# Structures and Mechanisms Meetin by fjhuangjun

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```									                                           Mighty Matter

Grades 7/8 Understanding Matter and Energy:
Pure Substances and Mixtures; Fluids

Grade 7: Properties and Applications of Substances and Mixtures;
Description
Students in a variety of groupings will review and investigate the properties of matter, with an emphasis
on substances and mixtures for the Grade 7 students and an emphasis on fluids for the Grade 8
students. Through a variety of scientific inquiry and technological problem solving investigations,
students will research, experiment, and/or design to examine properties of a variety of substances,
mixtures, and fluids, and how those properties relate to how they can be used.
Big Ideas                                              Big Ideas
Matter can be classified based on its physical         Fluids have different properties that determine
characteristics.                                       how they can be used.
Understanding the characteristics of matter            Fluids can be used in systems to accomplish
use it.
Overall Expectations                                   Overall Expectations
Grade 7 Science and Technology – Pure                  Grade 8 Science and Technology – Fluids
Substances and Mixtures                                Investigate the properties of fluids.
Investigate properties and applications of pure
substances and mixtures.                               Grade 8 Mathematics – Number Sense and
Numeration
Grade 7 Mathematics – Number Sense and                 solve problems by using proportional reasoning in
Numeration                                             a variety of meaningful contexts
represent, compare, and order numbers, including
integers                                               Grade 8 Mathematics – Measurement
demonstrate an understanding of proportional           research, describe, and report on applications of
relationships using percent, ratio, and rate           volume and capacity measurement
determine the relationships among units and
Grade 7 Mathematics – Data Management and              measurable attributes, including the area of
Probability                                            a circle and the volume of a cylinder
collect and organize categorical, discrete, or
continuous primary data and secondary data             Grade 8 Mathematics – Data Management and
and display the data using charts and graphs …         Probability
collect and organize categorical, discrete, or
continuous primary data and secondary data
and display the data using charts and graphs …
Science and Technology – Pure Substances               Science and Technology – Fluids
and Mixtures                                           follow established safety procedures (e.g., use
analyse different methods of separating (e.g.,         syringes and tubing, for intended purposes)
evaporation, sifting, filtration, distillation,        use the skills of technological problem solving to
magnetism) components of mixtures, and describe design, construct, and operate a model of a
some industrial applications of these methods          common device that uses pneumatic or hydraulic

Combined Grades – Science and Technology 2007
(e.g., use of evaporation in maple syrup                   systems
production; use of different sizes of sieves to            use appropriate vocabulary, including correct
separate wheat grains in white bread production;           science and technology terminology such
use of strainers in industries to separate slurry into     as viscosity, density, particle theory of matter,
solids and liquids; use of filtration in air               hydraulic, pneumatic in describing their
purification; use of fractional distillation in refining   investigations, explorations, and observations
crude oil; use of magnets in scrap metal yards),           research industries and jobs in which the
including the impact of the use of each on society         principles of fluid dynamics are applied (e.g.,
and the environment (e.g., oil refineries where            aeronautics, shipping, food services, plumber,
fractional distillation of crude oil takes place, are      hydrodynamic engineer)
often located away from populated areas because            explain the difference between fluids in terms of
the they release chemicals into the air and water,         their compressibility (e.g., gases are more
and also creates unpleasant odours; air                    compressible than liquids) and how their
purification systems can remove even the tiniest           compressibility affects their usage (e.g., buses
particles of contaminates from the air in a room or        employ pneumatics to operate the doors for
building, making it healthier for people to breathe;       safety)
the evaporation process used in making maple               describe the ways in which fluids are used and
syrup has no detrimental effects on the                    controlled in living things with the ways in which
environment)                                               they are used and controlled in manufactured
follow established safety procedures (e.g., (e.g.,         devices (e.g. the role of valves in the
wash hands after handling chemicals, take note             circulatory system to the role of valves in an
of universal warning symbols))                             internal combustion engine; the role of a
use the skills of scientific inquiry /                     fish's swim bladder to the role of the ballasts of a
experimentation to examine factors (e.g.,                  submarine)
temperature, type of solute or solvent, particle
size, stirring) that affect the solubility of a            Mathematical Process Expectations
substance and the rate at which substances                 Develop select, and apply problem-solving
dissolve                                                   strategies as they pose and solve problems and
investigate a variety of ways (e.g., filtration,           conduct investigations …
distillation, settling, magnetism) of separating a
variety of mixtures (e.g., water, sand and paper
clips)
use the skills of scientific inquiry/experimentation
to investigate the characteristics of mixtures and
solutions (e.g., the amount of solute required to
form a saturated solution; the difference between
pure substances and mixtures)
use appropriate vocabulary, including correct
science and technology terminology such
as mechanical mixture, solution, solute, insoluble,
saturated, unsaturated, dilute in describing their
investigations, explorations, and observations
distinguish between pure substances (e.g.,
distilled water, salt, copper pipe) and mixtures
distinguish between solutions (e.g., homogeneous
mixtures) and mechanical mixtures (e.g.,
heterogeneous substances)

Mathematical Process Expectations
Develop select, and apply problem-solving
strategies as they pose and solve problems and
conduct investigations …

Combined Grades – Science and Technology 2007
Grouping                                                 Assessment and Evaluation
Whole Class, Small Groups, Individuals                   Assessment Strategies: observation, student
Teaching/Learning Approaches and Strategies demonstration
Concept formation                                        Assessment Tools: anecdotal records, checklist
Scientific Inquiry (experimentation/research)
Technological Problem Solving (design process)
Activate Prior Learning – Grades 7 and 8
1. Teacher facilitates small (mixed grade) group discussions on particle theory, where students tell
‘particle stories’ that represent several of the postulates of the particle theory of matter (i.e., all
matter is made up of particles, all particles are in constant motion, the particles have forces of
attraction between them, there are large spaces between the particles, all particles of one
substance are identical, temperature affects the speed at which particles move); teacher probes
and guides Grade 7 students to refer to physical characteristics of substances and mixtures (e.g.,
state, appearance), and Grade 8 students to refer to properties of fluids (e.g., density, buoyancy,
viscosity) (guided).
Set the Context – Grades 7 and 8
1. Teacher clarifies the distinction between physical characteristics (distinguishing features that are
easily observed and often change [e.g., state of matter, colour, shape, texture, shininess/lustre,
clarity, hardness, brittleness, malleability, taste, smell]) and properties (unchanging qualities that
enable something to be used in a particular way [e.g., solubility, ease of combining with other
materials, ease of separating from a mixture, elasticity, strength, ability to hold things together,
acidity, alkalinity, electrical conductivity, magnetism, compressibility, flammability, explosive,
poisonous, corrosive, infectious, toxic, hazardous [including biohazardous]) (modeled).
2. Teacher shows film (or takes class on a field trip) that depicts the use of pure substances, mixtures,
and fluids in every day life; following the film teacher leads concept formation activity with whole
class in which related students identify pure substances, mixtures, and fluids featured in the film,
and one or more related characteristics or properties (modeled/shared).
Implement Teaching and Learning – Grade 7
1. Students (in pairs or small groups) carry out teacher-directed experiments to investigate properties
of various substances, including solids, liquids, and gases; these experiments would involve
different ways of separating mixtures (e.g., filtration, settling, using a magnet, picking out different
parts, dissolving one part, evaporating one part), comparing two or more different solvents with one
or more different solutes, testing rate of dissolving factors (such as temperature, size of particles,
and stirring), and investigating solubility of one or more solutes in one or more solvents (i.e.,
determining amount of solute required to form a saturated solution at specific temperatures)
(guided).
2. Individually, students identify what the substances or mixtures they investigated could be used for,
based on the properties they determined, and record this in chart format in their learning logs
(independent).
Implement Teaching and Learning – Grade 8
1. Students (in pairs or small groups) carry out a variety of teacher-directed investigations using
different sizes of syringes (e.g., 5 mL, 10 mL, 20 mL), lengths of plastic tubing that fit on open ends
of syringes (e.g., 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm, and 40 cm lengths of 6 mm tubing), and connectors
(e.g., straight, T) (guided):
a. Connect two same size syringes with a 5 cm length of tubing, and observe what happens
when one plunger is pulled back, and when you push or pull one plunger while holding
the other
b. Repeat a. but use a straight connector and two 5 cm lengths of tubing; observe and
record the differences
c. Repeat a. with a longer piece of tubing (e.g., 30 or 40 cm); observe and record the

Combined Grades – Science and Technology 2007
differences
d. Connect two 5 mL syringes and one 20 mL syringe with a T connector and three pieces
of 5 cm tubing; observe and record what happens when you push and pull the 20 mL
syringe plunger, and when you push and pull one of the 5 mL syringe plungers
e. Repeat a. to d. by replacing the air with water; observe and record the differences
2. Students (in pairs or small groups) research examples of pneumatic and hydraulic systems in
manufactured devices and living things, and compare similarities and differences (guided).
Differentiate
Content:
Greater to fewer number of substances or mixtures being investigated; greater to lesser complexity of
Greater to fewer/lesser number and complexity of combinations of syringes, tubing, and connectors
Process: Regroup (including size) for different purposes (depending upon task being worked upon);
Product: Oral, written or drawn descriptions and explanations, and/or demonstrations of learning
Learning Environment: Include a field trip or guest speaker to learn about how the properties of
various substances and mixtures, including fluids, and how they are used
Check for Understanding – Grades 7 and 8
Throughout the investigating, including experimenting (Grade 7) and investigating, designing, building,
testing, and modifying (Grade 8), teacher observes and gives ongoing, specific feedback (directly
connected to identified overall and specific expectations).
Practise and Apply – Grade 7
1. Individually, students design and carry out their own experiment to confirm properties of a substance
or mixture they have tested already, or determine the properties of a substance or mixture they have
not tested previously (/independent)..
2. In pairs or small groups, students conduct additional research on a substance or mixture they have
tested, or a new substance or mixture they have not tested previously, to confirm and/or determine
its properties, what the implications of those properties are with regard to their use
(guided/independent).
3. Individually, students record results of their investigations, including experiments and research, in
their learning logs (independent).
Practise and Apply – Grade 8
1. Individually, students design and carry out an investigation to answer a question they have come up
with related to one or more of the properties (i.e., density, buoyancy, or viscosity) of fluids and that
compares compressibility when exerting pressure on air or water in a closed system (independent).
2. Using the results of this investigation and their previous learning, students (individually) design,
build, and test a pneumatic or hydraulic system that moves an object (independent).
3. Individually, students record results of their investigations, including research, experimentation,
designing, building, and testing in their learning logs (independent).
Reflect and Close – Grade 7
1. Students explain, in their learning logs, the importance (with reference to one or more properties) of
at least one pure substance and at least one mixture to society or industry (independent).
Reflect and Close – Grade 8
1. Students explain, in their learning logs, the use and importance of at least one pneumatic system
and at least one hydraulic system in society or industry (independent).

Combined Grades – Science and Technology 2007

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