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PENDEKATAN INKUIRI DAN PBL DALAM

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									A Guided Inquiry Learning Approach
 in a Web Environment: Theory and
            Application
    4th International Conference on e-Learning and
      4th International Conference on Information
                    1st – 3rd Sept. 2005


                                                   Irfan Naufal Umar
                                                       Sajap Maswan
                                            Universiti Sains Malaysia
           Introduction

• Internet & World wide web
• Web purposes
  – Information
  – Entertainment
  – Business / commercials
  – Education, training, etc.
                Issue

• Majority of EWS is designed for tutorial
  purposes
  – Tutorial: linear and sequential.
  – A deductive approach
• More EWS with inquiry, inductive
  approach needed
               Inquiry
• Definition
‘ the art and science of asking questions that are
   accessible, can be answered in part or in whole,
   and ones that lead to meaningful tests and
   explorations’
                                      (Hebrank, 2004)
• involves
  – careful observation and measurement
  – hypothesizing and interpreting
  – theorizing
           Inquiry
• it requires
 –Experimentation
 –Reflection
 –Recognition
 of strengths and weaknesses of its own
 methods
• not only in science, but also in other
disciplines – social sciences, arts,
humanities
  Inquiry Based Learning

• A way of acquiring knowledge through
  the process of inquiry
  – Learners generate their own question OR
    are posed with a question by the teacher /
    computer
  – An active role of the learners – through
    discovery, investigation, experimentation
   Inquiry Based Learning

• In Malaysia, the focuses of learning in our
  science education are towards inquiry
  approach, the development of scientific
  thinking and skills, research and problem
  solving, the application of principles of
  science, as well as the assimilation of
  scientific attitude and moral values

                     Curriculum Development Centre (1993)
  Inquiry Based Learning

• Types of Inquiry Approach
  – Structured Inquiry (Level I)
  – Guided Inquiry (Level II)
  – Open Inquiry (Level III)
                                   (Herron, 1971)
• The difference:
  – degree of commitment from the learners
  Inquiry Based Learning

• Types of Inquiry Approach
  – Structured Inquiry
    • learners conduct investigation & discovery
      based on the questions and procedures
      provided by the teacher/computer
  Inquiry Based Learning

• Types of Inquiry Approach
  – Guided Inquiry
    • learners investigate based on the questions
      posed by the teacher/ computer,
    • they determine the discovery procedures
  Inquiry Based Learning

• Types of Inquiry Approach
  – Open Inquiry
    • learners investigate and explore based on the
      questions and procedures that they have to
      construct
  Inquiry Based Learning
• Prominent researchers
  – Schulman & Tamir (1973)
     • Teacher/computer provides the basic element
     • Learners make generalization
     • Teacher/computer acts as facilitator who poses
       questions to stimulate learners in their discovery
       processes


  – Collins & Stevens (1983)
     • Theory of Inquiry Teaching : learners develop their own
       theories based on the procedures that they have learned
  Theoretical Background

• Paradigm Shift in Education

   Behaviorism


                   Cognitivism


                                      Constructivism
       Changes in instructional approaches
              Behaviorism

• Learning : the change in
  behavior as a result of
  feedback & reinforcement
• Contributions
  – Learning objectives
  – Programmed instruction
                Cognitivism
• Studies on how individuals
  – Process input / stimulus
  – Receive, organize, maintain and utilize
    information




   The use of graph / visual   The use of hierarchy / structure
       Constructivism
– learners actively construct knowledge by
  working to solve realistic problem, usually
  in collaboration with others




                                 Interactivity
         Discovery
           Constructivism

• Learning should be       • Learners will
  –   Constructive           –   Ask questions
  –   Reflective             –   Create hypotheses
  –   Collaborative          –   Investigate
  –   Inquiry based          –   Use resources
  –   Evolving               –   Find solution
                             –   Draw conclusion
                             –   Revisit conclusion
        INQUIRY APPROACH
                                 for more exploration
              Tutorial

•   Introduction
•   Present information
•   Question & response
•   Judge Response            Cycle
•   Feedback or Remediation
•   Closing
                Tutorial
Alessi & Trollip Model (2001)

                                 Question
 Introductory        Present        &
    Section        Information   Response




                   Feedback or    Judge
    Closing        Remediation   Response
 Learning Cycle (Lawson)

• Three core elements
  – Exploration
  – Term introduction
  – Concept Application
           Learning Cycle

                                Exploration



Term Introduction
                         Concept Application


                               Exploration
Term Introduction
                          Concept Application




              Lawson Learning Cycle Model (1995)
 Learning Cycle (Lawson)
1. Exploration
  – Learners begin the learning process by
    exploring a given issue, question, or
    problem that is related to the content
  – The teacher / WBE provides guidance to
    learners to observe, measure and record
    data / information
  – They are encouraged to collaborate with
    their peers to conduct the analysis
 Learning Cycle (Lawson)
2. Term Introduction
  – Learners will be introduced to the terms
    and concepts (by teachers / WBE)
  – Concepts / terms will be clarified, and
    any misconceptions be corrected
 Learning Cycle (Lawson)
3. Concept Application
     –Learners will apply the concepts that
     they have learned to a new, different
     situation



     This cycle will continue until the learner understands
     the concepts and experiences meaningful learning
           Learning Cycle

                                Exploration



Term Introduction
                         Concept Application


                               Exploration
Term Introduction
                          Concept Application




              Lawson Learning Cycle Model (1995)
     Theory of Inquiry Teaching
Instructional Techniques / strategies to assist learners
derive rules and theories :

 •   Selecting positive and negative exemplars
 •   Varying cases systematically
 •   Selecting counterexamples
 •   Generating hypothetical cases
 •   Forming hypotheses
 •   Testing hypotheses
 •   Considering alternative predictions
 •   Entrapping students
 •   Tracing consequences of the misconceptions
                                   Collins & Stevens (1983)
   Guided Inquiry Approach
               Questions /       Response &
Introduction    Problems          Feedback




               Discovery /
                Guidance
                                   Concept /
                                     Rule
                                  Development




                               Application of the
                             Concept / Rule to a New
                                   Problem
   Guided Inquiry Approach
• Introduction
  – Learning goals, objectives
  – Overall structure of the WBE
     • Concept map
     • Outline
     • hierarchy


                                   GIL approach
  Guided Inquiry Approach
• Question / Problem
  – to stimulate learner’s discovery process
  – Learner will respond to the question or
    explore the relevant info




                                     GIL approach
  Guided Inquiry Approach
• Response & Feedback
  – Incorrect response --- will be guided by
    WBL
  – A correct response --- a concept / rule will
    be presented



                                       GIL approach
  Guided Inquiry Approach
• Concept / Rule Development
  – Following a correct response
  – to enhance learner’s understanding of the
    new knowledge
  – Will be used for subsequent problems or
    questions


                                    GIL approach
   Guided Inquiry Approach
• Concept / Rule Application
  – WBE should provide more problems /
    questions to allow learners apply the
    concepts and rules acquired earlier




                                     GIL approach
An Example of GIL approach
1. QUESTION / PROBLEM
2. DISCOVERY / GUIDANCE
2. DISCOVERY / GUIDANCE
3. FEEDBACK FOR
   INCORRECT RESPONSE
3. FEEDBACK FOR
   CORRECT RESPONSE
3. CONCEPT / RULE DEVELOPMENT
4. CONCEPT / RULE APPLICATION
 Example: Introductory section – prepare learners
(www.cosi.org/onlineExhibits/simpMach/sm2.html)
    Question / Problem to stimulate learners
                 for Exploration
(www.cosi.org/onlineExhibits/simpMach/sm2.html)
Learners will be guided if they provide
         incorrect response
If the response is correct, the learners will be
presented with the concept or rule. Then, the
concept or rule will be used to solve a new
problem.
          SUMMARY

• Guided Inquiry Approach promotes
  exploratory, discovery learning should
  be considered in designing a WBE.
• Several instructional strategies and
  techniques need to be applied.
Thank You

								
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