History - Presidential and Radical Reconstruction

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History - Presidential and Radical Reconstruction Powered By Docstoc
					Presidential and
    Radical
Reconstruction
Ten Percent Plan
           Lincoln’s 10% Plan offered
            amnesty to all but high-ranking
            Confederates willing to pledge
            loyalty to the Union and accept
            the abolition of slavery
           When 10 percent of a state's 1860
            voters had take this oath, that
            state could reapply to the Union.
           The Ten Percent Plan was aimed
            at subverting the southern war
            effort.
           In Louisiana, former slave owners
            attempted to reassert control over
            the newly freed black population
            with the aid of occupying forces,
            but the freedmen fought back.
             Wade-Davis Bill
                          The Wade-Davis Bill, a substitute for
                           Lincoln’s plan, called for stern peace and
                           full rights for freedmen.
                          The Bill was passed on July 2, 1864 in
                           Congress, but was effectively vetoed by
                           Lincoln, who refused to sign the bill
                           before the Congress adjourned.
                          The Wade-Davis Bill's conditions for
                           restoring the rebellious states to the
                           Union include:
                               requiring an oath of allegiance by a
                                majority of each state's adult white male
                                population,
                               that the new state governments can only
                                be operated by those who never carried
                                arms against the union
                               the permanent disenfranchisement of all
                                Confederate civil and military leaders.
Senator Wade of Ohio
African Freedmen's Inquiry
    Commission Report
                The American Freedmen's
                 Inquiry Commission was
                 established during the Civil
                 War to determine the
                 condition of freed slaves.
                Appointed in March of 1863
                 by U.S. Secretary of War to
                 "inquire into the condition of
                 the Colored population”
                The 1864 report outlines the
                 type or aid the commission
                 recommends be provided to
                 freemen.
The Freedmen's Bureau
             The Freedmen's Bureau was charged
              with distributing confiscated land to
              "loyal refugees and freedmen" and
              with regulating labor contracts
              between freedmen and planters.
             The Freedmen's Bureau also worked
              with the large number of northern
              voluntary associations that sent
              missionaries and teachers to the
              south to establish schools for former
              slaves.
             In February of 1866, President
              Andrew Johnson vetoed the
              Freedmen's Bureau Bill
             In July, Congress renewed the
              Freedmen's Bureau by overriding the
              Presidential veto with a two-thirds
              majority in both houses.
Lincoln's Assassination
              On April 14, 1865, President Abraham
               Lincoln was shot in the head at the
               Ford's Theater in Washington by an
               actor named John Wilkes Booth.
              The President was attending “Our
               American Cousin” with his wife, Mary
               Todd Lincoln Major Henry R.
               Rathbone, and Clara Harris.
              The bullet entered through Lincoln's
               left ear and lodged behind his right eye.
              Lincoln was carried across Tenth Street,
               to the Petersen House, a boarding-
               house opposite the theater, where he
               died very early the next morning.
              At roughly the same time Lincoln was
               attacked, Lewis Paine, a co-conspirator
               of Booth, attacked Lincoln's Secretary
               of State, William Henry Seward.
Andrew Johnson's Plan for
     Reconstruction
              In May of 1865, Johnson launched his
               own plan for restoration.
              In this plan, he automatically offered
               amnesty to all southerners save high-
               ranking Confederate officials and
               wealthy planters; who could only be
               pardoned by presidential order.
              Johnson appointed provisional
               governors for the confederate states
               and required them to revoke the
               secession, reject their Confederate
               debts, and ratify the Thirteenth
               Amendment.
              Within months all of the former
               Confederacy had met the
               requirements and had functioning,
               elected governments.
Frederick Douglass' Reconstruction
                   Frederick Douglass, a freed slave
                    who became one of the most
                    influential African Americans in
                    history and eventually became the
                    head of the Freedmen's Bureau,
                    explained reconstruction from the
                    eyes of a black American.
                   Frederick Douglass detailed the
                    miserable conditions of slavery
                    and how the conditions are not
                    much better after abolition before
                    discussing the Reconstruction in
                    general.
Thirteenth Amendment
           proposed 1865; ratified 1865
           By 1864 Maryland, Missouri,
            Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana
            all amended their constitutions to
            free their slaves.
           Abolitionists feared that the
            Emancipation Proclamation would
            be invalidated at the end of the war
            and that the southern states would
            react by reestablishing slavery.
           President Lincoln persuaded the
            Republican dominate Congress to
            prohibit slavery, which they did
            when the Thirteenth Amendment to
            the Constitution of the United
            States was passed on January 31,
            1865.
Fourteenth Amendment
           proposed 1866; ratified 1868
           Congressional Radical Republicans
            moved quickly to establish black
            civil rights in an amendment to the
            Constitution.
           The Fourteenth Amendment
            became a bundle of civil rights
            initiatives.
           The soul of the amendment
            declared that "all persons born or
            naturalized in the United States"
            were citizens, that no state could
            alter "the privileges or immunities
            of citizens" nor could they deprive
            "any person of life, liberty, or
            property, without due process of
            law."
Fifteenth Amendment
            proposed 1869; ratified 1870
            The 15th Amendment forbids
             both the Federal and State
             governments from denying
             citizens the right to vote on the
             basis of race, color, or "previous
             condition of servitude,"
            The amendment left the use of
             poll taxes and property or literacy
             tests to discourage blacks from
             voting, but northern states
             valued those qualifications for
             use against immigrants and
             indigents.
Civil Rights Acts
           The Civil Rights Act called for
            complete equality for African
            Americans, which would
            essentially undermine the
            southern state's Black Codes.
           The Act also served to limit
            southern representation in
            Congress. As was to be
            expected, the Act and the
            Fourteenth Amendment
            received little support from the
            southern states and were viewed
            as unrealistic and unfair.
           In 1870, 1871, and 1875
            amendments to the original
            Civil Rights Act were made to
            further secure and improve the
            civil rights of the freed slaves.
Black Codes
        Dissatisfied with the new freedoms
         enjoyed by African Americans,
         several Southern state legislatures
         passed their own laws which
         served to limit the rights afforded
         to African Americans by federal
         legislation.
        Black Codes were designed to
         drive freedmen back to the
         plantations, to restrict their
         freedom of movement, and to
         deny them equality before the law.
        They set curfews, required blacks
         who lived in town to have white
         sponsors, and sharply restricted
         their rights of assembly to keep
         any political unification from
         happening.
Reconstruction Acts
            The Reconstruction Act of
             1867, enacted in March by the
             Republican Congress organized
             the South as a conquered land,
             dividing it (with the exception
             of Tennessee) into five military
             districts, each under the
             command of a Union general.
            The Second Reconstruction
             Act of 1867, effectively is an
             amendment allowing for more
             specific language clearing up
             points of confusion in the
             earlier Act.
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
              Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, was in a
               position to hinder Johnson's plans for
               Reconstruction.
              Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act,
               essentially prohibiting Johnson from firing
               Stanton.
              In August 1867, Johnson suspended Stanton
               and appointed Ulysses S. Grant to the
               position.
              When Congress reconvened in the fall, it
               overruled Johnson's actions and Stanton was
               restored to his position.
              In 1868, Johnson fired Stanton outright and
               Republican Senators effectively brought 11
               articles of impeachment against President
               Johnson.
              Although acquitted of all charges, Johnson was
               ineffective in his plans for Reconstruction and
               finished his term quietly.
                                      Multimedia Citations
   Slide 2: http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-
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   Slide 4: http://mac110.assumption.edu/aas/graphics/elephantx.jpg
   Slide 5: http://www.binghamton.edu/ctah/johnson/Freedman.jpg
   Slide 6: http://www.americaslibrary.gov/assets/jb/civil/jb_civil_lincoln_1_e.jpg
   Slide 7: http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war/1864/governor-
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   Slide 8: http://z.about.com/d/afroamhistory/1/0/7/1/photos_douglass.gif
   Slide 9: http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/1-segregated/images/13th-
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   Slide 10: http://www.schoolhousevideo.org/media/MRcartoon.jpg
   Slide 11: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/05/0521001r.jpg
   Slide 12: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/fimage/lincolnimages/fof-6.004.jpg
   Slide 13:
    http://www.etsu.edu/cas/history/resources/Private/Faculty/Fac_To1877ChapterDo
    cFiles/ChapterImages/Chapter15BlackCodes.JPG
   Slide 14: http://www.philaprintshop.com/images/hwreconstruction.jpg
   Slide 15: http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/impeach/TICKET.jpg

				
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