Model Lesson Plan Science Grades 6-8 Katie Burke, Science Curriculum Specialist Bugs-O-Copters Learning Targets Standards: MT Science Content Standard 1: Students, through the inquiry process, demonstrate the ability to design, conduct, evaluate, and communicate the results and form reasonable conclusions of scientific investigations. MT Science Content Standard 2: Students, through the inquiry process, demonstrate knowledge of properties, forms, changes and interactions of physical and chemical systems. End of Grade 8 Benchmark: Essential Learning Expectation Grade 6-8: A proficient student will … (1.1.B & F) Write a testable question and hypothesis (1.1) Students, through the inquiry process, for an investigation demonstrate the ability to design, conduct, evaluate, (1.1.G) Formulate a plan to test the hypothesis that and communicate results and reasonable conclusions includes materials, procedures, control, variables, of scientific investigations. safety precautions, data collection and analysis (2.5) Describe and explain the motion of an object in methods terms of its position, direction, and speed as well as (2.5.B) Identify variables that affect the motion of an the forces acting upon it. object Essential Questions: How does the Bugs-O-Copter's ear length affect the falling rate? Students will know… Students will be able to… How the surface area of the ears affects the friction Observe and record the rate of descent between the Bugs-O-Copter and the air. of the Bugs-O-Copter Identify variables that affect the motion of the Bug-O-Copters Make predictions and test those predications Assessment Evidence Pre-assess: Assess prior knowledge by posing the question, what do you know about spinning objects (tops, gyroscopes, pinwheels, windmills, globes, or maple seed)? Teacher demonstrates these if possible. Students record their prior knowledge in a science notebook, share and discuss. Formative assessment is outlined in the instruction plan below Post-assessment: Students prepare an oral presentation for the class that communicates: predictions, design, and results of the investigation and make conclusions regarding the variables affecting the motion of the Bugs-O-Copters. Provide a rubric for evaluating the presentation based on the learning targets. This lesson is adapted from Inquire Within: Implementing inquiry-based science standards in Grades 3-8(2nd Ed.). Douglas Llewellyn. Corwin Press 2007. Instruction and Formative Assessment Plan Materials/Resources Needed: Scissors 1 short-eared Bugs-O-Copter Several small and large and small paper clips 1 long-eared Bugs-O-Copter Assorted materials based upon student designed investigations. Learning Activity Formative Assessment (Formal & Informal) Background: Gravity naturally causes the Bugs-O-Copter to fall to the ground; however as the Bugs-O-Copter falls, the air pushes up against the ears. The angle of the ears causes the air to move sideways, causing a simple thrusting motion. As the air molecules hit the underside of the ears, this causes a small amount of friction, counteracting the rate of fall caused by gravity. The larger the surface area of the ears, the more friction will occur, and the slower the Bugs-O-Copter will spin or fall. Students will design ways to change the aerodynamics of the Bugs-O- Copter by changing the shape or size of each of the ears or changing the amount or position of the paper clip. In this activity students move very quickly through phases of the investigation. In seconds, they move from the "questions" phase to the "implementation" phase. The intermediate steps of identifying the manipulated and the responding variables often occur without the student consciously thinking about them as important features. The teacher should facilitate students' becoming aware of their thinking process. Misconceptions: Students often associate how the Bugs-O-Copter works with how an actual helicopter works. Be sure to clarify the difference at the end of the lesson. Students will work individually as they progress through the following stages; Engage: Assess prior knowledge by posing the question, What do you Formal: Students record their prior know about spinning objects (tops, gyroscopes, pinwheels, windmills, knowledge in a science notebook, share and globes, or maple seed)? Demonstrate these if possible. discuss. Student responses informs teacher to prior knowledge about air, friction, motion of objects. Explore: Show students how to cut out the short-eared Bugs-O-Copter. Informal: Students asked to share Fold the ears in opposite directions. Place a paper clip at the feet and predictions and subsequent questions, these hold Bugs-O-Copter (feet down) from an outstretched arm. Release and are recorded for all to see and allows observe the rate of fall and direction of the spin. *Record and share teacher to evaluate students ability to observations and questions. Repeat the dropping several times. Have generate questions and predictions. Are students to cut out the long-eared Bugs-O-Copter. Before they drop the students demonstrating they know the long-eared version, have them make a *prediction about how it will drop difference between the two? compared to the short-eared version. Have them *record and share their * NOTE: This formative assessment strategy predictions. As students drop their two Bugs-O-Copters, have them think is embedded within the multiple steps of the about and record further questions to investigate. Direct them to write Explore phase of the activity. "what if" and "I wonder" questions. These will be *shared as well. This lesson is adapted from Inquire Within: Implementing inquiry-based science standards in Grades 3-8(2nd Ed.). Douglas Llewellyn. Corwin Press 2007. Explain: Lead a discussion on the falling rates of the two Bugs-O-Copters. Formal: Students predict what would Explain how the surface area affects the amount of friction between the happen if they dropped Bugs-O-Copters air and the ears and thus the rate of descent. from the Moon, where there is no air and less gravity. This is recorded in a science journal and allows teacher to see if students understand and are able to apply concepts of air, friction, rate of descent. Extend: Ask students to share their "what if" questions to investigate. Informal: Student are required to maintain Post the questions on poster paper. Revise any "why" questions into an investigation plan in their science journal, investigative questions. Identify the variables for each question or this allows the teacher to check their inquiry. Allow students to plan and carry out their experimental designs understanding and application of for the questions. investigative questions, variables, and skills Questions may include the following: to plan appropriate scientific investigations. Does the number of paper clips affect the falling rate? Students may be given a predetermined What would happen if I place a paper clip on the ears of the rubric of essential investigation components Bugs-O-Copter? by which to evaluate their own investigation Does the thickness of the paper affect how the Bugs-O-Copter plan. will spin? What would happen if I made a Bugs-O-Copter out of poster- board instead of paper? What if I put the paper clips in a different location? How can I get both the short-eared and long-eared Bugs-O- Copters to hit the floor at the same time? What if I change the direction the ears are folded? How would cutting slits in the ears affect the spinning? Will the way the ears are folded affect how the Bugs-O-Copter will spin? How can I make the Bugs-O-Copter spin in the opposite direction? Which Bugs-O-Copter makes more spins before hitting the floor? What if I cut out the outline (shape) of the ears? Does the shape of the ears affect how the Bugs-O-Copter falls? Evaluate: Students prepare an oral presentation for the class that communicates: predictions, design, and results of the investigation and make conclusions regarding the variables affecting the motion of the Bugs-O-Copters. Provide a rubric for evaluating the presentation based on the learning targets. This lesson is adapted from Inquire Within: Implementing inquiry-based science standards in Grades 3-8(2nd Ed.). Douglas Llewellyn. Corwin Press 2007.