"History - Presidential and Radical Reconstruction"
Presidential and Radical Reconstruction Ten Percent Plan Lincoln’s 10% Plan offered amnesty to all but high-ranking Confederates willing to pledge loyalty to the Union and accept the abolition of slavery When 10 percent of a state's 1860 voters had take this oath, that state could reapply to the Union. The Ten Percent Plan was aimed at subverting the southern war effort. In Louisiana, former slave owners attempted to reassert control over the newly freed black population with the aid of occupying forces, but the freedmen fought back. Wade-Davis Bill The Wade-Davis Bill, a substitute for Lincoln’s plan, called for stern peace and full rights for freedmen. The Bill was passed on July 2, 1864 in Congress, but was effectively vetoed by Lincoln, who refused to sign the bill before the Congress adjourned. The Wade-Davis Bill's conditions for restoring the rebellious states to the Union include: requiring an oath of allegiance by a majority of each state's adult white male population, that the new state governments can only be operated by those who never carried arms against the union the permanent disenfranchisement of all Confederate civil and military leaders. Senator Wade of Ohio African Freedmen's Inquiry Commission Report The American Freedmen's Inquiry Commission was established during the Civil War to determine the condition of freed slaves. Appointed in March of 1863 by U.S. Secretary of War to "inquire into the condition of the Colored population” The 1864 report outlines the type or aid the commission recommends be provided to freemen. The Freedmen's Bureau The Freedmen's Bureau was charged with distributing confiscated land to "loyal refugees and freedmen" and with regulating labor contracts between freedmen and planters. The Freedmen's Bureau also worked with the large number of northern voluntary associations that sent missionaries and teachers to the south to establish schools for former slaves. In February of 1866, President Andrew Johnson vetoed the Freedmen's Bureau Bill In July, Congress renewed the Freedmen's Bureau by overriding the Presidential veto with a two-thirds majority in both houses. Lincoln's Assassination On April 14, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln was shot in the head at the Ford's Theater in Washington by an actor named John Wilkes Booth. The President was attending “Our American Cousin” with his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln Major Henry R. Rathbone, and Clara Harris. The bullet entered through Lincoln's left ear and lodged behind his right eye. Lincoln was carried across Tenth Street, to the Petersen House, a boarding- house opposite the theater, where he died very early the next morning. At roughly the same time Lincoln was attacked, Lewis Paine, a co-conspirator of Booth, attacked Lincoln's Secretary of State, William Henry Seward. Andrew Johnson's Plan for Reconstruction In May of 1865, Johnson launched his own plan for restoration. In this plan, he automatically offered amnesty to all southerners save high- ranking Confederate officials and wealthy planters; who could only be pardoned by presidential order. Johnson appointed provisional governors for the confederate states and required them to revoke the secession, reject their Confederate debts, and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. Within months all of the former Confederacy had met the requirements and had functioning, elected governments. Frederick Douglass' Reconstruction Frederick Douglass, a freed slave who became one of the most influential African Americans in history and eventually became the head of the Freedmen's Bureau, explained reconstruction from the eyes of a black American. Frederick Douglass detailed the miserable conditions of slavery and how the conditions are not much better after abolition before discussing the Reconstruction in general. Thirteenth Amendment proposed 1865; ratified 1865 By 1864 Maryland, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana all amended their constitutions to free their slaves. Abolitionists feared that the Emancipation Proclamation would be invalidated at the end of the war and that the southern states would react by reestablishing slavery. President Lincoln persuaded the Republican dominate Congress to prohibit slavery, which they did when the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States was passed on January 31, 1865. Fourteenth Amendment proposed 1866; ratified 1868 Congressional Radical Republicans moved quickly to establish black civil rights in an amendment to the Constitution. The Fourteenth Amendment became a bundle of civil rights initiatives. The soul of the amendment declared that "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" were citizens, that no state could alter "the privileges or immunities of citizens" nor could they deprive "any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law." Fifteenth Amendment proposed 1869; ratified 1870 The 15th Amendment forbids both the Federal and State governments from denying citizens the right to vote on the basis of race, color, or "previous condition of servitude," The amendment left the use of poll taxes and property or literacy tests to discourage blacks from voting, but northern states valued those qualifications for use against immigrants and indigents. Civil Rights Acts The Civil Rights Act called for complete equality for African Americans, which would essentially undermine the southern state's Black Codes. The Act also served to limit southern representation in Congress. As was to be expected, the Act and the Fourteenth Amendment received little support from the southern states and were viewed as unrealistic and unfair. In 1870, 1871, and 1875 amendments to the original Civil Rights Act were made to further secure and improve the civil rights of the freed slaves. Black Codes Dissatisfied with the new freedoms enjoyed by African Americans, several Southern state legislatures passed their own laws which served to limit the rights afforded to African Americans by federal legislation. Black Codes were designed to drive freedmen back to the plantations, to restrict their freedom of movement, and to deny them equality before the law. They set curfews, required blacks who lived in town to have white sponsors, and sharply restricted their rights of assembly to keep any political unification from happening. Reconstruction Acts The Reconstruction Act of 1867, enacted in March by the Republican Congress organized the South as a conquered land, dividing it (with the exception of Tennessee) into five military districts, each under the command of a Union general. The Second Reconstruction Act of 1867, effectively is an amendment allowing for more specific language clearing up points of confusion in the earlier Act. Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, was in a position to hinder Johnson's plans for Reconstruction. Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, essentially prohibiting Johnson from firing Stanton. In August 1867, Johnson suspended Stanton and appointed Ulysses S. Grant to the position. When Congress reconvened in the fall, it overruled Johnson's actions and Stanton was restored to his position. In 1868, Johnson fired Stanton outright and Republican Senators effectively brought 11 articles of impeachment against President Johnson. Although acquitted of all charges, Johnson was ineffective in his plans for Reconstruction and finished his term quietly. Multimedia Citations Slide 2: http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en- commons/thumb/8/84/220px- Abraham_Lincoln_half_length_seated,_April_10,_1865.jpg Slide 3: http://www.impeach- andrewjohnson.com/11BiographiesKeyIndividuals/BenjaminWadeGammaCrop250.jp g Slide 4: http://mac110.assumption.edu/aas/graphics/elephantx.jpg Slide 5: http://www.binghamton.edu/ctah/johnson/Freedman.jpg Slide 6: http://www.americaslibrary.gov/assets/jb/civil/jb_civil_lincoln_1_e.jpg Slide 7: http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war/1864/governor- andrew-johnson.jpg Slide 8: http://z.about.com/d/afroamhistory/1/0/7/1/photos_douglass.gif Slide 9: http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/1-segregated/images/13th- amendment-l.jpg Slide 10: http://www.schoolhousevideo.org/media/MRcartoon.jpg Slide 11: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/05/0521001r.jpg Slide 12: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/fimage/lincolnimages/fof-6.004.jpg Slide 13: http://www.etsu.edu/cas/history/resources/Private/Faculty/Fac_To1877ChapterDo cFiles/ChapterImages/Chapter15BlackCodes.JPG Slide 14: http://www.philaprintshop.com/images/hwreconstruction.jpg Slide 15: http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/impeach/TICKET.jpg