                                                                   V-shaped                              trigonal planar                            tetrahedral        square planar
                                                                                   trigonal pyramid                      tetrahedral                                V-shaped           tetrahedral

             molecular structure                                                   tetrahedral                           trigonal pyramid                           square planar      trigonal planar
                                                                                   square planar                         square planar                              trigonal planar    trigonal pyramid
                                                                                   trigonal planar                       V-shaped                                   trigonal pyramid   V-shaped


                  bond angles                                                                            °                                 °                                       °                 °
                                                                                                     -                       XeO                                             -          SCl
                                                                                    ClO                                            4                                 PCl                    2
                                                                                                 4                                                                       2

                                                                                   trigonal planar                       square planar                              tetrahedral        tetrahedral
             molecular structure                                                   V-shaped                              V-shaped                                   V-shaped           trigonal pyramid
                                                                                   square planar                         trigonal planar                            square planar      square planar



26 of 37                                                                                                                                                                                            5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                     http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...



                                               trigonal pyramid            tetrahedral               trigonal planar         trigonal planar
                                               tetrahedral                 trigonal pyramid          trigonal pyramid        V-shaped


                  bond angles                                °                           °                      °                        °




           62.   Question DetailsZumChem6 8.E.086. [297176]

           Which of the following molecules have dipole moments (are polar)?

                 (a) NO
                          2
                              polar
                              nonpolar

                 (b) ClF
                          3
                              polar
                              nonpolar

                 (c) SCl
                          2
                              polar
                              nonpolar




           63.   Question DetailsZumChem6 10.E.035. [297181]

           Identify the most important types of interparticle forces present in the solids of each of the following substances. (Select all that
           apply.)

             (a) NH Cl                   (b) HCl                  (c) NaNO
                    4                                                        3

                        LD                         LD                      LD
                        dipole                     dipole                  dipole
                        H bonding                  H bonding               H bonding
                        ionic                      ionic                   ionic




             (d) NO                      (e) BF                   (f) CH
                                               3                       4
                        LD                         LD                      LD
                        dipole                     dipole                  dipole
                        H bonding                  H bonding               H bonding
                        ionic                      ionic                   ionic




             (g) CHCl
                        3




27 of 37                                                                                                                               5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                    http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...




                      LD
                      dipole
                      H bonding
                      ionic




           64.   Question DetailsZumChem6 11.E.038. [298116]

           Which solvent, water or hexane (C H ), would you choose to dissolve each of the following?
                                                6 14

                 (a) NaCl
                           water
                           hexane

                 (b) HF
                           water
                           hexane

                 (c) octane (C H )
                                 8 18
                           water
                           hexane

                 (d) (NH ) SO
                          4 2    4
                           water
                           hexane




           65.   Question DetailsZumChem6 11.E.058. [224937]

           A 2.40 g sample of a large boimolecule was dissolved in 10.0 g of carbon tetrachloride. The boiling point of this solution was
           determined to be 77.85°C. Calculate the molar mass of the biomolecule. For carbon tetrachloride, the boiling point constant is
           5.03°C!kg/mol, and the boiling point of pure carbon tetrachloride is 76.50°C.
                            g/mol


           66.   Question DetailsZumChem6 12.E.051. [298087]

           The activation energy for the following reaction is 125 kJ/mol, and !E for the reaction is -216 kJ/mol.
                             NO (g) + CO(g) NO(g) + CO (g)
                                     2                           2
           What is the activation energy for the reverse reaction [NO(g) + CO (g)           NO (g) + CO(g)]?
                                                                                    2          2
                                kJ/mol


           67.   Question DetailsZumChem6 13.E.060. [298097]

           What will happen to the number of moles of SO in equilibrium with SO and O in the following reaction in each of the following
                                                             3                          2          2
           cases?
                                2 SO (g)     2 SO (g) + O (g)        !H° = 197 kJ
                                         3       2       2




28 of 37                                                                                                                            5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                                     http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...


                 (a) Oxygen gas is removed.
                             increase
                             decrease
                             stay the same

                 (b) The pressure is increased by decreasing the volume of the reaction container.
                             increase
                             decrease
                             stay the same

                 (c) The pressure is increased by adding argon gas.
                             increase
                             decrease
                             stay the same

                 (d) The temperature is increased.
                             increase
                             decrease
                             stay the same

                 (e) Gaseous sulfur dioxide is added.
                             increase
                             decrease
                             stay the same




           68.   Question DetailsZumChem6 13.E.024. [224286]

           For the reaction below, an analysis of an equilibrium mixture is performed at a certain temperature.
                             N (g) + 3 Cl (g)    2 NCl (g)
                                   2            2                       3
                                                          -1                            -3                                -4
           It is found that [NCl (g)] = 1.9          10        M, [N (g)] = 1.4    10        M, and [Cl (g)] = 4.3   10        M. Calculate K for the reaction at this
                                   3                                   2                                 2
           temperature.




           69.   Question DetailsZumChem6 14.E.044. [224299]

                         +                 -
           Calculate [H ] and [OH ] for each solution at 25°C. Identify each solution as neutral, acidic, or basic.

              (a) pH = -0.27                   (b) pH = 3.52                      (c) pH = 10.63
                 +                               +                                  +
              [H ]                             [H ]                               [H ]
                                       M                                    M                            M
                     -                                -                                  -
              [OH ]                            [OH ]                              [OH ]
                                       M                                    M                            M
                         acidic                                acidic                          acidic
                         basic                                 basic                           basic
                         neutral                               neutral                         neutral




29 of 37                                                                                                                                                       5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                                            http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...



              (d) pOH = 14.30                        (e) pOH = 8.61
                 +                                            +
                                                                                       (f) pOH = 1.25
              [H ]                                   [H ]                                +
                                                                                       [H ]
                                         M                                         M
                                                                                                                M
                     -                                             -
              [OH ]                                  [OH ]                                    -
                                                                                       [OH ]
                                         M                                         M
                                                                                                                M
                         acidic                                          acidic
                                                                                                      acidic
                         basic                                           basic
                                                                                                      basic
                         neutral                                         neutral
                                                                                                      neutral




           70.   Question DetailsZumChem6 15.E.078. [298260]

                                               2+                                                                        -2
           The concentration of Pb                  in a solution saturated with PbBr (s) is 2.14                   10        M. Calculate K    for PbBr .
                                                                                                  2                                        sp           2




           71.   Question DetailsZumChem6 15.E.080. [298255]

           Calculate the solubility of each of the following compounds in moles per liter. Ignore any acid-base properties.

                                                                  -12
                 (a) CdCO , K             = 5.2          10
                               3     sp
                                             mol/L
                                                                   -31
                 (b) Sr (PO ) , K              =1         10
                         3         4 2    sp
                                             mol/L
                                                         -8
                 (c) PbI , K         = 1.4          10
                         2     sp
                                             mol/L




           72.   Question DetailsZumChem6 16.E.020. [298262]

           Which of the following involve an increase in entropy of the system? (Select all that apply.)
                     sublimation
                     melting of a solid
                     separation
                     freezing
                     mixing
                     boiling




           73.   Question DetailsPeriodic Table [715555]

           Suppose that a stable element with atomic number 119, symbol Q, has been discovered. Write the ground state electron
           configuration for Q, showing only the valence shell electrons.




30 of 37                                                                                                                                                     5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                               http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...



           74.   Question DetailsRedox [715146]

           Which statements are true concerning the electrochemical cell corresponding to the redox equation: Cu(NO3)2 + Zn --> Cu +
           Zn(NO3)2 Choose all that apply.
                   electrons travel from the cathode to the anode
                   zinc is the cathode
                   the anode is getting smaller as the reaction proceeds
                   the cathode is getting larger as the reaction proceeds
                   electrons travel from the anode to the cathode
                   the anode is getting larger as the reaction proceeds
                   the cathode is getting smaller as the reaction proceeds
                   copper is the anode
                   zinc is the anode
                   copper is the cathode




           75.   Question DetailsPotential Energy [714987]

           Which of the following is true about the potential energy diagram for 2H2 + O2 --> 2 H2O H= - 486.6 kJ? (Choose all that apply)
                   heat is absorbed
                   the reaction is endothermic
                   activation energy must be added for the reaction to proceed to completion
                   heat is released
                   entropy increases
                   the reactants have a higher potential energy than the products
                   the reactants have a lower potential energy than the products
                   entropy decreases
                   the reaction is exothermic
                   the reacting molecules must collide with the correct orientation




           76.   Question DetailsPeriodic Table [715563]

           Suppose that a stable element with atomic number 119, symbol Q, has been discovered. Assume that Q reacts to form a
           carbonate compound. The formula for the compound formed between Q and the carbonate ion is                      . It is
                               in water. (soluble or insoluble)


           77.   Question DetailsPeriodic Table [715562]

           Suppose that a stable element with atomic number 119, symbol Q, has been discovered. Write a balanced equation that would
           represent the reaction of Q with water.                 Q+                   H2O -->
                               +


           78.   Question DetailsPeriodic Table [715559]




31 of 37                                                                                                                         5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...



           Suppose that a stable element with atomic number 119, symbol Q, has been discovered. On the basis of periodic trends, would
           Q have the largest atomic radius in its group or would it have the smallest? Explain in terms of electronic structure.




           79.    Question DetailsPeriodic Table [715557]

           Suppose that a stable element with atomic number 119, symbol Q, has been discovered. Would Q be a metal or a nonmetal?
           Explain in terms of electron configuration.


           80.    Question DetailsPeriodic Table [715067]

           Give the chemical symbol for the alkali metal with four different energy levels.


           81.    Question DetailsPeriodic Table [715066]

           Give the chemical symbol for the lightest metal in its family with a p2 valence electron in its ground state.


           82.    Question DetailsLewis Dot Structure [714944]

           Draw the Lewis dot structure for potassium sulfide. Which of the following best describes your drawing?
                    2K-1[S+2] potassium has no dots, sulfur has eight
                    K-S-K A sulfur atom single bonded to two potassium atoms and the sulfur has
                 two more lone pairs.
                    K-1[2S+2] there are eight electrons around each atom
                    2K+1[S-2] potassium has no dots, sulfur has eight



           83.    Question DetailsHeat of Fusion & Vaporization [561727]

           Determine the amount of heat(in Joules) needed to boil 5.25 grams of ice. (Assume standard conditions - the ice exists at zero
           degrees Celcius, melts at zero degrees Celcius, and boils at 100 degrees Celcius)


           84.    Question DetailsPeriodic Table [715069]

           Give the chemical symbol for the alkaline earth metal that ha the lowest ionization energy.


           85.    Question DetailsPeriodic Table [715068]

           Give the chemical symbol for the element in the second period with chemical properties similar to those of argon.




           86.    Question DetailsPeriodic Table [715071]

           Give the chemical symbol for the most reactive halogen.


           87.    Question DetailsPercent [704324]

           Determine the mass of metal that can be extracted from a 525 g sample of calcium nitrate.                       g



32 of 37                                                                                                                         5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                              http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...




           88.   Question DetailsFree Response [715220]

           Answer the following questions, which refer to 100 mL samples of 0.10 M aqueous solutions at 25°C of NaF, MgCl2, C2H5OH
           and CH3COOH.

           a) Which solution has the lowest electrical conductivity? Explain.




           b) Which solution has the lowest freezing point? Explain using both qualitative and quantitative reasoning.




           c) Above which solution is the pressure of water vapor greatest? Explain.




           89.   Question DetailsFree Response [715524]

           In a laboratory class, a student is given three flasks that are labeled Q, R and S. Each flask contains one of the following
           solutions: 1.0 M Pb(NO3)2, 1.0 M NaCl, or 1.0 M K2CO3. The student is also given two flasks that are labeled X and Y. One of
           these flasks contains 1.0 M AgNO3, and the other contains 1.0 M BaCl2.

           a) When the student combined a sample of solution Q with a sample of solution X, a precipitate formed. A precipitate also
           formed when samples of solutions Q and Y were combined. Identify solution Q and Write the chemical formulas for each of the
           two precipitates.




           b) When solution Q is mixed with solution R, a precipitate forms. However, no precipitate forms when solution Q is mixed with
           solution S. Identify solution R and solution S and write the chemical formula of the precipitate that forms when solution Q is
           mixed with solution R.




33 of 37                                                                                                                          5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                             http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...




           90.   Question DetailsFree Response [715514]

           Use chemical and physical principles to account for each of the following.

           a) An aluminum container filled with an aqueous solution of CuSO4 eventually developed a leak. Include a chemical equation
           with your answer.




           b) The inside of a metal container was cleaned with steam and immediately sealed. Later, the container imploded.




           c) Skin feels cooler after rubbing alcohol has been applied to it.




           d) The redness and itching of the skin caused by ant bites (injection of methanoic acid, HCO2H) can be relieved by applying a
           paste made from water and baking soda (solid sodium hydrogen carbonate). Include a chemical equation with your answer.




           91.   Question DetailsFree Respoonse [715218]

           Answer the following questions about the element selenium.

           a) Samples of natural selenium contain six stable isotopes. In terms of atomic structure, explain what these isotopes have in
           common and how they differ.




34 of 37                                                                                                                          5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                               http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...




           b) Write the complete electron configuration (i.e. 1s2…) for a selenium atom in the ground state. Indicate the number of
           unpaired electrons in the ground-state atom and how it may react in a chemical reaction. Explain your reasoning.




           c) In terms of atomic structure, explain why the first ionization energy of selenium is less than that of bromine, and greater than
           that of tellurium.




           d) Selenium reacts with fluorine to form selenium tetrafluoride. Draw the complete Lewis electron-dot structure for SeF4 and
           sketch the molecular structure. Indicate whether the molecule is polar or nonpolar, and justify your answer.




           92.   Question Detailsncchemap 11.006. [316027]

           A copper cylinder is massed.




           A foam cup calorimeter is massed, water is added to the calorimeter, and the calorimeter and water are remassed.




35 of 37                                                                                                                             5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                               http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...




           The copper cylinder is placed in a boiling water bath and allowed to reach thermal equilibrium. The temperature of the boiling
           water bath and the temperature of the water in the calorimeter are measured. The initial temperature of the metal is assumed to
           be equal to the boiling water temperature.




           The copper cylinder is transfered to the calorimeter. The copper cylinder and the water in the calorimeter reach thermal
           equilibrium and the final temperature of the system is measured.




           Calculate the specific heat of copper. The specific heat of water is 4.184 J/g!°C. Enter your answer with three significant figures.
                            J/g!°C


           93.    Question Detailsncchemap 15.001. [334081]

           Which of the following account(s) for why food cooks faster at 400°F than at 300°F? (Select all that apply.)
                    Increasing the temperature decreases the collisions between the molecules.
                    Increasing the temperature increases the concentration of the molecules.
                    Increasing the temperature increases collisions between the molecules.
                    Increasing the temperature increases the number of molecules with sufficient
                 energy to react.




36 of 37                                                                                                                             5/21/09 10:45 AM
Assignment Previewer                                                                                   http://www.webassign.net/v4cgipross@unionville.pa/assignmen...



                    Increasing the temperature decreases the number of molecules with sufficient
                 energy to react.
                    Temperature is a catalyst for the reaction.




           94.    Question Detailsncchemap 15.002. [334088]

           Sparklers contain powdered iron. Why do sparklers burn more rapidly that a piece of iron wire? (Select all that apply.)
                    Converting the iron to a powder makes it a catalyst.
                    Larger particles react more rapidly than small particles.
                    The larger surface area of the iron powder increases the rate of reaction.
                     Converting the iron to a powder makes it an ionic compound which reacts more
                 rapidly.
                    Smaller particles have a lower energy of activation than larger particles.




           95.    Question Detailsncchemap 16.003. [335798]

           Which of the following terms define(s) a base according to the Bronsted-Lowry theory? (Select all that apply.)
                    proton donor
                    proton acceptor
                    electron pair donor
                    electron pair acceptor
                      1+
                    H       donor
                      1+
                    H       acceptor
                        1-
                    OH       donor
                        1-
                    OH       acceptor




           96.    Question Detailsncchemap 16.011. [335801]

                                                                                   +              1-
                                        HNO + CH NH                      CH NH         + NO
                                           3                 3       2     3   3              3

           Which of the following are a conjugate acid-base pair in the above reaction? (Select all that apply.)
                                               1-
                    HNO and NO
                            3              3

                    HNO and CH NH
                            3              3        2
                                                                 +
                    CH NH and CH NH
                        3       2               3            3
                                    +                   1-
                    CH NH               and NO
                        3       3                   3
                                                       +
                    HNO and CH NH
                            3              3         3
                                                    1-
                    CH NH and NO
                        3       2               3




           Assignment Details



37 of 37                                                                                                                                           5/21/09 10:45 AM

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:351
posted:6/4/2010
language:English
pages:47