Today’s Lecture: Sexual Orientation Session Topic(s) 14 14 Lecture Organization: Class Announcements Being Gay Understanding the Issue The Science The Debate Class Announcements notes -- Notes are due on the date of the final. -- Penalized if late final -- is on Tuesday, 5:45, in here Class Announcements Reading for the Final -- Only two chapters – 12 and 28. No grade rounding -- Consult syllabus to see how border grades are handled -- If any of you have typed notes that you want to donate to class, contact me -- they cannot be outlines and must be uploaded to docstoc Class Announcements Retakes -- Most people are not improving on the lecture part; but are improving drastically on the reading part -- An updated grade book was circulated (if your grade is the same, you didn’t improve) View mistakes -- At any time you want to forfeit your right to continue taking it, come and see me to see what you missed (make an appointment; don’t drop in) Class Announcements Study Guide -- You will not get your study guide until Friday, June 4th (I have to write it!) -- It will be 50% of your exam Review Session -- Review session will be set up on Monday, one day before the exam Question: How many feel they need a review session Class Announcements your junk -- Your notes will be pitched by about October (or when Big Ben returns to playing football) -- If you want them, pick them up beforehand Website -- Lectures will be current this weekend Class Announcements Next week -- We will have class on Tuesday -- We will not on Thursday. Enough is enough. Questions ? Being “Gay” Warning -- going to consider sexual orientation today -- I don’t want a “Welcome Back Kotter” atmosphere in the class. Being “Gay” Questions Question: What does it mean for someone to be “gay?” Being “Gay” Question: If Mick Jagger and David Questions Bowie have sex together once, does that make Mick “gay?” Being “Gay” Questions Question: If Elton John has sex with a woman one time, does that make him straight? Being “Gay” typologies -- gay/straight dichotomy is too simplistic (sometimes, the word “gay” is given as a prejudice) -- there is probably a more complicated typology: • people w/ fixed orientation (one way or another) • people who are “ambidextrous” (both) • people who are just promiscuous • people who are asexual (neither) Understanding the Issue consider this … -- watch this, and think about your reaction. 6/3/2010 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 15 6/3/2010 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 16 Understanding the Issue consider this … -- watch this, and think about your reaction. Question: What did you think about those video clips? Striking level of social distance 1 2 3 4 5 6/3/2010 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 18 Understanding the Issue Physical Violence -- [Tell your story of kid in college] -- Matthew Shepard • beaten to death in Wyoming Shortly after midnight on October 7, 1998, Shepard met Aaron McKinney and Russell Henderson at the Fireside Lounge in Laramie, Wyoming. McKinney and Henderson offered Shepard a ride in their car. After admitting he was gay, Shepard was robbed, pistol whipped, tortured, tied to a fence in a remote, rural area, and left to die. Understanding the Issue Physical Violence -- [Tell your story of kid in college] -- Matthew Shepard • beaten to death in Wyoming McKinney and Henderson also discovered his address and intended to burgle his home. Still tied to the fence, Shepard was discovered 18 hours later by Aaron Kreifels, who initially mistook Shepard for a scarecrow. At the time of discovery, Shepard was still alive in a coma. Question: Understanding the Issue Do gay women seem to have it easier than gay men with Physical Violence respect to discrimination? -- [Tell your story of kid in college] -- Matthew Shepard • beaten to death in Wyoming Shepard suffered fractures to the back of his head and in front of his right ear. He had severe brain stem damage, which affected his body's ability to regulate heart rate, body temperature and other vital functions. There were also about a dozen small lacerations around his head, face and neck. His injuries were deemed too severe for doctors to operate. Shepard never regained consciousness and remained on full life support. He was pronounced dead at 12:53 a.m. on October 12, 1998. Understanding the Issue The Struggle Question: How is the struggle for gay rights similar or different to the struggle for racial equality? Understanding the Issue The Struggle Similarities Differences social distance can hide numerical minority physical violence Question: protest and Does this matter? demonstrations religious persecution The Science Psychology, 1950s -- “this is a disorder” -- treat it with therapy this view has been formally abandoned The Science “Genetics” • Identical twins are at greater risk • transplanting a gene into fruit flies (makes them gay) Hypothalamus … let’s look at the issue regarding the hypothalamus Hypothalamus 6/3/2010 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 26 Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Question: Why is the word “male” in quotes? interesting discoveries • The gland is known to have something to do with the expression of “male” sexual behavior • If a person is attracted to female anatomy, the gland tends to look differently than if otherwise (the gender of the person attracted is irrelevant) The Science “Genetics” • Identical twins are at greater risk • transplanting a gene into fruit flies (makes them gay) “female brain” -- Sheep study – “males” have a larger hypothalamus? (sheep who are attracted to females, regardless of their chromosomes, have larger hypothalamus than sheep attracted to males) The Science “Genetics” • Identical twins are at greater risk • transplanting a gene into fruit flies (makes them gay) “female brain” -- studies of gay men: hypothalamus appears smaller than heterosexual men They have a “woman’s” hypothalamus Caution: sample size is low The Science “Genetics” • Identical twins are at greater risk • transplanting a gene into fruit flies (makes them gay) “female brain” -- a section of the fibers connecting right and left hemispheres is one-third larger for gay men. (synthetic capacity) The Science Pre-Natal Hormones -- This is by far the most interesting discovery -- rat fetus Scientists can make gay rats by manipulating the hormones that rat fetus are exposed to -- female sheep (become homosexual if their pregnant mothers are injected with testosterone during a critical gestation period). -- critical period: middle of the 2nd and 5th months. illustration hormones conception (mention what function hormones play in development) 6/3/2010 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 33 Question: If this turns out to be true, how does it affect the illustration debate?? hormones conception (mention what function hormones play in development) 6/3/2010 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 34 Question: How could the science turn out to be extremely prejudicial illustration toward gay people? hormones conception (mention what function hormones play in development) 6/3/2010 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 35 The Science The effect of science Positive Negative God or nature makes … can this be “prevented?” some people this way Let people be who Question: they naturally are How could this prejudice be turned into a reverse prejudice? The Science The effect of science Positive Negative God or nature makes … can this be “prevented?” some people this way Let people be who Question: they naturally are What is the argument that says the science is completely irrelevant to this? The Debate Two basic perspectives Liberty-based Condition-based Arguments Arguments This is a liberty/privacy right I have a right because I Adults have autonomy in have a condition of their intimacy preferences sorts Government has no My wants come about business in prescribing because of how I was sexuality made The Debate Culturally Defined? Change in Culture -- Movies, Cable Television, Sitcoms -- The things children see as they grow up Question: Is this issue becoming a generational issue? The Debate History Rome and Greece -- homosexual sex was part of the culture -- rite of passage: Adult would have a sexual encounter with a young boy about to reach “manhood” -- historically has always been present in humanity to some degree The Debate History Stonewall Riots -- 1969 raid of the Stonewall bar in Greenwich Village Stonewall Riots in 1969, police officers raided a gay bar in New York City called the Stonewall Inn, in Greenwich Village. The police claimed that the bar was noisy and overcrowded, but the truth is they shouted gay epithets before they went in. They pushed them out with night sticks. There were bloody battles that lasted for 3 nights at the bar. This became known as the Stonewall Riots. Out of the Stonewall Riots formed the gay liberation movement, which began agitation in the streets and also then moved into litigation. The Debate Civil Rights -- currently, the Federal Civil Rights Act does not protect gays from discrimination in capitalism Question: Should gays be included?