History - Origins of the Cold War and Containment

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					Origins of the Cold
     War and
Winston Churchill
          In 1946, Winston Churchill
           delivered his "Iron Curtain"
          Although today it is regarded
           as one of the most influential
           speeches of the period, the
           speech was not well received
           at the time.
          Some thought Churchill was
           seeking an Anglo-Saxon
           alliance against the Soviet
           Union -- something the
           general American public felt
           unnecessary at the time.
George Kennan
      The single document that best illustrated
       American anti-communism and general
       suspicion of Soviet aspirations, was
       George Kennan's famous Long Telegram
       of 1946.
      Kennan witnessed collectivization and the
       terror from close range
      In 1946, Kennan was 44 years old, fluent
       in the Russian language and its affairs, and
       decidedly anti-communist.
      The essence of Kennan's telegram was
       published in Foreign Affairs in 1947 as "The
       Sources of Soviet Conduct" and circulated
      For Kennan, the Cold War gave the
       United States its historic opportunity to
       assume leadership of what would
       eventually be described as the "free
Truman Doctrine
           Truman stressed the duty of the
            United States to combat totalitarian
            regimes worldwide.
           His March 12, 1947 speech
            specifically called for $400 million
            in aid to be delivered to Greece
            and Turkey.
           The Doctrine shifted American
            foreign policy as regards the Soviet
            Union from Détente to, as George
            F. Kennan phrased it, a policy of
            containment of Soviet expansion.
            Historians often use it to mark the
            starting date of the Cold War.
                    The Marshall Plan
                                             The Marshall Plan was
                                              proposed to help Europe
                                              begin its ascent from the
                                              ashes of World War II.
                                             The Plan took root in the
                                              Economic Cooperation
                                              Administration (ECA)
                                              created by Congress in April,
                                             Its official title was the
                                              European Recovery Program.
   This map shows aid received by
European nations in a graphical format.
 NATO Treaty and Warsaw Pact
                                           The North Atlantic Treaty
                                            Organization (NATO) was
                                            established as an
                                            international organization for
                                            defense collaboration
                                            established in 1949 which
                                            attempted to align nations
                                            opposed to Soviet expansion.
                                           Similarly, the Warsaw Pact
                                            was signed by eastern
This map shows the division of Europe       European nations in an effort
between the NATO Treaty (green) and         to combat western alliances.
the Warsaw Pact (orange). The United
  States and Canada are also part of
                      Cold War Maps
These two maps illustrate the shifting global alliances evident from 1959 to 1982 at the
                                 end of the Cold War
                              Multimedia Citations
   Slide 2:
   Slide 3:
   Slide 4: http://claver.gprep.org/fac/sjochs//truman1.jpg
   Slide 5:
   Slide 6: http://www.worldstats.org/continents/europe/maps/history_6.gif
   Slide 7: http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/coldwar1.htm
   Slide 8: http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/coldwar1.htm

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