Scotland A Fair Trade Nation

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A Fair Trade
Foreword from the    Across Scotland people are
                     realising that the decisions
                                                      I am determined Scotland
                                                      will do whatever it can
The First Minister   they make on the high            to help end the scandal
of Scotland          street can affect the lives of   of widespread poverty in
                     people on the other side of      the developing world. Our
                     the planet. We are beginning     commitment to Fair Trade is
                     to understand how our            an integral part of our effort
                     purchasing power can be          to make poverty history. If
                     used as a force for good,        everyone in Scotland did a
                     but we all must do more.         little bit we could achieve a
                                                      great deal.
                     Countries in Africa and
                     the developing world need        I hope you find this booklet
                     financial help, but they          useful and informative. But
                     cannot grow and stand            I also hope it inspires you
                     on their own two feet by         to take action and to play
                     relying on aid. The people of    your part in tackling global
                     Malawi don’t want to exist       inequality.
                     simply on handouts.
                                                      With Fair Trade we can all
                     Trade is one of the key ways     make a positive contribution
                     that Malawians can escape        to the world.
                     grinding poverty. Fair Trade
                     is not about charity – it is
                     a way to ensure workers
                     receive fair prices and
                     decent working conditions        Jack McConnell
                     that we in the developed         First Minister of Scotland
                     world take for granted.
What is                                       obtain a fair price for the products that     What is the                                  Good Business...
Fair Trade?                                   they produce. They are at the mercy of
                                              international trading and tariff agreements   difference                                   for Good
Fair Trade is a trading partnership that
                                              and often suffer from unfair treatment by
                                              local brokers or middlemen.                   between                                      Buying fairly traded goods ensures that
seeks to establish greater equity in
international trade. Fair Trade contributes   Fair Trade means that workers get a price     Fair Trade                                   small scale producers get a fair, living
                                                                                                                                         wage for their produce. As the Fair Trade
to sustainable development by offering
better trading conditions and securing
                                              for their products that always covers the
                                              cost of production, no matter how low         and Fairtrade?                               market grows in Scotland, the number
                                                                                                                                         of people benefiting from our consumer
the rights of marginalised producers and      the world price goes.                                                                      choices grows. However, the entire
workers – especially in the developing                                                      The term ‘Fairtrade’ is used to describe     notion of “Fair Trade” makes clear that, in
world. Fair Trade Organisations (backed       Fair Trade also places importance on          the certification and labelling system that   fact, the majority of trade is “unfair”.
by consumers) are engaged actively in         longer-term contracts with producers that     is administered in the UK by the Fairtrade
supporting producers, awareness raising       allow them to plan for their future, make     Foundation. This system is designed to       The existing global trading system
and campaigning for changes in the rules      improvements in businesses and support        help consumers easily identify goods         is heavily loaded against poorer
and practices of conventional trade.          their families.                               produced under agreed labour and             countries. Many rich countries can be
                                                                                            environmental standards.                     very protective of their own agricultural
Whether it’s a garment, tea, coffee,          Fair Trade ensures a commitment to                                                         industries, providing enormous
chocolate, bananas, sugar, jewellery          improving working conditions, gender          The term Fair Trade is a broader term        subsidies to their farmers. This leads to
or crafts, buying Fair Trade products         equality, employment rights and benefits       often used to refer to the Fair Trade        overproduction of certain basic goods
ensures a better deal for producers,          for workers, such as joining a trade union    movement as a whole and can be used          – with the excess goods then being
workers and farmers in the developing         and that no child or forced labour is used.   to describe both labelled and unlabelled     ‘dumped’ (sold at below-cost prices)
world.                                                                                      goods and the work of Alternative            on the markets of some of the world’s
                                              The Fair Trade price may also include a       Trade Organizations (ATOs), Fair Trade       poorest countries. This undercuts local
Here are two ways of recognising Fair         ‘social premium’ that benefits producers,      federations and other Fair Trade networks    farmers and often forces them out of
Trade products:                               workers and their communities. They           such as IFAT, NEWS, EFTA and BAFTS.          business.
                                              decide for themselves how to invest this
• Through the FAIRTRADE Mark                  extra income and, for example, use it to:                                                  Trade justice would mean the end of
  which is a recognisable logo found                                                                                                     such practices. It would also involve the
  on the packaging of an ever-                •   Improve housing                                                                        creation of a truly fair trading system, in
  growing number of everyday                  •   Build roads                                                                            which developing countries are able to
  products.                                   •   Improve healthcare facilities                                                          nurture their own emerging industries in
  The Fairtrade Foundation,                   •   Re-invest in the businesses with                                                       the same ways we have done in the past.
  with its partners, maintains the                new equipment or by learning
  FAIRTRADE Mark standards.                       new skills                                                                             Fair Trade and trade justice are
                                                                                                                                         inextricably linked, and many see
• A Fair Trade product can also               To find out more about the Fairtrade                                                        campaigning for Trade Justice as a
  be bought through a Fair Trade              Foundation and FAIRTRADE Mark                                                              natural progression from buying Fair
  Organisation, for example a BAFTS           products go to:                                                                            Trade. Trade justice will ensure that all
  shop (British Association of Fair                                                                        producers can be guaranteed fair prices
  Trade Shops) or organisations                                                                                                          for generations, allowing developing
  such as Traidcraft or People Tree.          To find out more about IFAT (the                                                            countries to work their own way out of
                                              International Fair Trade Association)                                                      poverty.
Fair Trade provides small-scale producers,    and their work go to:
farmers and workers with better terms of                                                                               Want to know more about the campaign
trade and prices for their products.                                                                                                     for Trade Justice?
                                              To find out more about where to buy            Buy Fairtrade products with this Mark
Small-scale, remote producers in the          Fair Trade products go to:
developing world often find it difficult to
What is a                                  Focus on
Fair Trade                                 Malawi
Nation?                                    “The focus of much of our work is on
                                            the African country of Malawi which
This is the national effort from            is one of the 10 poorest countries in
everyone in Scotland to make sure           the world. Scots and Malawians have
we do everything we can to ensure           worked together for over 150 years
workers across the developing world         since David Livingstone travelled
receive fair prices and decent working      extensively there and encouraged
conditions for the products we buy.         trade as one way of fighting slavery
                                            in the region. Our relationship has
                                            endured to the present day and Fair
What do we want to do?                     Trade is one of the ways in which
                                            Scotland can help to build a better
• Increase awareness of Fair Trade          future for the people of Malawi.
• Increase the sale of Fair Trade
  goods                                    “Malawi produces many products
• Contribute to greater trade justice       we in Scotland consume a great
                                            deal of: coffee, tea, sugar, nuts and
To help achieve this, a detailed set of     honey to name but a few. By making
criteria have been drawn up to enable       sure we buy Fair Trade we help
us become a Fair Trade Nation. We           the people who grow and produce
all have a part to play – these are just    these products earn a fair day’s pay,
some of the targets we have set:            which in turn guarantees them better
                                            working conditions and means they           their crop directly to countries like
                                            can send their children to school or        Scotland.
Fair Trade Nation Criteria                  afford basic medical care for their
                                            families.                                   “These project still have a long way
• 75% of people to buy a Fair Trade                                                      to go, but to give an example of
  product every year                       “Through the International Development        what we can expect in the future,
• 40% of people regularly buy               Fund the Scottish Executive is               we need only look as far as Mchinji
  Fair Trade products                       supporting the work of Imani Enterprise      Smallholder Farmers’ Association of
• All local authorities have active         Ltd, a Fair Trade consultancy with offices    peanut farmers in the west of Malawi
  Fair Trade groups working towards         in Scotland, Malawi and throughout           producing the first Fairtrade salted
  Fairtrade status                          Africa, to encourage sustainable,            peanuts in the world”
• 55% of towns have active Fair             mutually beneficial trade between
  Trade groups working towards              the two countries and help promote
  Fairtrade status                          Malawian products in Scotland. We are
• Support from the Scottish                 also helping the Neno Smallholder
  Executive and Scottish Parliament,        Macadamia Farmers of Southern
  for example by actively promoting         Malawi develop their own business
  Fairtrade Fortnight each year             and grow better quality nuts. The
                                            project, co-ordinated by Edinburgh-
Find the full Fair Trade Nation             based Fair Trade company
criteria at:                                EqualExchange, will prepare the nut         Patricia Ferguson MSP,                   growers for market access so they           Minister for Tourism,
News-Extras/fair-trade                      themselves can profit from selling          Culture and Sport
Judith Harry                               house with concrete foundations and a

– the face behind                          tin roof.

the world’s first                           “When I was a teenager, I became
                                            pregnant and the father of my daughter
Fairtrade salted                            didn’t stay with me. We lived in poverty
                                            and lacked basic necessities which
peanuts                                     made me very miserable. I wanted
                                            things to be different for my daughter
                                            and I thought the only way we would
                                            have food would be if I became a
Judith Harry is 34 and the single mother    farmer.
of a teenage girl. She is a peanut
(groundnut) farmer in Malawi. Judith       “I went over the border to Zambia and
chairs the Mchinji Smallholder Farmers’     was hired to work on a farm and was
Association (MASFA) of peanut farmers.      given some groundnut seed as my pay
Their peanuts carry the FAIRTRADE           which I planted at home. When the
Mark and are sold in supermarkets           groundnuts grew I sold them but the
across the UK. Twin Trading, the            vendors who bought them used to bring
organisation behind other Fairtrade         tampered scales in order to steal and
success stories Cafédirect, Divine          they always paid low prices.
Chocolate and AgroFair UK, brings the
peanuts to the UK.                         “Then I heard about NASFAM
                                           – the National Smallholder Farmers
“I am very proud to have grown some of      Association of Malawi – an organisation
 the groundnuts which have become the       which represents farmers all over
 world’s first Fairtrade salted peanuts.     Malawi, helping find markets for the
                                            produce of farmers who are organised
“In Mkanda where I live most farmers        into groups. NASFAM helped the
 live below the poverty line. They earn     Mchinji Association with production
 below $1 per day and do not have           and training and a lot of things have
 enough food to last them the whole         improved in our lives
 year. The guaranteed fair price, which
 comes with Fairtrade, is important as     “One of the great things about Fairtrade
 we will make a profit when we sell our      is the Fairtrade premium – the money
 nuts and we can use the money to lift      which comes directly to us to spend
 up our lives.                              on our community. In the future we will
                                            use the premium to start a clinic which
“I start work at 3.30am every morning       will mean health facilities are nearer for
 to work in my garden where I grow          families…”
 maize for my family. Before seven I
 cook porridge for my daughter who         Judith’s peanuts can be found in
 is 13 and two orphans who I also look     Tesco own-brand Fairtrade peanut
 after who are a girl of 14 and a boy of   and raisin mix and own-brand
17. I also look after my mum who is 66.    Fairtrade peanut, cashew and dried
 Last year I grew enough peanuts to        mango mix. They can also be found
 make 14,000 jars of peanut butter. We     in Co-op own brand packets of                 “ I am very proud to have grown some of
 used to live in a mud house but I have    roasted, salted peanuts. Delicious!             the groundnuts which have become the
 been able to build my family a brick                                                      world’s first Fairtrade salted peanuts.”
Products,                                                       Did you know that there
                                                                are now over 2,000                                          Bananas | St Vincent                                  Chocolate | Ghana

places                                                          FAIRTRADE Mark products
                                                                available in the UK?
                                                                                                                 “As long as I am selling in Fairtrade I can
                                                                                                                  earn enough to support my life.”
                                                                                                                                                                        “Fairtrade is good! We are not cheated. We
                                                                                                                                                                         trust we are being paid fairly and we have a

and the
                                                                                                                                                                         good group to share our worries.
                                                                                                                 Denise, banana farmer,
                                                                Here’s just a few – some                         St Vincent, Windward Islands,                          “If we have 3 bags of cocoa we get more cash

producers               Buy Fairtrade products with this Mark
                                                                you’ll know but others
                                                                might surprise you!
                                                                                                                 West Indies                                             for our cocoa. More cash from our sweat. It
                                                                                                                                                                         is progress.”

                                                                                                                                                                        Fati Issah,
                                                                                                                                                                        Kuapa farmer,
                                                                                                                                                                        Bayerebon, Ghana.
          Honey | Nicaragua
“Alternative trade allows the famers to sell
 their products without middlemen for
 better prices. Forming the co-operative
 has given us much courage and
 self-confidence.”                                                                                                                                                                 Footballs | Pakistan
                                                                                                                                                                        Sameena Nyaz stitches FAIRTRADE
Francisco Aguilar Guido,                                                                                                                                                Mark balls. She’s 18 years old and single.
Bee Keeper-Equal Exchange,                                                                                                                                              Recently Sameena has had to undergo an
Fairtrade Honey                                                                                                                                                         operation. All the costs were paid by the
                                                                                                                                                                        Fair Trade Welfare Society, which is made
                                                                                                                                                                        possible by the Fairtrade premium.

          Pineapples | Costa Rica
“Fairtrade has given me a better living. It has
 freed me from debt and now I even have my
 own capital I can invest in my farm. Before                                                                                                                                      Cotton | India
 Fairtrade life was stressful… now thanks                                                                                                                               “We will benefit economically, but more
 to Fairtrade I have a sense of pride… This                                                                                                                              than this, we will be able to improve the
 is what I want for my children and what all                                                                                                                             education of the children in the village.”
 fathers want – to give their children a future
 and feel secure about it.”                                                                                                                                              Khima,
                                                                                                                                                                         Cotton farmer
Roberto Ugalde,
Asoproagroin pineapple farmers,
Costa Rica (AgroFair)

                                                                                                                            Peanuts | Malawi
                                                                                                                                                                                  Tea | Sri Lanka
                                                                            Mangoes | Burkina Faso               “Over the past year Fairtrade has already made
          Wine | Chile                                                                                            a difference to our lives. It has brought a better,   “A year ago, we didn’t have any electricity
                                                                  “The most important thing for me is to                                                                 in our houses. All the members of the
                                                                                                                  reliable and more stable market for our
“We think the relationship that exists is                          have an income and provide for my family.                                                             Joint Body got together and discussed
                                                                                                                  peanuts. The Fairtrade premium will help
 really good: it ensures us a fair price for                       Thanks to AgroFair we have discovered                                                                 how we could pay to install it. Some
                                                                                                                  alleviate poverty in the area and it will improve
 our grapes and also respects the values of                        that the world market accepts small                                                                   money came from the Fairtrade premium
                                                                                                                  the lives of the entire community. When we
 the peasant farmers. We wouldn’t find this                         producers next to the large ones. There is                                                            and we each took out a loan. With
                                                                                                                  can dig more boreholes we will have cleaner
 in other markets.”                                                a lot of poverty in Burkina Faso. Fairtrade                                                           electricity, my children can study at night...
                                                                                                                  and safer water, fewer diseases and ultimately
                                                                   helps to fight poverty.”                                                                               I am happy that Fairtrade helps me
                                                                                                                  healthier and better lives.”
Heriberto Olave Espinoza,                                                                                                                                                support my family.”
Grape Grower,                                                     Andrew Traore,                                 Rosemary Kadzitche, 57, peanut grower,
The Co-operative’s Fairtrade                                      FEDAF mango farmers,                           Mchinji Smallholder Farmers’ Association               Sivapackiam,
Chilean wine                                                      Burkina Faso (AgroFair)                        (Twin Trading)                                         Tea picker Sri Lanka.
Everyone across                                Live in it                                       “I’m really delighted
the country can                                                                                  that Scotland is making
                                               Now that all our cities have Fairtrade status,
                                                                                                 such a big commitment
get involved in                                Scotland’s aim is for over half our towns
                                               to have active Fair Trade groups working          to Fair Trade. It’s easy
supporting Fair                                towards Fairtrade status – an ambitious
                                               target.                                           to feel helpless about
Trade and making                               The Fairtrade Towns initiative develops
                                                                                                 international poverty,
Scotland a Fair                                support for Fair Trade. A Fairtrade Town,         but by switching to
                                               City or Zone is a community that has
Trade Nation                                   made a commitment to supporting
                                                                                                 Fair Trade products,
                                               Fair Trade, and through it to support             you’re making a real
Here’s some top tips for supporting            disadvantaged workers in developing
Scotland’s Fair Trade Nation Campaign          countries. You’ll find lots of information on      difference to lives of
and playing your part in building a            the criteria for gaining Fairtrade status for     small scale farmers
sustainable future for workers across the      where you live at:
developing world.                                                 and workers across the
                                               get_involved.htm                                  developing world”
Shop for it                                    “Aberfeldy became a Fairtrade Town                Edith Bowman
By switching to Fair Trade choices when
                                                because we wanted to lead the way for            Presenter
                                                Fair Trade in Scotland.”
doing your shopping, you are helping to         Faith Aitken,
build a positive and sustainable future         Alberfeldy Fairtrade Co-ordinator
for workers and their families in the
developing world.                              “Our awareness-raising sessions moved
                                                out to anyone who would listen. We
Small scale Fair Trade producers care           spoke to Rotary Clubs and playgroup
passionately about their produce and that       mums, we visited companies large and
usually means that you’re buying great          small, held lunch and learn sessions,
quality as well. So with literally thousands    organised Fairtrade wine tastings and
of products to choose from, from                held workshops for anyone that wanted to
chocolate to cotton t-shirts, and everything    convert their particular group to Fairtrade.”
in between – it’s time to go shopping!          Sue Good,                                       “I’m really proud to
                                                Aberdeen Fairtrade Steering Group
There is a growing number of Fair Trade                                                          support Scotland’s Fair
shops in Scotland. They stock a wide
variety of both FAIRTRADE Mark products
                                               “Orkney is a small community which                Trade Nation Campaign.
                                                relies heavily, like many third world
and fairly traded products such as clothing,
                                                countries, on fishing, farming and                By choosing Fair
jewellery, accessories, toys and craft
products. For your nearest shop go to:
                                                tourism, although enjoying a much higher        Trade you’ll be doing
                                                standard of living. Being very aware of
                                                this, the people of Orkney are conscious         your bit to help end
“The One World Shop and other BAFTS
                                                supporters of Fair Trade.”                       extreme poverty in the
                                                Leanne Rendall, Trenablies
 shops give the public access to a wide         Bistro & Fair Trade Gift Shop,                   developing world”
 variety of excellent Fair Trade products”
 Fiona Sinclair, Shop Manager,
                                                Orkney Fairtrade Group                           Gail Porter
 One World Shop, Glasgow                                                                         TV Presenter
Think Global                                                             Work at it                                 Learn about it
– Act Local*                                                             By switching your workplace to
                                                                         Fair Trade certified tea, coffee and
                                                                         other products, you can help make a
                                                                                                                    Lots of schools, colleges and
                                                                                                                    universities across Scotland are
                                                                                                                    already switched on to Fair Trade and
                                                                         difference to the lives of farmers and     have gained Fairtrade accreditation
                                                                         workers in some of the world’s poorest     through the Fairtrade Foundation.
                                                                                                                    There’s lots of information and
                                                                         More than 2,000 products in the UK         resources available to help get you
                                                                         from 58 developing countries now           started including:
                                                                         carry the FAIRTRADE Mark, including
                                                                         hot drinks, biscuits, fresh fruit and
                                                                         juices. And because these items are        get_involved.htm
                                                                         now so widely available from catering
                                                                         suppliers, wholesalers, online and all
                                                                         major supermarkets, it’s simple for your   tradejustice
                                                                         place of work to join the thousands of
                                                                         others who’ve made the change.   
                                                                         To find out more about Fairtrade at
                                                                         work and making the switch       

                                                                         “At Edinburgh Zoo we have an obvious
                                                                          interest in operating as ethically as     make_a_difference/fairtrade_
                                                                          possible. Using Fair Trade products in    action_guide
                                                                          our restaurants and shops is a natural
                                                                          partnership for us and we have been       “Haddington Infant School supports
                                                                          pleased with the quality and variety of    Fair Trade because we want to
                                                                          Fair Trade products available.”            encourage our children to be
                                                                          Tim Blow, Head of Commercial               responsible citizens.”
                                                                          Services, Edinburgh Zoo                    Jill Wareham,
                                                                                                                     Acting Head Teacher
                                                                         “There is now cross-party support for
                                                                          a Fair Trade Scotland in the Scottish     “Staff and students have really got
                                                                          Parliament – but to make it happen         behind the concept of Fair Trade,
                                                                          we need people working in their own        and given that St Andrews is also a
                                                                          communities to make the switch.            Fairtrade town, this movement has
                                                                          Making all global trade fair is a huge     gained momentum that will only
                                                                          task – but Fair Trade Scotland would       continue to grow in the future.”
                                                                          be a great beginning.”                     Susan Horsman, Environment
                                                                          Mark Ballard MSP,                          Officer, University of St Andrews
                                                                          Scottish Green Party

*Quote from Sir Patrick Geddes
1854—1932 Ballater, Scotland, early pioneer of sustainable development
Baby food
Beer & ale
                                                                                                           Buy Fairtrade products with this Mark
Cakes & biscuits
Cereal & snack bars
Chutneys & sauces
Cotton products
Dried fruits
Fruit juices
Herbal & fruit teas
Herbs & spices
Jam & marmalade
Nuts, nut oils & nut spreads
Sports balls
Sweets & toffees
Produced by Hand Up Media, the ethical publishing and media company, with the support of The Scottish Executive.
With thanks to: The Touch Agency [Design], Angus Bremner [Photographer], IFAT, The Fairtrade Foundation & Twin Trading
All wood used to manufacture the paper used for this publication was sourced from sustainably managed forest.