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History - War and Diplomacy

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									War and Diplomacy
Albert Einstein's Letter to FDR
                   As a Jewish refugee from
                    Berlin, Einstein, well
                    aware of the advanced
                    state of German physics,
                    dispatched a letter to
                    FDR warning him of the
                    enormous potential of
                    atomic power and of the
                    grave danger if the Nazis
                    succeeded in acquiring a
                    nuclear weapon.
       The Trinity Test
                  Until the atomic bomb could be tested,
                   doubt would remain about its
                  The world had never seen a nuclear
                   explosion before, and estimates varied
                   widely on how much energy would be
                  There was only enough weapons-grade
                   uranium available for one bomb, so on
                   July 14, 1945, most of the uranium
                   bomb ("Little Boy") began its trip
                   westward to the Pacific without its
                   design having ever been fully tested.
                  A test of the plutonium bomb seemed
                   vital, however, both to confirm its
                   novel implosion design and to gather
                   data on nuclear explosions in general.
                  Several plutonium bombs were now "in
                   the pipeline" and would be available
                   over the next few weeks and months. It
                   was therefore decided to test one of
The Trinity Test
        A  remote corner on the Alamagordo
        Bombing Range 210 miles south of Los
        Alamos became the test site.
        The elaborate instrumentation
        surrounding the site was tested with an
        explosion of a large amount of
        conventional explosives on May 7.
        Three observation bunkers located 10,000
        yards north, west, and south of the firing
        tower at ground zero would attempt to
        measure key aspects of the reaction.
        On July 12, the plutonium core was taken
        to the test area in an army sedan.
        The non-nuclear components left for the
        test site at 12:01 a.m., Friday the 13th.
        By 5:00 p.m. on the 15th, the device had
        been assembled and hoisted atop the 100-
        foot firing tower.
        At precisely 5:30 a.m. on Monday, July 16,
        1945, the nuclear age began.
   Hiroshima was the primary target of the first atomic bomb mission.
   The bomb exploded over Hiroshima at 8:15 on the morning of August 6,
   At 8:16 A.M., the Tokyo control operator of the Japanese Broadcasting
    Corporation noticed that the Hiroshima station had gone off the air.
   A young officer of the Japanese General Staff was instructed to fly
    immediately to Hiroshima, to land, survey the damage, and return to
    Tokyo with reliable information for the staff.
   After flying for about three hours, while still nearly 100 miles from
    Hiroshima, he and his pilot saw a great cloud of smoke from the bomb
   Tokyo's first knowledge of what had really caused the disaster came from
    the White House public announcement in Washington sixteen hours after
    Hiroshima had been hit by the atomic bomb.

The Enola Gay carried the Bomb to Hiroshima.
     On the morning of August 9th, 1945, at
      about 7:50 A.M., Japanese time, an air raid
      alert was sounded in Nagasaki, but the "All
      clear" signal was given at 8:30.
     When only two B-29 super fortresses were
      sighted at 10:53 the Japanese apparently
      assumed that the planes were only on
      reconnaissance and no further alarm was
     A few moments later, at 11:00 o'clock, the
      observation B-29 dropped instruments
      attached to three parachutes and at 11:02
      the other plane released the atomic bomb.
     The bomb exploded high over the
      industrial valley of Nagasaki, almost
      midway between the Mitsubishi Steel and
      Arms Works, in the south, and the
      Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works
      (Torpedo Works), in the north, the two
      principal targets of the city.
The Yalta Conference
             Held from February 4 to 11, 1945,
              the Yalta Conference was a meeting
              between the heads of government
              of the United States, the United
              Kingdom and the Soviet Union.
             The British wanted to maintain their
             The Soviets wished to obtain more
              land and to strengthen conquests
             Th Americans wanted to ensure the
              Soviets' entry into the Pacific war
              and discuss postwar settlement.
             Among the agreements were the
              postwar division of Germany into
              zones of occupation, the boundaries
              of Poland, German reparations and
              the entry of the USSR into the war
              against Japan.
Potsdam Conference
           The Potsdam Conference was held in
            Potsdam, Germany from July 17 to
            August 2, 1945. between the Soviet
            Union, the United Kingdom, and the
            United States.
           The three heads of state gathered to
            decide how to administer the defeated
            Nazi Germany, which had agreed to
            unconditional surrender nine weeks
           The goals of the conference also included
            the establishment of post-war order,
            peace treaties issues, and countering the
            effects of war.
           Towards the end of the conference, Japan
            was given an ultimatum and hastily after
            Japan had rejected it, atomic bombs were
            dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on
            August 6 and August 9 respectively.
           Truman made the decision to use atomic
            weapons to end the war while at the
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
              The Dumbarton Oaks Conference,
               held in a Washington, DC
               mansion, finalized the post-war
               successor to the League of Nation,
               the future United Nations.
              The composition of the UN and
               which states would be included as
               members were negotiated.
               Representatives of the United
               States, the Soviet Union, the
               United Kingdom, and the Republic
               of China attended the conference
               and discussions included the
               formation of the Security Council
               and the right of veto that would be
               given to its permanent members.
Bretton Woods
         Inspired by the lessons of the
          Great Depression, the Bretton
          Woods System, the first example
          of a fully-negotiated monetary
          order intended to govern fiscal
          relations among several states,
          was based on the twin pillars of
          the World Bank and the
          International Monetary Fund.
         The victorious allies believed that
          a sound international economic
          system could prevent the
          circumstances that led to
          militarism, fascism and war
          during the 1930s.
UN San Francisco Conference
               On April 25, 1945, the UN
                Conference on International
                Organizations began in San Francisco.
               In addition to the Governments, a
                number of non-governmental
                organizations, including Lions Clubs
                International, were invited to assist in
                drafting the charter.
               The 50 nations represented at the
                conference signed the Charter of the
                United Nations two months later on
                June 26.
               The UN came into existence on
                October 24, 1945, after the Charter
                had been ratified by the five
                permanent members of the Security
                Council — Republic of China, France,
                the Soviet Union, United Kingdom,
                and the United States — and by a
                majority of the other 46 signatories.
The Nuremberg Trial
            In an unprecedented step, the Allies,
             as early as 1942, agreed to try top
             Nazi leaders for war crimes and for
             crimes against humanity.
            Conducted by a joint U.S.-British-
             Soviet military tribunal, the trial
             began on November 20, 1945 by
             indicting twenty-four leading Nazis.
            The first of the Nuremberg Trials
             held from 20 November 1945
             through 1 October 1946, the Trial of
             Major War Criminals prosecuted the
             most prominent members of Nazi
             German leadership.
            Trials for lesser crimes were
             conducted through 1949.
                                 Multimedia Citations
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