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THE OZONE LAYER DEPLETION

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THE OZONE LAYER DEPLETION Powered By Docstoc
					                                            MAJOR CUMMULATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES




                                                                The mass media regularly and free of charge inform
                                                                the public about the situation of the ozone layer of
                                                                 the Earth and about the values of the ultra-violet
                                                                  radiation falling on the area of Slovak Republic.

                                                                    § 13 par.1 of the Act No. 76/1998 Coll. on
                                                                  Protection of the Ozone Layer of the Earth ... as
                                                                 amended by the Act No. 408/2000 Coll. and the Act
                                                                                 No. 553/2001 Coll.




         THE OZONE LAYER DEPLETION

Intternattiionall lliiabiilliittiies concerniing ozone llayer prottecttiion
In erna ona ab es concern ng ozone ayer pro ec on

    With respect to the seriousness of the problem of global importance, international community has
taken several actions in the UN level, to eliminate destruction of the ozone layer. The first international
forum, where the problem of endangering the ozone layer was raised for the first time, took place in
Vienna in 1985. This assembly adopted the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone
Layer. This was closely followed by adoption of the first executive protocol of the Convention in 1987,
the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the ozone layer. From this year on, the parties of
the Montreal protocol have five times held a session in London (1990), in Copenhagen (1992), in Vienna
(1995), in Montreal (1997) and in Beijing (1999), to limit, or if necessary, to completely eliminate
production of the substances destroying the ozone layer.
    Pursuant to the amendments of the Montreal Protocol and to changes resulting from the London and
Copenhagen amendments, since 1 January 1996 there should not be any use of monitored substances of
group I of A addendum, group II of A addendum of Protocol, group I of B addendum, group II of B
addendum of Protocol, group II of B addendum of Protocol, and group III of B addendum of Protocol.
The only materials, which can be used, are the ones from the stock, the recycled and regenerated ones.
Exclusion is only possible for the use of these substances for laboratory and analytical purposes.
According to the Montreal Protocol adopted in 1992 in Copenhagen and subsequently modified in
Vienna in 1995, production and use of substances of group I of C Protocol addendum since 1996, with a
commitment of their complete elimination by 2020, while these materials can be for another 10 years
produced and used just for servicing purposes in the amount of 0.5 % of the initial years 1989 calculated
level. According to modifications adopted in v Montreal in 1997, consumption of methyl bromide from
group E I should be by 1999 decreased by 25 %, by 2001 by 50 %, by 2003 by 70 % and by the year
2005 completely eliminated. The initial year is 1991. Since 1 January 1996 has been the production and




                              State of the Environment Report - Slovak Republic 2003
                                             MAJOR CUMMULATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES



use of substances of II group of Protocol C addendum (partially halogenated bromide-fluorine carbon
hydrides) banned.
    On February 1, 2000, the Slovak Republic adopted for herself the Amendment to the Montreal
Protocol, which binds us to ban the import and export of all controlled substances, including methyl
bromide, from and to all non-signatory countries, as well as to introduce licensing system for the import
and export of controlled substances. In 2000, there was adopted Act No. 408/2000 Coll., which amends
Act No. 76/1998 Coll. on Protection of the Ozone Layer of Earth and Act No. 455/1991 Coll. on Small
Business (Small Business Act) as amended, which regulated the majority of responsibilities stemming
from the EU Parliament and Council Regulation No. 2037/2000, and which banned production and
consumption of bromchlormethane, creating conditions to ratify the Beijing Amendment to Montreal
Protocol.

Assessmentt off tthe consumpttiion off substtances under conttroll
Assessmen o he consump on o subs ances under con ro

    Slovak Republic does not produce any substances destroying the ozone layer of Earth. The whole
consumption of these substances is covered by imports. These imported materials are used first of all in
coolants, in detection gasses, dissolvents and detergents.

Consumption of substances under control in SR during 1992-2003 (tonnes)
Group of
                      1986/89#     1992   1993    1994 1995       1996       1997       1998       1999       2000       2001       2002   2003
substances
                                                                      1)         1)            1      1)
AI – freons              1,710.5 609.6     986.9 229.4    379.2   1.21       2.05       1.71       1.69        2.07        4.1 0.996       0.805
A II – halons                8.1   2.5       2.0     0        0          0          0       0          0          0          0
BI* - freons                 0.1   0.0       0.1     0        0          0          0       0          0          0          0
B II* - CCl4                91.0 251.8     250.0 315.4      0.6          0   0.161)      0.07       0.08      0.022       0.03 0.01        0.009
BIII* - 1,1,1
                          200.1 107.3      180.0 136.7     69.4          0   0.111)            0          0          0          0
trichlore-ethane
C I*                        49.7                           37.2   61.00      59.90 90.48           44.92      64.73       66.8 71.5 52.911
C II - HBFC22B1                                                   14.30          0      0              0          0          0
E** - CH3Br                 10.0                                   9.60       5.60 10.20               0          0       0.48 0.48    0.48
Total                    2,019.5 971.2 1,419.0 717.5      449.2   86.10      61.81 102.50          46.69      66.82       71.4 72.986 54.205
                                                                                                                              Source: MoE SR
#
  Initial usage
   Initial year 1989
    Initial year 1991
1)
   Usage of substances in groups A I, B II a B III between 1996-2001 represents import of these substances for their analytical
and laboratory use in accordance with the general exception from the Montreal Protocol
Note 1: Besides the indicated substances, another 250 tonnes of recycled tetrachlore methane and 20 tonnes of regenerated
freon CFC 12 were imported in 1996, which (with reference to applicable methodology) are not counted in the consumption
figures. The data from previous years on usage of substances in groups C I, C II and E are not available.
Note 2: Besides the indicated substances, another 40 tonnes of used Freon CFC 12 were imported in 1997, which (with
reference to applicable methodology) are not counted in the consumption figures, and 2.16 tonnes of methyl bromide for
Slovakofarma, which was used as base material for pharmaceutical production and with reference to applicable methodology
also are not counted in the consumption figures.
Note 3: Besides the indicated substances, 8.975 tonnes of used coolant R 12 were imported in 1998, which belongs to group A1.
With reference to applicable methodology of the Montreal Protocol it is not are not counted in the consumption figures.
Note 4: Besides the indicated substances, another 1.8 tonnes of used Freon CFC 12 were imported in 1999, which (with
reference to applicable methodology) are not counted in the consumption figures, and 1.04 tonnes of methyl bromide for
Slovakofarma, which were used as base material for pharmaceutical production and with reference to applicable methodology
also are not counted in the consumption figures.




                                 State of the Environment Report - Slovak Republic 2003
                                           MAJOR CUMMULATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES



Note 5: In 2001, 0.48 tonnes of methyl bromide were imported for Slovakofarma, which were used as base material for
pharmaceutical production and with reference to applicable methodology are not counted in the consumption figures.
Note 6: In 2002, 0.48 tonnes CH3Br were imported for Slovakofarma, which were used as base material for pharmaceutical
product (Septonex) and with reference to applicable methodology are not counted in the consumption figures.

Usage of substances under control in 2003 (tonnes)
                                                                       Group of substances
Usage
                                                      AI    A II     BI     B II BIII        CI     C II   E*
Coolant                                                  -       -      -       -        -    7.5       -     -
Fire extinguishers                                       -       -      -       -        -      -       -     -
Isolating gasses                                         -       -      -       -        -      -       -     -
Detection gasses, diluents, detergents              0.805        -      - 0.09           -      -       -     -
Aerosols                                                 -       -      -       -        -      -       -     -
Swelling agents                                          -       -      -       -        -      -       -     -
Sterilizers, sterile mixtures                            -       -      -       -        -      -       -     -
                                                                                                 Source: MoE SR
* E*-CH3Br was used by production of a pharmaceutical product (Septonex), where it is used completely.

Siittuattiion off tthe ozone llayer above tthe tterriittory off SR
S ua on o he ozone ayer above he err ory o SR

        In connection with the ozone layer depletion, situation of the ozone in the stratosphere is monitored.
The average annual value of the overall atmospheric ozone in 2003 was 333.9 Dobson units, which
is 1.3 % below the long term average value, calculated from the measurements taken in Hradec Králové
between the years 1962 - 1990, which has been used also for our territory as a long term normal.
        Comparing it with the year 2002 when the layer lost 4.6 %, the situation in 2003 was much more
favourable, and after 1998 it was the second best annual average.
        In January and February, the average monthly aberrations were in black despite the fact, that there
were extreme daily drops of total ozone recorded in the first half of the first month – down to the value of
25 %. However, they were compensated by extreme positive aberrations over 30 %, which evidences the
biggest variability of the ozone layer in winter and in early springtime. Almost uninterrupted period of
negative aberrations started in the second decade of April and went on until the end of August.
Aberrations mostly did not reach higher values, but in the whole period the total amount of ozone just
episodically climbed up slightly above the long term average. Worst situation occurred in May, when the
average monthly value was 7 % below the long-term average. In autumn the ozone layer was mostly in
good condition, the more distinctive and uninterrupted drops were recorded again in December

Absolute atmospheric ozone above the territory of Slovakia in 2003
                     460                                                                     30
                     440                                                                     25
  Amount of ozone




                     420                                                                     20
                     400                                                                     15
                                                                                                   Aberration from




                     380                                                                     10
                                                                                                    average [%]
      [DU]




                     360                                                                     5
                     340                                                                     0
                     320                                                                     -5
                     300                                                                     -10
                     280                                                                     -15
                     260                                                                     -20
                     240                                                                     -25
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                                                   Calendar week
                            Average 1962-1990       Weekly average        Aberration
                                                                                         Source: SHMI


                               State of the Environment Report - Slovak Republic 2003
                                                                              MAJOR CUMMULATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES



                                             The total sum of daily dose of the harmful ultra-violet radiation in the period April to September
was 461.720 J/m2. The missing data in June caused by calibration of the equipment was amended by the
value acquired as the average of 10 before and 10 days after the calibration. The sum of daily doses
reaches almost the level of 2000, when there was measured the so far highest value (462.267 J/m2) since
the measurement started in 1994. Although the daily values were far behind the absolute extremes, the
high gross dose was caused by the weather character with long dry and sunny periods.


The annual course of the midday values of erythema (CIE) radiation - Gánovce 2003
                                             250                                                                                     10

                                             225                                                                                     9
 Density of the CIE radiation flow (mW/m2)




                                             200                                                                                     8
                                                                                                                     Vysoký
                                             175                                                                                     7

                                             150                                                                                     6




                                                                                                                                          UV index
                                             125                                                                     Stredn          5

                                             100                                                                                     4

                                              75                                                                                     3
                                                                                                                     Nízky
                                              50                                                                                     2

                                              25                                                                                     1

                                               0                                                                                     0
                                                   1   31   61    91    121   151    181   211    241   271    301      331    361
                                                                                     Day
                                                                                                                              Source: SHMI




                                                                   State of the Environment Report - Slovak Republic 2003

				
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