War and Diplomacy Albert Einstein's Letter to FDR As a Jewish refugee from Berlin, Einstein, well aware of the advanced state of German physics, dispatched a letter to FDR warning him of the enormous potential of atomic power and of the grave danger if the Nazis succeeded in acquiring a nuclear weapon. The Trinity Test Until the atomic bomb could be tested, doubt would remain about its effectiveness. The world had never seen a nuclear explosion before, and estimates varied widely on how much energy would be released. There was only enough weapons-grade uranium available for one bomb, so on July 14, 1945, most of the uranium bomb ("Little Boy") began its trip westward to the Pacific without its design having ever been fully tested. A test of the plutonium bomb seemed vital, however, both to confirm its novel implosion design and to gather data on nuclear explosions in general. Several plutonium bombs were now "in the pipeline" and would be available over the next few weeks and months. It was therefore decided to test one of these. Oppenheimer The Trinity Test A remote corner on the Alamagordo Bombing Range 210 miles south of Los Alamos became the test site. The elaborate instrumentation surrounding the site was tested with an explosion of a large amount of conventional explosives on May 7. Three observation bunkers located 10,000 yards north, west, and south of the firing tower at ground zero would attempt to measure key aspects of the reaction. On July 12, the plutonium core was taken to the test area in an army sedan. The non-nuclear components left for the test site at 12:01 a.m., Friday the 13th. By 5:00 p.m. on the 15th, the device had been assembled and hoisted atop the 100- foot firing tower. At precisely 5:30 a.m. on Monday, July 16, 1945, the nuclear age began. Hiroshima Hiroshima was the primary target of the first atomic bomb mission. The bomb exploded over Hiroshima at 8:15 on the morning of August 6, 1945. At 8:16 A.M., the Tokyo control operator of the Japanese Broadcasting Corporation noticed that the Hiroshima station had gone off the air. A young officer of the Japanese General Staff was instructed to fly immediately to Hiroshima, to land, survey the damage, and return to Tokyo with reliable information for the staff. After flying for about three hours, while still nearly 100 miles from Hiroshima, he and his pilot saw a great cloud of smoke from the bomb Tokyo's first knowledge of what had really caused the disaster came from the White House public announcement in Washington sixteen hours after Hiroshima had been hit by the atomic bomb. Hiroshima The Enola Gay carried the Bomb to Hiroshima. Nagasaki On the morning of August 9th, 1945, at about 7:50 A.M., Japanese time, an air raid alert was sounded in Nagasaki, but the "All clear" signal was given at 8:30. When only two B-29 super fortresses were sighted at 10:53 the Japanese apparently assumed that the planes were only on reconnaissance and no further alarm was given. A few moments later, at 11:00 o'clock, the observation B-29 dropped instruments attached to three parachutes and at 11:02 the other plane released the atomic bomb. The bomb exploded high over the industrial valley of Nagasaki, almost midway between the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, in the south, and the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works (Torpedo Works), in the north, the two principal targets of the city. The Yalta Conference Held from February 4 to 11, 1945, the Yalta Conference was a meeting between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. The British wanted to maintain their empire The Soviets wished to obtain more land and to strengthen conquests Th Americans wanted to ensure the Soviets' entry into the Pacific war and discuss postwar settlement. Among the agreements were the postwar division of Germany into zones of occupation, the boundaries of Poland, German reparations and the entry of the USSR into the war against Japan. Potsdam Conference The Potsdam Conference was held in Potsdam, Germany from July 17 to August 2, 1945. between the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The three heads of state gathered to decide how to administer the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier. The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties issues, and countering the effects of war. Towards the end of the conference, Japan was given an ultimatum and hastily after Japan had rejected it, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and August 9 respectively. Truman made the decision to use atomic weapons to end the war while at the conference. Dumbarton Oaks Conference The Dumbarton Oaks Conference, held in a Washington, DC mansion, finalized the post-war successor to the League of Nation, the future United Nations. The composition of the UN and which states would be included as members were negotiated. Representatives of the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the Republic of China attended the conference and discussions included the formation of the Security Council and the right of veto that would be given to its permanent members. Bretton Woods Inspired by the lessons of the Great Depression, the Bretton Woods System, the first example of a fully-negotiated monetary order intended to govern fiscal relations among several states, was based on the twin pillars of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. The victorious allies believed that a sound international economic system could prevent the circumstances that led to militarism, fascism and war during the 1930s. UN San Francisco Conference On April 25, 1945, the UN Conference on International Organizations began in San Francisco. In addition to the Governments, a number of non-governmental organizations, including Lions Clubs International, were invited to assist in drafting the charter. The 50 nations represented at the conference signed the Charter of the United Nations two months later on June 26. The UN came into existence on October 24, 1945, after the Charter had been ratified by the five permanent members of the Security Council — Republic of China, France, the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and the United States — and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. The Nuremberg Trial In an unprecedented step, the Allies, as early as 1942, agreed to try top Nazi leaders for war crimes and for crimes against humanity. Conducted by a joint U.S.-British- Soviet military tribunal, the trial began on November 20, 1945 by indicting twenty-four leading Nazis. The first of the Nuremberg Trials held from 20 November 1945 through 1 October 1946, the Trial of Major War Criminals prosecuted the most prominent members of Nazi German leadership. Trials for lesser crimes were conducted through 1949. Multimedia Citations Slide 2: http://www.einstein-weiterdenken.de/bilder/einsteinsw.jpg Slide 3: http://www.phy.bg.ac.yu/web_projects/giants/oppenheimer.jpg Slide 4: http://www.rjgeib.com/thoughts/shiva/deton1.jpg Slide 6: http://www.spiegel.de/img/0,1020,460399,00.jpg Slide 7: http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/winter/images/atomi c-bomb.jpg Slide 8: http://history.acusd.edu/cdr2/WW2Pics/12470.jpg Slide 9: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/ac00001/ac01860.jpg Slide 10: http://www.un.org/UN50/Photos/un50-015.gif Side 11: http://www.bwbs.de/UserFiles/Image/1946- 1950/bretton_woods.jpg Slide 12: http://www.unausa.org/atf/cf/%7B49C555AC-20C8-4B43-8483- A2D4C1808E4E%7D/UN_Signing-SF.jpg Slide 13: http://cghs.dade.k12.fl.us/holocaust/nuremburg.jpg
"History - War and Diplomacy"