Psychology - Biological bases of behavior

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					Chapter 3: Biological bases of
          behavior
    The organization of the nervous
               system
•   The central nervous system
1. Brain
2. Spinal cord
•   The peripheral nervous system
1. Somatic (voluntary): sensory and motor
2. Automatic (involuntary): sympathetic & para-
   sympathetic
   The central nervous system
• Neurons: receiving and transmitting information
  to the spinal cord
• Spinal cord: transmitting information from
  sensory neurons to the brain and from the brain
  to motor neurons
• Sensory afferents
• Motor efferents
• Spinal reflex (no through the brain)
    The peripheral nervous system
•    Somatic nervous system
1. 400 skeletal muscles
2. Striated muscles
3. Voluntary, conscious

•    Automatic nervous system
1. Non-skeletal muscles (heart)
2. Smooth muscles
3. Self-regulating
• Automatic nervous system
1. Sympathetic: use energy
   - arousal, alertness
   - emergency

2. Para-sympathetic: store energy
   - calming the body
   - tandem
Nervous system cells and functions
• Neurons (神經細胞)
1. Sensory neurons: receiving information
   from the environment
2. Motor neurons: carrying information
   away from the spinal cord and the brain
   toward the body parts
3. Inter-neurons: between sensory and
   motor neurons
•   The anatomy of the neuron, Figure 3.5
1. Soma (細胞體): nucleus, metabolic,
   reproductive
2. Dendrites (樹突): receiving information from
   other cells
3. Axon (軸突): receiving information from the
   soma and dendrites, sending it to terminal
   buttons
4. Terminal buttons (終扣): the end of the neuron,
   inter-neuronal communication
•    Axon
1.   Myelin sheath (髓鞘): insulating the axon and
     speeding up the conduction
2.   Nodes of Ranvier (蘭氏結): speeding up the
     conduction
3.   Communication within the neuron is electro-
     chemical
4.   Once a charge reaches a neuron’s threshold of
     excitation, an action potential (活動電位) occurs
5.   Figure 3.7, action potentials are all or none.
• Terminal buttons and Synapse
1. Synapse (突觸): the gap between the
   terminal buttons of one neuron and the
   dendrites of the next neuron
2. The terminal buttons of the pre-synaptic
   neuron sending a message to release
   neurotransmitter (神經傳導素)

Figure 3.9
• Neurotransmitter
1. Acetylcholine (Ach,乙醯膽鹼): memory
   loss, Alzheimer’s disease
2. Dopamine (DA,多巴胺)
   - too little, Parkinson’s desease
   - too much, Schizophrenia
The structures and functions of the
               brain
• Hindbrain
• Midbrain
• Forebrain

Figure 3.11
• Hindbrain
1. Medulla oblongata (延髓): heartbeat,
   breathing
2. Pons (橋腦): passing signal from one
   part of the brain to another
3. Cerebellum (小腦): bodily coordination
   and balance
• Midbrain
1. Reticular activating system (RAS,網狀激
   發系統): the regulation of sleep, arousal,
   attention
2. Brainstem (腦幹): connecting the brain to
   the spinal cord (midbrain, hindbrain,
   thalamus, and hypothalamus), death
•    Forebrain
1.   Limbic system (邊緣系統)
2.   Thalamus (視丘)
3.   Hypothalamus (下視丘)
4.   Cerebral cortex (大腦皮層)
1. The limbic system: emotion, motivation
   (a) hippocampus (海馬回): memory
   formation, unable to form new memories
   (b) amygdala (杏仁核): anger, aggression

2. The thalamus: relaying sensory
   information to the appropriated regions of
   the cortex
3. The hypothalamus: controlling endocrine
  system, fighting, feeding, fleeting, mating

4. The cerebral cortex: 2mm-deep layer, left-
  and right- hemispheres, corpus callosum
  (胼胝體)
• The hemisphere of the brain (腦半球)
1. Broca’s area: loss of speech-left frontal
   lobe, the movement of mouth for speech
2. Wernicke’s area: speech making no
   sense-left temporal lobe, language
   comprehension
3. Left hemisphere: language
   Right hemisphere: space, pictures
Split-brain study, Figure 3.14 & 3.16
•   The four lobes of the brain (腦葉)
1. Frontal lobe (額葉): higher thought processes,
   abstract reasoning
2. Parietal lobe (頂葉): somato-sensory, skin,
   muscle
3. Temporal lobe (顳葉): auditory processing
4. Occipital lobe (枕葉): visual processing

Figure 3.21
• Primary motor cortex: frontal lobe, with
  planning, control, and execution of
  movement
• Primary sensory cortex: parietal lobe, the
  sense about pressure, temperature, and
  pain

Figure 3.18 & 3.19
      Studying the living brain
• EEG (腦電圖): the sums of the effects of
  brain activity over larger areas-electrical
  activity of the entire living brain
• CAT (CT, 電腦斷層掃描): X ray-based
  technique, a cross-sectional image of the
  brain
• PET (正子放射造影): radioactive glucose,
  the brain in action


• fMRI (功能性核磁共振造影): changes in
  the magnetic state of the blood as a
  function of its degree of oxygenation

				
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