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					          Today’s Lecture:




           Sexual Orientation




Session                         Topic(s)


 14                              14
Lecture Organization:

     Class Announcements


     Being Gay
     Understanding the Issue
     The Science

     The Debate
                Class Announcements


notes
-- Notes are due on the date of the final.
-- Penalized if late

final
-- is on Tuesday, 5:45, in here
              Class Announcements


Reading for the Final
-- Only two chapters – 12 and 28.

No grade rounding

-- Consult syllabus to see how border grades are handled
-- If any of you have typed notes that you want to donate
to class, contact me
   -- they cannot be outlines and must be uploaded to
   docstoc
               Class Announcements


 Retakes
-- Most people are not improving on the lecture part; but
are improving drastically on the reading part
-- An updated grade book was circulated
(if your grade is the same, you didn’t improve)

View mistakes

-- At any time you want to forfeit your right to continue
taking it, come and see me to see what you missed
   (make an appointment; don’t drop in)
               Class Announcements


Study Guide
-- You will not get your study guide until Friday, June 4th (I
have to write it!)
-- It will be 50% of your exam

Review Session
-- Review session will be set up on Monday, one day
before the exam
                                      Question:
                                 How many feel they
                                   need a review
                                      session
              Class Announcements


  your junk
-- Your notes will be pitched by about October (or when
Big Ben returns to playing football)
-- If you want them, pick them up beforehand

 Website
-- Lectures will be current this weekend
              Class Announcements


 Next week
-- We will have class on Tuesday
-- We will not on Thursday. Enough is enough.




                                   Questions ?
                   Being “Gay”


 Warning
-- going to consider sexual orientation today
-- I don’t want a “Welcome Back Kotter” atmosphere in the
class.
            Being “Gay”


Questions




                     Question:
               What does it mean for
               someone to be “gay?”
            Being “Gay”
                          Question:
                 If Mick Jagger and David
Questions        Bowie have sex together
                    once, does that make
                        Mick “gay?”
            Being “Gay”


Questions



                             Question:
                     If Elton John has sex with
                      a woman one time, does
                       that make him straight?
                   Being “Gay”


typologies
-- gay/straight dichotomy is too simplistic
   (sometimes, the word “gay” is given as a prejudice)
-- there is probably a more complicated typology:
   • people w/ fixed orientation (one way or another)
   • people who are “ambidextrous” (both)
   • people who are just promiscuous
   • people who are asexual (neither)
              Understanding the Issue


consider this …
-- watch this, and think about your reaction.
6/3/2010   Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.   15
6/3/2010   Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.   16
              Understanding the Issue


consider this …
-- watch this, and think about your reaction.

                                        Question:
                                What did you think about
                                  those video clips?
           Striking level of social distance



               1     2         3         4               5




6/3/2010                 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.       18
                       Understanding the Issue


      Physical Violence
      -- [Tell your story of kid in college]
      -- Matthew Shepard
          • beaten to death in Wyoming
Shortly after midnight on October 7, 1998, Shepard
met Aaron McKinney and Russell Henderson at the
Fireside Lounge in Laramie, Wyoming. McKinney and
Henderson offered Shepard a ride in their car. After
admitting he was gay, Shepard was robbed, pistol
whipped, tortured, tied to a fence in a remote, rural
area, and left to die.
                     Understanding the Issue


   Physical Violence
   -- [Tell your story of kid in college]
    -- Matthew Shepard
       • beaten to death in Wyoming

McKinney and Henderson also discovered his
address and intended to burgle his home. Still tied to
the fence, Shepard was discovered 18 hours later by
Aaron Kreifels, who initially mistook Shepard for a
scarecrow. At the time of discovery, Shepard was still
alive in a coma.
                                    Question:
                 Understanding the Issue
                         Do gay women seem to have it
                            easier than gay men with
   Physical Violence        respect to discrimination?
   -- [Tell your story of kid in college]
    -- Matthew Shepard
       • beaten to death in Wyoming
Shepard suffered fractures to the back of his head and in
front of his right ear. He had severe brain stem damage,
which affected his body's ability to regulate heart rate,
body temperature and other vital functions. There were
also about a dozen small lacerations around his head,
face and neck. His injuries were deemed too severe for
doctors to operate. Shepard never regained
consciousness and remained on full life support. He was
pronounced dead at 12:53 a.m. on October 12, 1998.
               Understanding the Issue


The Struggle




                                   Question:
                       How is the struggle for gay rights
                       similar or different to the struggle
                               for racial equality?
               Understanding the Issue


The Struggle

   Similarities                          Differences

  social distance                   can hide

  numerical minority
  physical violence                Question:
  protest and                   Does this matter?
  demonstrations
  religious
  persecution
                     The Science


Psychology, 1950s
  -- “this is a disorder”
  -- treat it with therapy

   this view has been formally abandoned
                    The Science


“Genetics”
  • Identical twins are at greater risk
  • transplanting a gene into fruit flies (makes them gay)

Hypothalamus
  … let’s look at the issue regarding the hypothalamus
Hypothalamus




  6/3/2010     Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.   26
Hypothalamus
                                            Hypothalamus


                                                Question:
                                             Why is the word
                                            “male” in quotes?
  interesting discoveries

• The gland is known to have something to
do with the expression of “male” sexual
behavior
• If a person is attracted to female anatomy,
the gland tends to look differently than if
otherwise
(the gender of the person attracted is
irrelevant)
                    The Science


“Genetics”
  • Identical twins are at greater risk
  • transplanting a gene into fruit flies (makes them gay)
 “female brain”
  -- Sheep study – “males” have a larger hypothalamus?
      (sheep who are attracted to females, regardless of
      their chromosomes, have larger hypothalamus than
      sheep attracted to males)
                    The Science


“Genetics”
  • Identical twins are at greater risk
  • transplanting a gene into fruit flies (makes them gay)
 “female brain”
  -- studies of gay men:
      hypothalamus appears smaller than heterosexual
      men They have a “woman’s” hypothalamus
                             Caution: sample size is low
                    The Science


“Genetics”
  • Identical twins are at greater risk
  • transplanting a gene into fruit flies (makes them gay)
 “female brain”
  -- a section of the fibers connecting right and left
  hemispheres is one-third larger for gay men.
  (synthetic capacity)
                     The Science


Pre-Natal Hormones
-- This is by far the most interesting discovery
-- rat fetus
   Scientists can make gay rats by manipulating the
   hormones that rat fetus are exposed to
-- female sheep
   (become homosexual if their pregnant mothers are
   injected with testosterone during a critical gestation
   period).
-- critical period: middle of the 2nd and 5th months.
                                                    illustration




                hormones
conception




(mention what function hormones play in development)

6/3/2010            Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.                  33
               Question:
      If this turns out to be true,
         how does it affect the
                                                           illustration
                debate??



                      hormones
conception




(mention what function hormones play in development)

6/3/2010                   Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.                  34
               Question:
      How could the science turn
     out to be extremely prejudicial
                                                         illustration
           toward gay people?



                    hormones
conception




(mention what function hormones play in development)

6/3/2010                 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.                  35
                    The Science


The effect of science

    Positive                   Negative

  God or nature makes        … can this be “prevented?”
  some people this way

  Let people be who                Question:
  they naturally are
                           How could this prejudice be
                             turned into a reverse
                                  prejudice?
                    The Science


The effect of science

    Positive                   Negative

  God or nature makes        … can this be “prevented?”
  some people this way

  Let people be who                Question:
  they naturally are
                           What is the argument that
                             says the science is
                          completely irrelevant to this?
                      The Debate


 Two basic perspectives

    Liberty-based                    Condition-based
     Arguments                         Arguments


This is a liberty/privacy right
                                   I have a right because I
Adults have autonomy in            have a condition of
their intimacy preferences         sorts
Government has no                  My wants come about
business in prescribing            because of how I was
sexuality                          made
                      The Debate


Culturally Defined?

   Change in Culture
-- Movies, Cable Television, Sitcoms
-- The things children see as they grow up


                                    Question:
                             Is this issue becoming a
                                generational issue?
                     The Debate


History

   Rome and Greece
    -- homosexual sex was part of the culture
   -- rite of passage: Adult would have a sexual
   encounter with a young boy about to reach “manhood”
-- historically has always been present in humanity to
some degree
                          The Debate


  History

      Stonewall Riots
      -- 1969 raid of the Stonewall bar in Greenwich Village
Stonewall Riots

in 1969, police officers raided a gay bar in New York City called the
Stonewall Inn, in Greenwich Village. The police claimed that the bar was
noisy and overcrowded, but the truth is they shouted gay epithets before
they went in. They pushed them out with night sticks. There were bloody
battles that lasted for 3 nights at the bar. This became known as the
Stonewall Riots. Out of the Stonewall Riots formed the gay liberation
movement, which began agitation in the streets and also then moved
into litigation.
                     The Debate


Civil Rights
-- currently, the Federal Civil Rights Act does not protect
gays from discrimination in capitalism

                                     Question:
                                  Should gays be
                                    included?

				
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