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					    Building on BSCS 5E Inquiry
Science with Knowledge Building
               – Conceptualization of a
          Collaborative Science Inquiry
                                 Model




                                  Seng-Chee Tan &
                                         Aik-Ling Tan
                      National Institute of Education
         Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
              This paper is about…

• Theoretical hybridization of Biological
  Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) 5E
  model of inquiry science with knowledge
  building approach.
              Why BSCS and KB?

• Both are popular models with impact on
  classroom practices
• BSCS has over 73,000 curriculum
  materials developed
• KB has presence in at least 19 countries
• A KB community is epitomized by a
  scientist community.
• Time to build on…
              Science as inquiry

1900     Science as a body of knowledge
              to be learnt.

1909       Dewey: Too much emphasis on
                the accumulation of
       information.
           Not enough done to science as a
                way of thinking and an
       attitude of         mind.
               Science as inquiry

• School science should emulate authentic
  practices such that students assume the
  agency of knowledge constructors and
  interact with phenomena in informed,
  reflective, and critical ways
                               Rodriguez, 1998
                 Science as inquiry

Students do not come to understand inquiry simply
  by learning words such as „hypothesis‟ and
  „inference‟ or by memorizing procedures such as
  the steps of the scientific method.

They must experience inquiry directly to gain a
  deep understanding of its characteristics.

                                      (NRC, 2000)
      The BSCS 5E model of
      inquiry (Bybee)


     Engage               Explore




Evaluate                       Explain


              Elaborate
                 or
               Extend
                      BSCS 5E - what it looks like

• The effects of forces
• Engage
   – two students of different body sizes to push each other and
     record what they feel as they pushed each other.
• Exploration
   – students to investigate the amount of force required to move a
     small weight on four different types of surfaces
• Explain
   – students to explain their observations
• Elaboration
   – students to take photos of examples of forces at work in their
     home environment and propose an explanation on the forces
     acting on the object they have identified.
• Evaluation
   – feedback from the teacher and peers. Self evaluation.
               BSCS 5E model

• BSCS takes a cognitive perspective
• Goal is conceptual understanding through
  inquiry
• Learning through social interactions is not
  highlighted
               Social cultural dimension

• Science learning is a process of
  socialization into a professional community,
  with its canonical problem niches,
  standards of explanation, and modes of
  discourse for communal sense-making.
                (Hawkins and Pea, 1987, p. 294)
               The 6th E (enculturation)

• Foster scientific literacy by enculturating
  students into disciplinary practice and
  communication (O‟Neil, 2001)
• Engage students in the discourse of the
  scientific community and develop
  awareness of the values (Barab & Duffy,
  2000)
               Inquiry with KB

• Brings in social cultural process
• Celebrate diversity and leverage diversity
  of ideas for improvement
                             KB and BSCS

                                            KB Principles
                                            1. Authentic ideas
              Exploration                   2. Epistemic agency
                 1, 5, 7
                                            3. Democratizing knowledge
                                            4. Collective cognitive
                                                responsibility
Evaluation                                  5. Idea diversity
    10
                              Explanation   6. Improvable ideas
             Engagement          5, 7, 8
                                            7. Knowledge Building discourse
               1,2,3,4
                                            8. Constructive use of authoritative
                                                sources
                                            9. Rise above
                                            10. Embedded assessment
              Elaboration                   11. Symmetric advancement of
                5, 6, 7, 9
                                                knowledge
                                            12. Pervasive knowledge building
                    6 E model
      Progress in
       cognitive                          Cognitive goal:
      dimension                               Improved ideas,
                                              Scientific
                                              knowledge
                         Enculturation    Social cultural goal:
                           through            Symmetric
                          pervasive           advancement of
                          knowledge           knowledge
                          building in
                       iterations of 5E
                        inquiry cycles


                                                     Progress in
 Naïve ideas,                                           social
   everyday                                            cultural
knowledge from                                       dimension
  individuals
                     6E – what it looks like

• Engage
  – pairs of students to push each other and record what they feel as
    they pushed each other. Students put forth their initial ideas and
    questions about “forces” in Knowledge Forum.
• Exploration
  – begins with diverse ideas about forces.
• Explanation
  – Look up authoritative sources like textbooks or reference books
    and engaged in knowledge building discourse by reading and
    building on each other‟s notes in the Knowledge Forum.
                      6E – what it looks like

• Exploration
  – Students with common interest were assigned into groups and to
    design investigation tasks (e.g. to investigate the amount of force
    required to move a small weight on different types of surfaces)
• Explanation
  – Students were again engaged in knowledge building discourse to
    come up with viable explanations for their investigation, in
    Knowledge Forum and in class.
• Elaboration
  – The pupils were asked to look for more examples of forces at
    work in their home environment (elaboration).
• Evaluation
  – Through record of ideas on KF. Evidence of pupils‟ progress
    which could be evaluated by the teacher, by self and by peers.
                 Epistemological difference

• BSCS
  – pursuit of truth
• KB
  – Pursuit of progress (idea improvement)
Questions?
                               Linking inquiry across grade
                               levels

    Drawing                    Experimenting
    conclusions                                Analysing
                                               Investigations   Describing Relationships
                                                                Between Variables
                                Acquiring and
                                Processing Data
   Designing
   Investigations
                                 Defining Variables                 Constructing a Graph
                                 Operationally
Constructing Hypotheses

                              Identifying Variables                Constructing a Table of Data


    Predicting
                                                                    Communicating
                          Classifying
                                                      Measuring
       Inferring
                                    Observing
                                                                natural sciences and science education
Essential features                 More             Amount of Student Self-Direction           Less

   of science                      Less               Amount of Guidance from                  More
   as inquiry                                           Teacher or Material
                                  pose a question     select among        Sharpen or        accept given
1.Question                                              questions       clarify question      question
Students engage with an                                                    provided
event, phenomenon or
problem when they …
                                  determine what      are directed to    are given data     are given data
2. Evidence                         constitutes       collect certain    and asked to      and told how to
Students give priority to          evidence and            data             analyse            analyse
evidence when they …                 collects it

                                  Formulate their      are guided in        are given      are provided
3. Explanation                    own explanation        process of      possible ways     with evidence
Students construct                     after            formulating     to use evidence
explanations when they …           summarising          explanation       to formulate
                                     evidence         from evidence       explanation
                                  examine other        are directed       are given         are provided
4. Connections                    resources and      toward sources        possible             with
                                   form links to      of knowledge       connections        connections
Students evaluate their
                                   explanations
explanations when they …
                                  form reasonable    are coached in      are provided      are given steps
5. Communication                     and logical     development of      guidelines for    and procedures
Students communicate and             argument to     communication      communication             for
justify their explanations when     communicate                                            communication
they …                              explanations

  teacher education ▪ research ▪ outreach
                                ▪
                       (CPDD Primary Science Syllabus, 2008, p.10-11)
            How does the 5E align with
            the essential features of
            Inquiry?
Essential Features        5-E Model

    Question               Engage
    Evidence               Explore

   Explanation             Explain

   Connections        Elaborate or Extend
 Communication             Evaluate