Process Diagram Technique for Business Processes Modeling Vaclav Repa

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					                                     Process Diagram Technique
                                   for Business Processes Modeling

                                                             Vaclav Repa
                                                 University of Economics,
                                                 Prague, Czech Republic



                          ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000




V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000   1
                                                                  Agenda



                 • The Scope
                 • The Technique
                     • Diagram Elements
                     • Process Meta-Model
                     • Different Levels of the Technique
                 • Important Topics
                     • Events, Activities, and States from the Object
                       vs. Process Point of View (Consistency Rules)
                     • Process Memory (Simple/Complex Processes)




V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000   2
                                                              The Scope

     Model of the system of business processes which:
     • respects basic objectives and goals, current state and
       specific characteristics of the organization
     • respects objective circumstances (those which are given
       outside the organization and are independent of the
       organization) which can play a significant role in the behavior
       of the organization
     • is "optimal" in the sense of economic efficiency of the
       processes
     • is "optimal" in the sense of maximum simplicity together
       with whole functionality
     • is prepared for later optimization, implementation and
       installation of the system of processes which respect
       characteristics described above

V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000   3
                                          The Scope
                                Convergence of BPE, WfM, and ISD
                 Organizational
                        &                                                                                         Information
                 Technological                                                                                      Support
                 Infrastructure                                    Business
                                                                  Processes
                                   Sense and                    (Re)Engineering                       Information
                                   Context of                                                       Requirements
                                     Work                                                          (Strategic Level)
                                                                              BP to be
                                                                            engineered

                                                      Business             Business
                                                     Processes           Requirements
                                                   Implementation          Analysis
                                                                Conceptual
                                                                 Business
                                                                Processes             BP to be
                                             BP to be            Analysis           modeled and
                                            performed                                supported
                                                                 Business
                                                                       Interface
                                         Workflow                      Analysis           Information
                                        Management                   (Use Cases)            System
                                                                                          Development



                                       Information          Information
                                      Requirements            Support
                                      (Operational
                                          Level)

V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000                                4
                                The Scope
            Objects and processes as a basis for IS development



                                                                                                                                                                       Products
                                                                                                                                                         Actors
              Conceptual Business Processes Model                                       Conceptual Business Objects Model
               Business            Actors
                                                                                                                                                 Business
               Activities                        Products                                                                                        Objects


                 * I/O functions                                                  Interface Functions Structure
                 * Dialogue functions
                 * Interface functions                                                                                                                 * Objects
                                                                                                                                                          * Attributes
                      etc.                                                     Real World Structure
                                                                                                                                                          * Life history




                                            Conceptual IS Model           Real World Structure (static view)         Top-Down Function            Transition Techniques
                                               Usability Requirements                                                    Structure                   (Design Rules)
                                                                                           Real World Behaviour
                                               * buffering needs                           (Object Life Histories)
                                               * user views
                                               * data sets extent
                                                   etc.
                                                                        Logical Database
                                                                           Structure
                                                                                                                                    Technology Constraints and Requirements
       Technology Constraints and Requirements                                                                                                       and
                        and                                                                                                                  Program Design Rules
                                                                                         Program Modules
               Database Design Rules                                                         Structure

                                         Technological IS Model


V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000                                                                                   5
                                                                                                                                                                                  Back
                                 The Technique
                  Process modeling diagram elements - basic set
             Diagram                          Symbol                                               Explanation
             Element
             Activity                                            Basic element of the process - input(s) to output(s)
                                                                 processing.
                                             Activity            Activity is decomposable on principle, i.e. it can be
                                                                 always regarded as the process (on the deeper level of
                                                                 detail).

             Decision                                            Elementary (i.e. undecomposable) activity. Decision on
                                                                 the particular follow-up of the process.
                                           Decision


               Event                                             External stimulus for the activity. Information about the
                                            Event                event outside of the process and independent of it.


               State                                             Internal stimulus for the activity. Result of the preceding
                                                                 activity.
                                             State


             Logical                                             Primitive decision without any information at the input
            Connector                       AND                  (predefined decision). The only AND and OR (XOR)
                                                                 connectors are allowable.


V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000                                6
                                                                                                                               Back
                          The Technique
       Process modeling diagram elements - external elements
               Diagram                            Symbol                                           Explanation
               Element
           Information Set                                           Set of the information for process control. Examples:
                                                                     manufacturing plan, strategic investment intention, delivery
                                              Information Set        note etc.


              Material Set                                           Set of the subjects of processing. I.e. raw material (at the
                                                                     input) or product (at the output), no matter whether it is
                                                                     material or data. Examples: engine component, car (final
                                               Material Set          product) in the case of car manufacturing. Stock list,
                                                                     investment advice (final product) in the case of broker's
                                                                     business (information plays the role of the material here).
               Mixed Set                                             Set of the combination of the subjects of processing as well as
                                               Mixed Set             the information for controlling it.
                                                                     Example: delivery together with the delivery note
                 Actor                                               Abstract person - all kinds of the attendee of the process
                                                 Actor               (person, organization unit, system, position, profession, role,
                                                                     entity etc.).


                Problem                                              Problem related to the process in the particular point.
                                                Problem



             Organization                                            Unit of the organization where the process runs.
                Unit                       Organization
                                               Unit



V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000                                        7
                                                                                                                                       Back
                                                            The Technique
                                                          Process meta-model
         Process model

Additional Constraints:
                                                State                                                Event
1. Activity has to be
stimulated by either Stimulus or
Control Activity (Decision or              1
Logical Connector)
                                                                                        0..*
2. Input Set has to be input for                              0..1      Stimulus              Is connected to
either Processing Activity or                  Produces
Decision                                                                               1..*
                                                                                                 0..* External Aspect
                                                                                Is connected to0..
                                                                                                  *                                       Stimulates
                                                       Stimulates      1..*
                                                                                         1..*
                                                                         Activity
                                                                                              Actor       Problem Organization
                                                                                                                     Unit
                                                                                    1..*
                   Consists of             1    0..1                                                                                  0..1
                                                                                                 Stimulates
                                            Processing Activity                                                        Control Activity
                                   0.. *                                                                        0..1
                                                                                                      0..1
                                     0..1                    0..1
                                                                              Is input for
                               Produces                       Is input for
                                           1..*             1..*
                                                                  1..*         Is input for
                                               Input/Output Set
                                                                  1..*                                0..1        Decision          Logical Connector




                  Information Set              Material Set             Mixed Set

V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000                                                        8
                                           The Technique
                                 Three levels of model simplification


    Level                          Description                                                     Purpose of simplification
   level 0       Full complexity. All elements used.
    level 1      Model without actors, problems and                              Description of the process itself without the respect
                 organization units.                                             to the related external aspects (actors, problems and
                                                                                 organization). There is no possibility to analyze
                                                                                 those external aspects (for the purpose of the
                                                                                 information analysis of the legal IS for example).
    level 2      Level 1 model without sets (material,                           Description of the process itself without the respect
                 information or mixed).                                          to the inputs and outputs of the activities. Such a
                                                                                 model describes the succession of the activities
                                                                                 together with the process control (activity stimuli).
                                                                                 It does not describe the substance of the processing.
    level 3      Level 2 model without states and control                        Description of the process itself without the respect
                 activities.                                                     to the inputs and outputs of the activities. Such a
                                                                                 model describes the succession of the activities
                                                                                 only. No internal control is described.




V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000                                         9
                              Consistency of processes and objects
      Outline of the consistency rules requirements concerning external facts (different meanings of the same fact)

               Fact                           Object Model                       Business Process Model
               Event       Stimulus for:                               Stimulus for:
                           • object internal state change              • operation execution
                           • possible communication with other objects • process state change
                               (send the message) in the case of the   • output production
                               "common action"                         • possible communication with other
                                                                           processes (processes co-ordination)
              Output       Consequence of                              Consequence of:
                           • object action                             • operation execution (product)
                           • object internal state change              • process state change


  Outline of the consistency rules requirements concerning internal concepts (different meanings of the same concept)

            Concept                         Object Model                                       Business Process Model
           Action          Action executed/allowed by the object                    Activity inside the process
                           Causes:                                                  Causes:
                           • object state change                                    • process state change
                           • possible output production                             • possible output production
                           • possible communication with other objects              • possible communication with other
                               (send the message) in the case of the                    processes (co-ordination of processes)
                               "common action"
           State           Object life cycle state                                  Process course state
                           • starting point for action processing                   • starting point for operation execution
                           • result of action processing                            • result of operation execution


V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000                                       10
                                                                                                                                 Illustration
                                                       Process Memory
      Why:
      •The need to store the information about the actual process state in controlling
      complex processes (which often have complex relationships to other processes).
      •The need to reduce the complexity of the process description.

     Process memory includes:
     • actual process state identification
     • attributes of actual state of the process
     • data gathered by the process activities
       (once the data are gathered, they exist inside the process and can be used by its
       activities without any limitation (global data access))

     Consequences:
     • criterion for distinguishing between primitive and complex processes.
        (process without the need to store the information about the state is so simple
       that it is possible to take it (and implement it, as well) as a simple algorithm)
     • indicates the possible parallelism inside the process or at least in the
       communication with other processes.

V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000   11
                                Primitive Process (Order Receiving)


                                        Order                                  Stock




                                       Formal          Correct                               Satisfiable
                                     correctness                            Satisfiability
         Order entry
                                        check                                  check

                                Incorrect                           Unsatisfiable

                                         Order
                                    rejection due                             Order
                                     to the formal                        rejection due                 Order
                                                                              to the                 acceptation              Order
                                    incorrectness
                                                                          unsatisfiability                                   accepted




                                       Order                                   Order
                                    deficiencies          Order              rejection                 Delivery    Invoice
                                                         rejected             report                    order
                                       report




V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000                                        12
              Primitive Process (Order Receiving) - Aris Notation

                                   Order                                Stock




                                   Formal                              Satisfiability
    Order entry                  correctness         Correct                                 Satisfiable
                                                                          check
                                   check


                                  Incorrect                            Unsatisfiable



                                    Order                                 Order
                                rejection due                         rejection due             Order                 Order
                                to the formal                             to the             acceptation             accepted
                                incorrectness                        unsatisfiability




                                  Order              Order               Order
                               deficiencies                            rejection               Delivery    Invoice
                                                    rejected                                    order
                                  report                                report




V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000                                13
                             Complex Process (Order Transaction)

                                                                              Store                             Customer
                                                                                         Goods                             Customer
                           Order                Stock                        Manager
                                                                                       Dispatched                          Payment
                                                                                                                            Done
      Customer




                                  Order                                                   Order                              Order
Order entry                      Receiving                     Order                    Fulfilment       Goods             Clearance
                                                              accepted                                  Delivered




             Order                                  Order
                                                                      Delivery                                              Order
          deficiencies                            rejection                               Invoice
                               Order                                   order                                               Cleared
             report                                report
                              rejected




                                                     Waiting for                                      Waiting for
                                                     Store Action                                   Customer Action

V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000                                       14