Psychology - Physical_ Cognitive and Social Development

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					Chapters 10 & 11: Development
Part I: Physical and cognitive development

Part II: Social development
                          Part I
•    Developmental psychology
1.   differences and similarities among people of different
2.   qualitative and quantitative psychological changes
3.   across the life span

•    Cognitive development
1.   mental skills accumulate and change
2.   increasing physiological maturity and experience
Basic questions in development
• Maturation: permanent change due to
  biological processes

• Learning: permanent change in thought
  or behavior due to experience

• both interact
•   Continuity vs. discontinuity (stage)

1. Qualitative change (e.g., egocentrism)
2. Many new skills appear simultaneously (e.g.,
   verbal, math, spatial)
3. Transitions between stages are fairly abrupt
   (new abilities occur suddenly, not in tiny steps)
4. Re-organize (not just add a skill)

P.S. Stages occur in an invariable sequence (e.g.,
   creep before walk)
•   Domain generality vs. domain specificity

1. Domain generality: multiple areas

2. Domain specificity: verbal, math, artistic
•   Methodological issues

1. Cross-sectional studies: people of
   different ages at the same time

2. Longitudinal studies: same individuals for
   many years
    Physical and neural development
•    The rate of development depends on our
     interactions with the environment

•    It is not the addition of neurons in early
1. it is the elimination of neurons (neural pruning)
2. it is the strengthening of connections between
•   Three stages of prenatal period

1. Germinal 受精卵 (0-2 weeks): implanted in the
2. Embryonic 胚胎 (3-8 weeks): central nervous
   system and major organs begin to develop
3. Fetal 胎兒 (9week-birth): muscular and the
   brain grow rapidly

Fetal alcohol syndrome: impaired motor development,
    mental retardation
•   The newborn’s capabilities
1. Perceptual abilities:
(a) nearsighted, 19cm, from the infant to the
    mother’s face
(b) prefer an edge

2. Reflexes (Table 10.1)

3. Motor development (Table 10.2)
• Adolescence and adulthood
- physically mature

1. Puberty
(a) First sex characteristics: sexual reproduction
(b) Second sex characteristics: sex-stereotypical

2. Adulthood - Aging
(a) Reaction time tend to slow down
(b) Hearing loss
-   Neural development

1. 0-2 years: neural connection become complex

2. 2-6 years: 90% of neural growth is complete

3. 80 years: lose 5% of our brain weight
       Cognitive development
•   Jean Piaget

1. Equilibration

2. Assimilation: incorporating new information to
   existing schemes

3. Accommodation: modifying relevant schemas
•   Stages of development

1. Sensory-motor stage (0-2 years)
(a) reflex
(b) object permanence
(c) having mental representation of an object

2. pre-operational stage (2-7 years)
(a) use language, communication
(b) egocentrism
3. Concrete-operational stage (7-12 years)
(a) mentally manipulate representations of objects
(b) Conservation of liquid quantity (Figure 10.4)

4. Formal-operational stage (11years beyond)
(a) abstract ideas
(b) math operation
•   Lev Vygotsky

1. Internalization: development proceeds
   from the outside

2. Zone of proximal development: potential
   development, range between developed
   abilities and potential abilities
                 Part II
• Emotional development

• Personality development

• Moral development
      Emotional development
•   U curve (Figure 11.3)
1. more familiar, more emotional reaction
2. responses decreases

•   Differentiation theory: gradually become
    differentiated into various emotions

•   Discrete-emotions theory: innately pre-
    disposed to feel various emotions
     Personality development
• Psycho-social development (Table 11.2)

• Self-concept: independence

• Temperament: individuals interact with the
        Moral development
• Dilemma

• Kohlberg’s model (Table 11.4)

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