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					Ch. 20 Pretest                           Name___________________________

1) Our current atmosphere is composed mostly of
   a) Carbon dioxide
   b) Nitrogen
   c) Hydrogen
   d) Helium
   e) Oxygen

2) The Coriolis Effect
   a) Affects wind direction.
   b) Affects wind speed.
   c) Is strongest at the equator.
   d) Causes winds in the Northern Hemisphere to move to the west.
   e) Causes winds in the Southern Hemisphere to move to the east.

3) Which statement about the Greenhouse Effect is NOT TRUE?
   a) The Greenhouse Effect is a natural process.
   b) The Greenhouse Effect has a negative impact on the climate of the planet.
   c) The burning of fossil fuels increases the greenhouse gases in the
      atmosphere.
   d) Gases such as carbon dioxide trap solar radiation close to Earth’s surface.
   e) Most of the radiation from the Sun never even reaches Earth’s surface.

4) Which of the following international agreements called for the unilateral
   decrease by all nations in the production of greenhouse gases?
   a) Ontario Agreement
   b) Kyoto Protocol
   c) San Paulo Conference
   d) Toronto Agreement
   e) UN Global Warming Initiative

5) Most of the property damage from hurricanes occurs from
   a) Storm surges
   b) Winds
   c) Tornadoes
   d) Looting
   e) Crashing waves

6) Which of the following gases pose the highest risk of lung cancer?
   a) Carbon monoxide
   b) Ozone
   c) Radon
   d) Oxides of sulfur
   e) Oxides of nitrogen
7) Which pair of phrases best describes the effects that O3 molecules have on
   the environment?
   a) Greenhouse effect; lung tissue irritant
   b) Ozone depletion; Greenhouse effect
   c) Blocks UV rays; lung tissue irritant
   d) Ozone depletion; carcinogen
   e) Greenhouse effect; causes nerve damage

8) Most ozone depletion occurs under conditions that create a catalytic effect.
   One of the essential conditions is the presence of an ice crystal. These ice
   crystals can be found in clouds that occur in the
   a) Troposphere
   b) Mesosphere
   c) Stratosphere
   d) Ionosphere
   e) Biosphere

Questions 9-13 refer to the following answers. Select the one lettered choice
that best fits each statement.
                (a) El Nino/Southern ossillation
                (b) Global warming
                (c) Ozone depletion
                (d) Milankovitch cycle
                (e) Leapfrog effect
9) _____Results in pollutants migrating to polar region
10) _____Results in periodic weather disturbances in North America
11) _____Chronic change due to greater absorption of long-wavelength infrared
    light that is re-radiated from the surface of the earth
12) _____Caused by human pollution and results in greater levels of skin cancer
    in New Zealand
13) _____A “wobble” in the Earth’s orbit that may affect long-term climate
    fluctuations

14) A temperature inversion is different from a normal weather pattern because
    a) Hot, warm winds blow pollution out to sea
    b) Pollutants get trapped in warm air
    c) Warm air is trapped under a blanket of cool air
    d) Cool air is trapped under a blanket of warm air
    e) A dome of warm air holds in pollutants and diverts weather

15) Which of the following accompanies an El Nino event?
    a) Movement of water from west to east across the equatorial Pacific
    b) Movement of water from east to west across the equatorial Pacific
    c) Movement of warm water from north to south in the central Pacific
    d) An increase in precipitation in Indonesian rainforests
    e) An increase in ozone depletion
16) Once radiant energy has penetrated the clouds and has been absorbed by
    the Earth, which of the following occurs?
    a) All the energy is eventually re-radiated as long-wavelength infrared light.
    b) All the energy is re-radiated as short-wavelength UV light.
    c) The energy is entirely absorbed by the oceans and the trees.
    d) The energy is entirely absorbed by the atmosphere to create convection
       cycles.
    e) The energy is entirely trapped by greenhouse gases.

17) The equator is warmer than the poles because
    a) The equatorial regions experience hot downdrafts in atmospheric
       convection cycles.
    b) The equatorial regions are closer to the sun.
    c) The oblique angle of the sun spreads the energy out over a larger area in
       the polar regions.
    d) There is more ice in the polar regions.
    e) The sun spends less time shining on polar areas.

Questions 18-21 refer to the following answers. Select the one lettered choice
that best fits each statement.
                (a) Radiation
                (b) Convection
                (c) Conduction
                (d) All of the above
                (e) None of the above
18) _____Demonstrated by mantle plumes
19) _____Demonstrated by absorption of UV light by ozone
20) _____Moves air through the Hadley and Ferrel cells
21) _____Carries energy from the sun to the Earth

22) Ozone depleting gases are particularly damaging because
    a) Ozone depleting molecules are also toxic
    b) So many different types of molecules deplete ozone
    c) They act as catalysts; a few molecules can do a lot of damage
    d) They don’t work at lower altitudes
    e) Most of them also cause the greenhouse effect

23) The Coriolis effect is made possible by
    a) The turning of the Earth and atmospheric convection currents
    b) The movement of tectonic plates
    c) The evaporation of water
    d) Ocean currents
    e) The condensation of water

Questions 24-27 refer to the following answers. Select the one lettered choice
that best fits each statement.
24) _____Area of the world that contains a warm moisture during El Nino.
25) _____High pressure area creates a desert.
26) _____The heaviest levels of ozone depletion have caused skin cancer in this
    area.
27) _____Fertilizer moving down a massive river has created a hypoxic zone
    where the river empties into the ocean.

28) Which of the following is an example of a jet stream?
    a) The circumpolar vortex
    b) The Gulf Stream
    c) The Greenhouse Effect
    d) El Nino
    e) Northeastern trade winds

29) Which of the following can be caused by El Nino?
    a) Landslides in the Rocky Mountains
    b) More rain in Arizona
    c) Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico
    d) Decreased income from commercial fisheries in South America
    e) All of the above

Questions 30-33 refer to the following answers. Select the one lettered choice
that best fits each statement.
                (a) Troposphere
                (b) Lithosphere
                (c) Stratosphere
                (d) Thermosphere
                (e) Mesosphere
30) _____Contains molten magma
31) _____The jet stream exists just below this layer
32) _____Most of the Earth’s weather occurs here
33) _____ Contains disperse, ionized gas
34) Which of the following represents the correct order of the layers of the
    atmosphere, starting at the surface of the Earth and moving to higher
    altitudes?
    a) Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
    b) Stratosphere, troposphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
    c) Mesosphere, troposphere, stratosphere, thermosphere
    d) Mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere, thermosphere
    e) Troposphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, thermosphere

35) Ice ages that occur about every 100.000 years are due to
    a) Milankovitch cycles
    b) Volcanoes
    c) El Nino
    d) The Coriolis effect
    e) Sun spots

36) Which of the following does NOT contribute to global warming?
    a) Burning fossil fuels
    b) Heating peat
    c) Melting polar ice
    d) Volcanic eruptions
    e) Methane release from melting permafrost

37) Which of the following statements is FALSE?
    a) The greenhouse effect is a natural process that makes life on Earth
       possible with 98% of total global greenhouse gas emissions being from
       natural sources (mostly water vapor) and 2% from human-made sources.
    b) The United States is the number one contributor to global warming.
    c) The Kyoto Protocol would have allowed the United States to increase its
       greenhouse gas emissions-primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane
       (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)-by only 2% per year based on 1990 levels.
    d) The effects of global warming on weather patterns may lead to adverse
       human health impacts.
    e) Global warming may increase the incidence of many infectious diseases.

38) Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels
    a) Are about 10% higher than they were at the time of the Industrial
       Revolution
    b) Are about 25% higher than they were at the time of the Industrial
       Revolution
    c) Are about the same as they were at the time of the Industrial Revolution
    d) Are slightly lower than they were at the time of the Industrial Revolution
    e) Are significantly lower than they were at the time of the Industrial
       Revolution
39) Which of the following is NOT an example of environmental mitigation?
    a) Promoting sound land use planning, based on known hazards
    b) Relocating or elevating structures out of the floodplain
    c) Constructing living snow fences
    d) Organizing a beach cleanup
    e) Developing, adopting, and enforcing effective building codes and
       standards

40) Rising sea levels due to global warming would be responsible for all of the
    following EXCEPT
    a) Destruction of coastal wetlands
    b) Beach erosion
    c) Increases due to storm and flood damage
    d) Increased salinity of estuaries and aquifers
    e) All would be the result of rising sea level

41) If global temperature warmed for any reason, atmospheric water vapor would
    increase due to evaporation. This would increase the greenhouse effect and
    thereby further raise the temperature. As a result, the ice caps would melt
    back, making the planet less reflective so that it would warm further. This
    process is an example of
    a) Positive coupling
    b) Negative coupling
    c) Synergistic feedback
    d) Positive-feedback loop
    e) Negative-feedback loop

42) 550 parts per million would be equivalent to
    a) 5.5 parts per billion
    b) 55 parts per billion
    c) 5,500 parts per billion
    d) 55,000 parts per billion
    e) 550,000 parts per billion

43) Which of the following statements is FALSE?
    a) Evidence exists of a dose-response relationship between non-melanoma
       skin cancer and cumulative exposure to UVB radiation.
    b) Individuals, usually those living in areas with limited sunlight and long,
       dark winters, may suffer severe photo-allergies to the UVB in sunlight.
    c) Increased absorption of UVB triggers a thickening of the superficial skin
       layers and an increase in skin pigmentation.
    d) There is a relationship between skin cancer prevalence and increases in
       ultraviolet radiation due to the depletion of trophospheric ozone.
    e) Acute exposure to UVB causes sunburn, and chronic exposure results in
       loss of elasticity and increased skin aging.
44) Winds are primarily caused by
    a) Differences in air pressure
    b) The Coriolis effect
    c) Ocean currents
    d) Seasons
    e) The Earth’s rotation on its axis

45) Which of the following is NOT a phenomenon associated with La Nina?
    a) Unusually cold ocean temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific
    b) Wetter-than-normal conditions across the Pacific Northwest
    c) Dryer and warmer-than-normal conditions in the southern states
    d) Warmer-than-normal winter temperatures in the southeastern United
       States
    e) Substantial decrease in the number of hurricanes

46) Cars, trucks, and buses account for ____ of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions.
    a) Less than 5%
    b) Between 10% and 20%
    c) Between 20% and 33%
    d) Between 35% and 75%
    e) More than 75%

47) The circulation of Hadley cells results in
    a) Low pressure and rainfall at the equator
    b) High pressure and rainfall at the equator
    c) Low pressure and dry conditions at about 30o north and south of the
       equator
    d) High pressure and wet conditions at about 30o north and south of the
       equator
    e) Both (A) and (C)

48) What pulls warm Atlantic water north in the summer?
    a) La Nina
    b) Convection
    c) El Nino
    d) Coriolis effect
    e) Gulf Stream

49) Which greenhouse gas has the most negative chemical properties with
    respect to global warming?
    a) CO2
    b) CFCs
    c) SF6
    d) N2O
    e) H2O
50) Which of the following is NOT a possible cause/effect of increasing ocean
    temperatures?
    a) A significant increase in ocean circulation that transports warm water to
       the North Atlantic
    b) Large reductions in the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets
    c) Accelerated global warming
    d) Decreases in upwelling
    e) Releases of terrestrial carbon from permafrost regions and methane from
       hydrates in coastal sediments

51) You and a partner run an automobile salvage yard where you offer used
    automobile parts to customers, offering them substantial savings over buying
    new parts. Which of the following auto parts in your salvage yard would pose
    the greatest risk to stratospheric ozone depletion?
    a) Tires, should they catch on fire.
    b) Oil, should it leak from the crank case and enter the groundwater
    c) Air conditioners, if they should leak FreonTM.
    d) Leaking gasoline, should it catch on fire.
    e) Heavy metals from batteries such as lead, should it enter the food web.

52) Harmful effects of increased UV radiation on Earth’s surface include all of the
    following EXCEPT
    a) Reduction in crop production
    b) Reduction in the growth of phytoplankton and its cumulative effect on food
        webs
    c) Cooling of the stratosphere
    d) Warming of the stratosphere
    e) Increases in sunburns and damage to the skin

53) The zone of the atmosphere in which weather occurs is known as the
    a) Ionosphere
    b) Mesosphere
    c) Troposphere
    d) Thermosphere
    e) Stratosphere

54) Characteristics or requirements of a monsoon include all of the following
    EXCEPT
    a) A seasonal reversal of wind patterns
    b) Large land areas cut off from continental air masses by mountain ranges
       and surrounded by large bodies of water
    c) Different heating and cooling rates between the ocean and the continent
    d) Extremely heavy rainfall
    e) Heating and cooling rates between the oceans and the continents that are
       both equal
55) 99% of the volume of gases in the lower atmosphere, listed in descending
    order of volume, are
    a) O2, N2, CO2, H2O
    b) H2O, N2, O2, CO2
    c) O2, CO2, N2, H2O,
    d) O2, CO2 , N2, H2O
    e) N2, O2, H2O, CO2

56) Regional climates are most influenced by
    a) Latitude and altitude
    b) Prevailing winds and latitude
    c) Altitude and longitude
    d) Latitude and longitude
    e) Coriolis effect and trade winds

57) La Nina would produce all the following effects EXCEPT
    a) More rain in southeast Asia
    b) Wetter winters in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States
    c) Warmer winters in Canada and northeast United States
    d) Warmer and drier winters in the southwest and southeast United States
    e) More Atlantic hurricanes

58) The ozone layer exists primarily in what section of the atmosphere?
    a) Troposphere
    b) Stratosphere
    c) Mesosphere
    d) Thermosphere
    e) Ionosphere

59) The gas that is responsible for trapping most of the heat in the lower
    atmosphere is
    a) Water vapor
    b) Ozone
    c) Carbon dioxide
    d) Oxygen
    e) Nitrogen

60) An atmospheric condition in which the air temperature rises with increasing
    altitude, holding surface air down and preventing dispersion of pollutants, is
    known as a(n)
    a) Temperature inversion
    b) Cold front
    c) Warm front
    d) Global warming
    e) Upwelling
61) The surface with the lowest albedo is
    a) Snow
    b) Ocean water
    c) Forest
    d) Desert
    e) Black topsoil

62) Jet streams over the U.S. travel primarily
    a) North to south
    b) South to north
    c) East to west
    d) West to east
    e) In many directions

63) Areas of low pressure are typically characterized by _____ air and move
    toward regions where the pressure is _____ with time.
    a) Sinking, falling
    b) Rising, falling
    c) Sinking, rising
    d) Rising, rising
    e) Sinking, sinking

64) The date with the shortest amount of daylight in the Southern Hemisphere is
    a) June 22
    b) January 1
    c) December 21
    d) September 1
    e) March 18

65) Jet streams follow the sun in that as the sun’s elevation _____ (increases,
    decreases) each day in the spring, the jet stream shifts by moving _____
    (north, south) during the Northern Hemisphere spring.
    a) Increases, north
    b) Increases, south
    c) Decreases, north
    d) Decreases, south
    e) None of the above

66) In addition to absorbing harmful solar rays, how do ozone molecules help to
    stabilize the upper atmosphere?
    a) They release heat to the surroundings.
    b) They create a buoyant lid on the atmosphere.
    c) They create a warm layer of atmosphere that keeps the lower atmosphere
        from mixing with space.
    d) All of the above are correct.
    e) None of the above is correct.
67) The three necessary ingredients for thunderstorm formation are
    a) Moisture, lifting mechanism, instability
    b) Lifting mechanism, mountains, oceans
    c) Stability, moisture, fronts, moisture
    d) Deserts, mountains, clouds
    e) Moisture, instability, mountains

68) Which of the following represents the greatest contribution of methane
    emission to the atmosphere?
    a) Enteric fermentation or flatulence from animals
    b) Coal mining
    c) Landfills
    d) Rice cultivation
    e) Burning of biomass

69) Ozone depletion reactions that occur in the stratosphere are facilitated by
    a) NO2-
    b) NH3
    c) NH4+
    d) N2O
    e) NO3-

70) The bromine released from methyl bromide is about 40 times more damaging
    to the ozone layer than chlorine on a molecule of chlorofluorocarbon. Under
    the Montreal Protocol, methyl bromide in developing countries will be phased
    out in 2005. What is methyl bromide used for?
    a) Sterilizing soil in fields and greenhouses
    b) Killing pests on fruits, vegetables, and grain before export
    c) Fumigating soils
    d) Killing termites in buildings
    e) All of the above

71) The aurora borealis occurs in which of the following parts of the atmosphere?
    a) Troposphere
    b) Thermosphere
    c) Mesosphere
    d) Hydrosphere
    e) Stratosphere

72) An increase in the amount of UV light striking the earth as a result of ozone
    loss will cause which of the following?
    a) Global climate change
    b) Increased skin cancer rates in humans
    c) Lowering of ocean water levels
    d) An increase in CO2 in the atmosphere
    e) A change in the North Atlantic Current
73) The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a United Nations-
    sponsored group of 2,500 scientists around the world and serves as a
    resource and authority on global warming issues. What percentage of the
    world’s population does this organization believe will be at risk of infectious
    disease due to global warming?
    a) 0%
    b) 20%
    c) 40%
    d) 60%
    e) 100%

74) One of the reasons the vortex winds in the Antarctic are important in the
    formation of the hole in the ozone layer is
    a) They prevent warm, ozone-rich air from mixing with cold, ozone-depleted
       air
    b) They quickly mix ozone-depleted air with ozone-rich air
    c) They harbor vast quantities of N2O
    d) They bring in moist, warm air, which accelerates the ozone-forming
       process
    e) None of the above

75) Although the Montreal Protocol curtailed production of ozone-depleting
    substances, the peak concentration of chemicals in the stratosphere is only
    now being reached. When do scientists expect a recovery in the ozone levels
    in the stratosphere to recover?
    a) Immediately
    b) Within 5 years
    c) Within 20 years
    d) Within 50 years
    e) In about 100 years

76) Later fall frosts and the northward migration of some tree and plant species
    may indicate which of the following global changes?
    a) Increased global temperatures
    b) The effects of more ultraviolet light from the sun
    c) A reduction in the volume of ice at the North and South Poles
    d) Changes in global precipitation patterns
    e) Flooding of areas near the ocean

77) Samples of atmospheric gases from past eras can most easily be obtained
    from which of the following sources?
    a) Methane gas trapped in oil reserves
    b) Different types of sedimentary rock
    c) Gases trapped in polar ice caps
    d) Tree ring measurements
    e) Mud samples from eutrophic lakes
78) Over the past 1 million years of Earth’s history, the average trend in Earth’s
    temperature would best be described as
    a) Very large fluctuations, from periods of extreme heat to periods of extreme
       cold
    b) Very little change, if any, fairly uniform and constant temperature
    c) A general cooling trend
    d) A general warming trend
    e) A number of fluctuations varying by a few degrees

79) The atmosphere is warmed as gases such as water vapor and carbon dioxide
    absorb the infrared heat radiated from the Earth. This process is best
    described as
    a) Ozone depletion
    b) The Greenhouse Effect
    c) Biomagnifications
    d) Ionization
    e) Convection

Questions 80-87 refer to the following answers. Select the one lettered choice
that best fits each statement.
                (a) Atmosphere
                (b) Troposphere
                (c) Wind
                (d) Convection currents
                (e) Stratosphere
                (f) Mesosphere
                (g) Stratopause
                (h) Thermosphere
80) _____Ozone in this layer blocks UV light from the Sun
81) _____The location of our daily weather
82) _____The vertical heating and cooling of air
83) _____The movement of air between masses with different pressures
84) _____The collection of all gases held to the Earth by gravity
85) _____Extends 50-80 km above Earth
86) _____The highest layer of the atmosphere (above 80 km)
87) _____The layer of the atmosphere that is heated by infrared radiation from
    the earth

88) The North Atlantic Current provides which of the following for Europe and
    North America?
    a) Fish to feed predators such as killer whales
    b) Warm water that moderates land temperatures
    c) Large amounts of CO2 to promote photosynthesis
    d) Cold salt water to help form icebergs
    e) Mineral-rich waters to reduce depleted mineral reserves
89) Ozone in the troposphere can result in all of the following EXCEPT
    a) Eye irritation
    b) Lung cancer
    c) Bronchitis
    d) Headache
    e) Emphysema

90) Which of the following molecules is most damaging to stratospheric ozone?
    a) H2O
    b) CO2
    c) Chlorofluorocarbons
    d) N2O
    e) SO2

91) The United States Congress recently failed to ratify which of the following
    international agreements that is designed to control the release of carbon
    dioxide?
    a) CITES agreement
    b) Kyoto Protocol
    c) Montreal Protocol
    d) Clean Air Act
    e) RCRA

92) One result of increased troposphere temperatures that are observed today is
    a) An increase in skin cancers in people
    b) An increase in the average global sea level of some 10 to 20 cm
    c) More radon seepage into people’s homes
    d) A deeper permafrost in Arctic regions
    e) Lakes and ponds remaining frozen longer into the spring

93) All of the following gases contribute to rising global air temperatures EXCEPT
    a) Methane
    b) Nitrogen dioxide
    c) Ozone
    d) Carbon dioxide
    e) Water vapor

94) Which of the following molecules is the primary catalyst in the destruction of
    ozone?
    a) Fluorine
    b) Oxygen
    c) Mercury
    d) Platinum
    e) Chlorine
95) Which of the following treaties is responsible for lower levels of CFC
    production world wide?
    a) Montreal Protocol
    b) Kyoto Protocol
    c) Clean Air Act
    d) The Rio Earth Summit of 1972
    e) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

96) Which of the following forms of radiation is most harmful to humans?
    a) Alpha
    b) Gamma
    c) Beta
    d) Infrared
    e) Radon

97) The energy necessary to produce ozone comes from which of the following?
    a) Oxygen
    b) Sunlight
    c) Compound changes
    d) Nuclear reactions
    e) Aerobic respiration

98) During an El Nino-Southern Oscillation, weather events change in which of
    the following areas?
    a) The Pacific and Indian Oceans
    b) The Atlantic and Indian Oceans
    c) The Arctic Sea
    d) The Indian and Antarctic Oceans
    e) The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

99) Which gases make up the majority of Earth’s atmosphere?
    a) Carbon dioxide and oxygen
    b) Hydrogen and helium
    c) Hydrogen and oxygen
    d) Water vapor and carbon dioxide
    e) Nitrogen and oxygen

100) A weakening of the trade winds and a warming of the surface ocean
   waters may indicate which of the following?
   a) La Nina
   b) El Nino
   c) Rising sea levels
   d) Global climate change
   e) An increase in stratospheric ozone
101) How long is the average residence time of a molecule of carbon dioxide in
   the atmosphere?
   a) 1 year
   b) 10 years
   c) 100 years
   d) 1000 years
   e) 10,000 years

102) A rapid increase in CO2 in the atmosphere coincided with which of the
   following events?
   a) The Industrial Revolution
   b) The Kyoto Protocol
   c) Thinning of the ozone layer
   d) Invention of the automobile
   e) Establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency

103)    What is the residence time for methane in the atmosphere?
   a)   1 year
   b)   12 years
   c)   130 years
   d)   250 years
   e)   1,000 years

104)    A La Nina even will bring warm winters to which part of the United States?
   a)   Northeast
   b)   South
   c)   Northwest
   d)   Southeast
   e)   Midwest

105)    Stratospheric ozone protects life on Earth from (?)
   a)   UVA radiation.
   b)   UVB radiation.
   c)   UVC radiation.
   d)   Ions from the ionosphere.
   e)   Microwaves.

106) Which of the following, found in fire extinguishers and naturally released
   by marine phytoplankton, has more of an impact on the depletion of
   stratospheric ozone than chlorine?
   a) Methane
   b) Chromium
   c) Hydrogen
   d) Bromine
   e) Benzene
107) Ozone depletion is occurring most rapidly in the earth’s polar regions
   because
   a) There are more researchers studying the problem at the poles than at the
      equator
   b) The atmosphere is thicker at the poles, so ozone destruction is easier to
      observe
   c) Large amounts of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) can accumulate on ice
      crystals formed in the cold atmosphere
   d) The upper atmosphere winds form a pattern of high and low pressure
      systems that can cause the destruction of ozone
   e) The solar UV radiation is stronger at the poles, promoting the breakdown
      of ozone

108)    How much warmer is Earth today than it was during the last Ice Age?
   a)   1-3oF
   b)   5-9oF
   c)   12-15oF
   d)   20-25oF
   e)   35oF

109) What would be the average temperature on Earth if the Greenhouse Effect
   did not exist?
   a) 0oF
   b) 25oF
   c) 65oF
   d) 100oF
   e) 135oF

110)  Which of the following would be a result of higher temperatures on Earth?
   a) A decrease in precipitation worldwide
   b) An increase in precipitation worldwide
   c) A decrease in precipitation at lower latitudes and an increase in
      precipitation at higher latitudes
   d) An increase in precipitation at lower latitudes and a decrease in
      precipitation at higher latitudes
   e) An increase in evaporation worldwide but the precipitation rates would not
      change

111)  How does global warming impact the spread of infectious diseases?
   a) Global warming decreases the amount of infectious diseases.
   b) Global warming has no impact on the spread of infectious disease.
   c) Rising temperatures allow disease-carrying mosquitoes to move into new
      areas.
   d) Rising temperatures kill the larvae of disease carrying mosquitoes.
   e) Global warming increases moisture, which drowns disease-spreading
      mosquitoes.
112) Which of the following is the MOST effective way to reduce global
   warming?
   a) Curbing emissions of greenhouse gases
   b) Reducing CFCs
   c) Using clearer fuels
   d) Consuming energy more efficiently
   e) Recycling

113) Which of the following is NOT a factor that influences temperatures on
   Earth?
   a) Latitude
   b) Altitude
   c) Cloud cover
   d) Distance from large bodies of water
   e) Ocean currents

114)    Which of the following contributes to the formation of ozone?
   a)   Sulfur dioxide
   b)   Nitric oxide
   c)   Nitrous oxide
   d)   Carbon dioxide
   e)   Carbon monoxide

115)    Which of the following reactions becomes slower as altitude increases?
   a)   O2 + hv  O + O
   b)   O + O 2  O3
   c)   O3 + hv  O2 + O
   d)   O + O 3  O2 + O 2
   e)   O2 + O 2  O + O 3

116)    An increase in evaporation at lower latitudes could lead to
   a)   A decrease in precipitation
   b)   Lower temperatures
   c)   A decrease in the number of hurricanes
   d)   An increase in the number of hurricanes
   e)   Unpredictable hurricane seasons

117) Which of the following ocean currents flows without obstruction or barriers
   around Earth?
   a) Gulf Stream
   b) California Current
   c) Antarctic Circumpolar Current
   d) Aghulas Current
   e) They all flow unimpeded
118)    What is the most common form of skin cancer?
   a)   Melanoma skin cancer
   b)   Squamous skin cancer
   c)   Basal skin cancer
   d)   Sarcoma
   e)   Lymphoma

119) The lenses of your eyes absorb UVB radiation. An increase in UVB
   radiation has been shown to have a link to
   a) Nearsightedness
   b) Farsightedness
   c) Cataracts
   d) Retina problems
   e) Increased pupil dilation

120)    In which direction do easterlies push surface water near the equator?
   a)   Eastward
   b)   Northward
   c)   Southward
   d)   Westward
   e)   Down

121) Which of the following areas would be MOST affected by a rise in sea
   level?
   a) Wetlands
   b) Forests
   c) Grasslands
   d) Deserts
   e) Tundra

122) Models have suggested that temperatures will rise faster and higher in
   which of the following regions?
   a) Equatorial regions
   b) Midlatitudes
   c) Deserts
   d) Polar regions
   e) Rainforests

123)    Which of the following correctly describes the waters in an upwelling area?
   a)   Cold and nutrient rich
   b)   Warm and nutrient poor
   c)   Cold and nutrient poor
   d)   Heavily polluted by human waste
   e)   Shallow and full of light
124)    Which ocean is the warmest?
   a)   Pacific
   b)   Arctic
   c)   Indian
   d)   North Atlantic
   e)   South Atlantic

125) Over the past 40 years, the upper 300 meters of ocean water has warmed
   an average of
   a) 0.11oF
   b) 0.56oF
   c) 1.0oF
   d) 11oF
   e) 15oF

126)    Which of the following does NOT usually accompany a thunderstorm?
   a)   Updrafts
   b)   Low pressure zone
   c)   Cumulonimbus clouds
   d)   Warm front
   e)   Precipitation

127)    Which of the following conditions may indicate an El Nino?
   a)   Sea surface warms, trade winds strengthen
   b)   Sea surface warms, trade winds weaken
   c)   Sea surface cools, trade winds strengthen
   d)   Sea surface cools, trade winds weakens
   e)   None of the above

128) Rising sea levels due to global warming would be responsible for all of the
   following EXCEPT
   a) Destruction of coastal wetlands
   b) Beach erosion
   c) Increased damage due to storms and floods
   d) Increased salinity of estuaries and aquifers
   e) All would be the result of rising sea levels

129)    What does La Nina bring to the southeastern United States?
   a)   Warm winters
   b)   Extremely cold winters
   c)   Hot summers
   d)   Cooler than normal summers
   e)   None of the above

				
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