Introduction to Ocean Wave Energy by ulz11512

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									Introduction to Wave Power

 Introduction to
Ocean Wave Energy

          Tony Schacher
     Engineer – Salem Electric
          July 24, 2008
      Presentation Overview

 Wave Energy Basics
 The Case for Wave Energy in Oregon
 Oregon Wave Energy Projects
 Oregon State University Wave Energy
  Research
 Utility Role in the Project
Wave Power/Energy Basics
How are waves formed?         Definition of Wave Power Flux in kW/m




                        Waves are a concentrated form of solar energy
                        Technology to convert wave energy to electrical
                        energy is in its starting phase
                        > 1000 Patents
                        < 2 MW Installed
                        Active Gov’t RD&D Program in Europe and Australia
                        No Gov’t RD&D Program in the U.S.
Worldwide Wave Power
     Availability



                        WA OR
Southern AK              CA
1,250 TWh/yr                     ME NH MA RI NY
                         440
                                       NJ
                        TWh/yr
                                   110 TWh/yr

          Northern HI
          300 TWh/yr
        Oregon’s Leadership Opportunity
–   Unique ocean resource
–   Established marine community
–   Excellent reputation for renewable energy and green industry
    support
–   Positive political climate (both state & federal)

“Oregon is poised to lead the nation and the world in wave energy
  research, development and production. We have the wave
  resource, the expertise through collaboration including
  tremendous university, industry, utility and community support,
  and the utility infrastructure along the coast to deliver this clean,
  renewable power into the grid.” Annette vonJouanne
   Power from Ocean Waves
   Available Resource off Oregon Coast




           NDBC Data Buoys                             CDIP (SCRIPPS) Data Buoys



"50% of the US population lives within 50 miles of the coast

"Oregon has some of the richest ocean wave energy potentials in the world
  Power from Ocean Waves
  Available Resource off Oregon Coast
                                     70
                                                                                                            Data buoys are
                                     60

                  Wave Power, kW/m
                                                                                                            2-200mi off shore,
                                     50
Seasonal                                                                                                    with waves
                                     40
variation
                                                                                                            traveling 15-20mph,
                                     30
Good match                                                                                                  gives 10+ hours
                                     20
for the NW load                                                                                             forecast time for
                                     10
demand                                                                                                      buoy generators
                                      0
                                          1     2      3     4   5    6    7     8     9    10    11   12   located 2 mi out
                                                                     Months

                                     (wave data From National Data Buoy Center, Power estimated from
                                              5 buoys off the Oregon coast over past 10 years)
                                               ρ g 2TH 2
Power from a wave is                      P=               W/m of crest length (distance along an individual crest)
                                                 32π
           ρ = the density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3
           g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.8 m/s2
           T = period of wave (s) (averages 8s in the winter to 6s in the summer)
           H = wave height (m) (averages 3.5m in the winter to 1.5m in the summer)
4 General Types of Wave Energy Devices
  Overtopping                 Oscillating Water Column
                   Waves
                overtopping
                  the ramp
    Reservoir
4 General Types of Wave Energy Devices
 Point Absorber        Attenuator




                         Attenuator
    Where do Electrical Utilities
             Fit In?
   All Generation to supply
    coastal load generated east of
    coast range.
            1MW Generated on the coast
             has more value than 1 MW
             generated in Eastern Oregon                   Average         Generation
                                           Oregon 2005   Consumption
   Always Looking for                      West of
                                                         3,488MW (68%)   2,487MW (29%)
                                           Cascades:
    Alternatives to Help Mitigate
    Transmission Bottlenecks on              East of
                                                         1,633MW (32%)   6,163MW (71%)
                                            Cascades:
    the BPA Transmission System
                                             Total:        5,121MW         8,650MW
   Potential for Long Term Tier 2
    Use in a Post-2011 Power
    Purchase World
         Wave Energy Benefits
   Given proper siting, converting wave
    energy to electricity is thought to be one of
    the most benign ways to generate
    electricity
   Because wave energy is more predictable
    than direct solar and wind, there is a higher
    probability that it will be dispatchable
   In Coastal Communities Wave Energy
    could help to spur economic development
Wave Energy Preliminary Permits Filed with
         FERC as of Fall 2007


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   Commercial Wave Power Plant
  Ocean Power Technologies Model
Douglas County Oregon Example – 50 MW Rating – 100
    OPT Devices each nameplate rated at 500 kW




                                                                         Ocean


                                                                1 km



                                                                       Shoreline


                                          Int l Paper   Gardiner S/S
                                                                          Land
                                          Plant
           The Development Cycle
   Build Design Team
       Researchers, Specialists, Technicians
   Inception
       Ideas Developed
       Back of the napkin clculations and Design
   Design
       Initial Drawings Specs Etc.
   Model
       Computer Analysis of Design
   Prototype
       Build Working Scale Model
       Lab Test
       Ocean Testing
   Commercialization
       Usable Energy Transmitted to Grid
OSU Wave Energy Research
   First Graduate Completed the Ocean Energy
    Program in 2003 ( I am the 2nd Graduate)
   Currently 14+ Multi-disciplinary Graduate
    Students in the Program
   Direct Drive Topology
   Multiple Different Prototype Devices
   Partnering with Lincoln County and Finavera
    Renewables has Conducted Their 1st Ocean
    Testing South of Yaquina Head
   OSU is Beginning Work toward the Creation of
    The U.S. Center of Ocean Energy Research
History of OSU’s Novel Direct Drive Buoy Approaches
             (First three prototypes)




Permanent Magnet    Permanent Magnet      Contactless Force
     Linear          Rack and Pinion        Transmission
    Generator             Drive      (eliminates working seals )

     (Licensing through Columbia Power Technologies)
           OSU Linear Generator
   Model Developed for Proof of Concept
      Model   on Display @ Hatfield Marine Science Center
                                Simple Diode
                                  Rectifier




2 phase Coil    Magnet Stack
      OSU Wave Energy Linear Test Bed
Creates the relative linear motion between a
center spar and a surrounding float (active
components)
Enables dynamic testing, using captured wave
profiles, while simulating the actual response of
ocean waves
Specifications:
 10kW with a 50% efficient device, and up to
19kW @ 95% efficiency
 1m/sec @ 20,000 N Thrust (4500 lbf)
 2m/sec @ 10,000 N Thrust (2250 lbf)
 Modes: Velocity, Point-Point, & Force Control
(through feedback from load cells/force meters)
 2m relative motion/stroke (6.5 feet)
Upper & Lower Gimbal mounting (for alignment
variation)
14ft tall x 10.5ft wide x 8.5ft deep               Design: Mundt and Associates Inc.
Linear Test Bed
First Ocean Testing        Yaquina Head Light House
Identifying the Location
First Ocean Testing
Preparing Device for Deployment
              First Ocean Testing
                Device on Station and Operating

The Pacific Storm was able to hold station in order to allow
the power take-off cable to go directly to the power analysis
and data acquisition system on the vessel
                Wave Energy Park Environmental Monitoring
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields:
          Sea bird attraction?
          Marine Mammal attraction, repulsion. Changes in whale migration pathways.
          Change in larval dispersion.
          Change in fish use of area, change in fish migration, change in fish reproductive success.
          Shark attraction.

Effects from construction/deployment/service of cables
          The most destructive aspect of laying natural gas lines is during the deployment of lines; the
           seafloor with its inhabitants are altered as the line is laid with large machinery. Similar effects
           could be expected with lying of electric cables if similar methods are used.
          Impact on invertebrates or seafloor structure from placement of anchors and power lines.
          Creation of a sediment plume and resulting impacts on fish/invertebrates.

Effects of the physical structure of the buoy field.
           Entanglement of marine mammals: whales, dolphins.
           Effects of using antifouling agents: introduction of toxics.
           Creation of a new community:
                Does the new structure act as a filter for larval dispersal so that recruitment in
                 surrounding areas is decreased?
                Will the structure create a new habitat that will facilitate recruit and production of marine
                 organisms?

Monitoring needs to be scale appropriate.
         Impacts from small scale may not be scalable to large energy generation farms.
         Monitoring program needs to be adaptive in design to respond to evolving impacts
              Monitoring needs to compare manipulated and un-manipulated areas.
         Key Stakeholders
 Northwest Fishing & Shipping Interests
 Coastal Communities & Counties
 Northwest Utilities
 Oregon State University
 Wildlife Management Agencies
 Oregon Dept. Of Energy
 FERC/MMS
        Oregon Wave Energy Industry Collaboration
                               Wave Energy

OPAC (Ocean                                               BPA, Navy
 Policy Adv.     OR Econ.                                   NREL
  Council)       & Comm.                                  (USDOE)
                                 Industry
                   Dev.

   Governors      Hatfield                         PNGC          NOAA
                                Developer
    Office       Marine Sci.
                    Ctr.
     State                        Legal          PacifiCorp     USACE
   Legislators   OR DLCD
                               Fabricators
                                                                 Coast
      Com’l                                        CLPUD
                 OR State      Operations                        Guard
    Fishing &
                  Lands
    Crabbing                    Maintenance         PGE          FERC,
   Recreation    OR State                                         MMS
    / Marine      Marine       Quality Control
   Concerns       Board
OSU’s Future Vision
Questions?




Thank You!!

								
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