Introduction to Wave Power Introduction to Ocean Wave Energy Tony Schacher Engineer – Salem Electric July 24, 2008 Presentation Overview Wave Energy Basics The Case for Wave Energy in Oregon Oregon Wave Energy Projects Oregon State University Wave Energy Research Utility Role in the Project Wave Power/Energy Basics How are waves formed? Definition of Wave Power Flux in kW/m Waves are a concentrated form of solar energy Technology to convert wave energy to electrical energy is in its starting phase > 1000 Patents < 2 MW Installed Active Gov’t RD&D Program in Europe and Australia No Gov’t RD&D Program in the U.S. Worldwide Wave Power Availability WA OR Southern AK CA 1,250 TWh/yr ME NH MA RI NY 440 NJ TWh/yr 110 TWh/yr Northern HI 300 TWh/yr Oregon’s Leadership Opportunity – Unique ocean resource – Established marine community – Excellent reputation for renewable energy and green industry support – Positive political climate (both state & federal) “Oregon is poised to lead the nation and the world in wave energy research, development and production. We have the wave resource, the expertise through collaboration including tremendous university, industry, utility and community support, and the utility infrastructure along the coast to deliver this clean, renewable power into the grid.” Annette vonJouanne Power from Ocean Waves Available Resource off Oregon Coast NDBC Data Buoys CDIP (SCRIPPS) Data Buoys "50% of the US population lives within 50 miles of the coast "Oregon has some of the richest ocean wave energy potentials in the world Power from Ocean Waves Available Resource off Oregon Coast 70 Data buoys are 60 Wave Power, kW/m 2-200mi off shore, 50 Seasonal with waves 40 variation traveling 15-20mph, 30 Good match gives 10+ hours 20 for the NW load forecast time for 10 demand buoy generators 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 located 2 mi out Months (wave data From National Data Buoy Center, Power estimated from 5 buoys off the Oregon coast over past 10 years) ρ g 2TH 2 Power from a wave is P= W/m of crest length (distance along an individual crest) 32π ρ = the density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3 g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.8 m/s2 T = period of wave (s) (averages 8s in the winter to 6s in the summer) H = wave height (m) (averages 3.5m in the winter to 1.5m in the summer) 4 General Types of Wave Energy Devices Overtopping Oscillating Water Column Waves overtopping the ramp Reservoir 4 General Types of Wave Energy Devices Point Absorber Attenuator Attenuator Where do Electrical Utilities Fit In? All Generation to supply coastal load generated east of coast range. 1MW Generated on the coast has more value than 1 MW generated in Eastern Oregon Average Generation Oregon 2005 Consumption Always Looking for West of 3,488MW (68%) 2,487MW (29%) Cascades: Alternatives to Help Mitigate Transmission Bottlenecks on East of 1,633MW (32%) 6,163MW (71%) Cascades: the BPA Transmission System Total: 5,121MW 8,650MW Potential for Long Term Tier 2 Use in a Post-2011 Power Purchase World Wave Energy Benefits Given proper siting, converting wave energy to electricity is thought to be one of the most benign ways to generate electricity Because wave energy is more predictable than direct solar and wind, there is a higher probability that it will be dispatchable In Coastal Communities Wave Energy could help to spur economic development Wave Energy Preliminary Permits Filed with FERC as of Fall 2007 W) (1M Oceanlinx Ltd y WA Finavera Ba kah Ma Renewables Fl or nce Douglas e OR Lincoln C County ounty O (1 Doug R ( 20-180 MW) Lincoln 5M las C ou nty O W R County ) ( 20- 1 Coos 80MW Bay ) OR (100M W) Hu mb Or old eg tC A( on 100 W MW av ) e En Re e rg ed yP Or sp art eg or on tO ne Wa PT rs Pacific Gas & ve En W av II N erg e P ewp Electric yP ar o a rt k O rt O ne R R rs (5 ( -40MW) Co 0M 100 Ocean Power nnect (5 os W MW t WaveCo Ba ) Technologies PGE Humbold Fair h yO R ) aven ( 10 PGE Me Oce 0M ndoc ino an Po W) Wav eC wer H onnec t ( umb 5-40MW oldt C ) A (20 MW) Commercial Wave Power Plant Ocean Power Technologies Model Douglas County Oregon Example – 50 MW Rating – 100 OPT Devices each nameplate rated at 500 kW Ocean 1 km Shoreline Int l Paper Gardiner S/S Land Plant The Development Cycle Build Design Team Researchers, Specialists, Technicians Inception Ideas Developed Back of the napkin clculations and Design Design Initial Drawings Specs Etc. Model Computer Analysis of Design Prototype Build Working Scale Model Lab Test Ocean Testing Commercialization Usable Energy Transmitted to Grid OSU Wave Energy Research First Graduate Completed the Ocean Energy Program in 2003 ( I am the 2nd Graduate) Currently 14+ Multi-disciplinary Graduate Students in the Program Direct Drive Topology Multiple Different Prototype Devices Partnering with Lincoln County and Finavera Renewables has Conducted Their 1st Ocean Testing South of Yaquina Head OSU is Beginning Work toward the Creation of The U.S. Center of Ocean Energy Research History of OSU’s Novel Direct Drive Buoy Approaches (First three prototypes) Permanent Magnet Permanent Magnet Contactless Force Linear Rack and Pinion Transmission Generator Drive (eliminates working seals ) (Licensing through Columbia Power Technologies) OSU Linear Generator Model Developed for Proof of Concept Model on Display @ Hatfield Marine Science Center Simple Diode Rectifier 2 phase Coil Magnet Stack OSU Wave Energy Linear Test Bed Creates the relative linear motion between a center spar and a surrounding float (active components) Enables dynamic testing, using captured wave profiles, while simulating the actual response of ocean waves Specifications: 10kW with a 50% efficient device, and up to 19kW @ 95% efficiency 1m/sec @ 20,000 N Thrust (4500 lbf) 2m/sec @ 10,000 N Thrust (2250 lbf) Modes: Velocity, Point-Point, & Force Control (through feedback from load cells/force meters) 2m relative motion/stroke (6.5 feet) Upper & Lower Gimbal mounting (for alignment variation) 14ft tall x 10.5ft wide x 8.5ft deep Design: Mundt and Associates Inc. Linear Test Bed First Ocean Testing Yaquina Head Light House Identifying the Location First Ocean Testing Preparing Device for Deployment First Ocean Testing Device on Station and Operating The Pacific Storm was able to hold station in order to allow the power take-off cable to go directly to the power analysis and data acquisition system on the vessel Wave Energy Park Environmental Monitoring Effects of Electromagnetic Fields: Sea bird attraction? Marine Mammal attraction, repulsion. Changes in whale migration pathways. Change in larval dispersion. Change in fish use of area, change in fish migration, change in fish reproductive success. Shark attraction. Effects from construction/deployment/service of cables The most destructive aspect of laying natural gas lines is during the deployment of lines; the seafloor with its inhabitants are altered as the line is laid with large machinery. Similar effects could be expected with lying of electric cables if similar methods are used. Impact on invertebrates or seafloor structure from placement of anchors and power lines. Creation of a sediment plume and resulting impacts on fish/invertebrates. Effects of the physical structure of the buoy field. Entanglement of marine mammals: whales, dolphins. Effects of using antifouling agents: introduction of toxics. Creation of a new community: Does the new structure act as a filter for larval dispersal so that recruitment in surrounding areas is decreased? Will the structure create a new habitat that will facilitate recruit and production of marine organisms? Monitoring needs to be scale appropriate. Impacts from small scale may not be scalable to large energy generation farms. Monitoring program needs to be adaptive in design to respond to evolving impacts Monitoring needs to compare manipulated and un-manipulated areas. Key Stakeholders Northwest Fishing & Shipping Interests Coastal Communities & Counties Northwest Utilities Oregon State University Wildlife Management Agencies Oregon Dept. Of Energy FERC/MMS Oregon Wave Energy Industry Collaboration Wave Energy OPAC (Ocean BPA, Navy Policy Adv. OR Econ. NREL Council) & Comm. (USDOE) Industry Dev. Governors Hatfield PNGC NOAA Developer Office Marine Sci. Ctr. State Legal PacifiCorp USACE Legislators OR DLCD Fabricators Coast Com’l CLPUD OR State Operations Guard Fishing & Lands Crabbing Maintenance PGE FERC, Recreation OR State MMS / Marine Marine Quality Control Concerns Board OSU’s Future Vision Questions? Thank You!!
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