The Cold War 1945-1991 - PowerPoint

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					   The Cold War

IB History Review Session
        Origins: 1945- 1947
• Post-War Leaders: “Big Three”
  – Stalin , Churchill, FDR, then Truman
• Post-War Order: Power Vacuum?
  – Yalta: Spheres of Influence
    • USSR: Eastern Europe, US/UK: Greece, Turkey
  – Potsdam:
    • Division of Germany, Berlin
            Origins Cont…
• Churchill delivers “Iron Curtain”speech
  – “From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the
    Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended
    across the Continent. Behind that line lies the
    ancient capitals of Central and Eastern
                   -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
• Stalin responds in Pravda
            Origins Cont…
• Initial Crises: UK sphere of influence
  – Iran: UK and USSR still have troops on the
    ground, USSR refuses to leave
  – Turkey: Stalin courts country with control of
    Bosporus and Dardanelles
  – Greece: Communist insurgents start Civil
    War, Stalin refrains from assisting
            Origins Cont…
• Kennan‟s Long Telegram
  – Sent from Moscow at request of Truman
    administration: What is going on over
    • Soviet state fundamentally weak, but strong
    • Will take advantage of opportunities to increase
    • Propaganda an effective tool
   Containment: 1947 - 1953
• Leaders:
  – US Presidents Truman and Eisenhower
  – USSR: Stalin
  – John Foster Dulles: US Secretary of State
          Containment Cont…
•   Truman Doctrine
    –   “The U. S. should support free peoples
        throughout the world who were resisting
        takeovers by armed minorities or outside
        pressures…We must assist free peoples to
        work out their own destinies in their own
    –   Used to assist Turkey and Greece
            Containment Cont…
•   Marshall Plan
    –   Economic assistance to post-war Europe
    –   Stave off Soviet encroachment
        •   There is no choice in being a communist eating
            1500 calories a day and being a capitalist
            eating 1000 calories a day
        •   $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe
            extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this
            was rejected].
    –   US loans used to buy US goods
        Containment Cont…
• Berlin Airlift: June 1948-May 1949
  – Soviets stop traffic in and out of West Berlin
  – Western Allies airlift food, coal, and other
    necessities (including candy)
• NATO formed April 1949
  – Military alliance to protect against attack
    within Europe
  – East and West Germany established
       Containment Cont…
• NSC – 68: 1950
  – Truman Administration blueprint for foreign
  – Defend Western Hemisphere
  – Build up military - superiority
  – Destroy Soviet war-making abilities, keep
    off balance
  – Support allies
       Containment Cont…
• Communist Victory in China: 1949
  – Mao Zedong establishes Peoples Republic
    of China
  – Agreement of Friendship with Stalin 1950
• Korean War: 1950-1953
  – UN steps in to confront North Korean
    invasion of South Korea
  – China gets involved
  – Armistice at 38th parallel
      Containment cont…
• Arms Race: Race for Superiority
  – Atomic Bomb Tests:
    • US: 1945, USSR: 1949
  – Hydrogen Bomb Tests:
    • US: 1952, USSR: 1953
• Soviet technology burst leads US to look
  for spies (somewhat hysterically)
  – McCarthyism
  – Rosenburgs
    Coexistence: 1953-1962
• Leaders:
  – USSR: Khrushchev
    •   De-Stalinization
    •   Co-existence
    •   Polycentrism
    •   Berlin Wall (1961)
  – US: Eisenhower, Kennedy/McNamara
    • Open Skies
    • Defend Berlin “Ich bin ein Berliner!”
        Coexistence Cont…
• Warsaw Pact: 1955
  – Mutual Defense treaty for USSR and satellite
  – Allows presence of Soviet troops in satellites
    for protection
  – Satellites not allowed to seek nuclear
  – Response to NATO
        Coexistence Cont…
• Berlin
  – Heavy immigration to West Berlin, creating
    a „brain drain‟
  – 1958 borders sealed, but still porous enough
    to smuggle people through
  – Wall goes up in 1961
     • International symbol of oppression
     • Remains until 1989
  Space Race! (and coexistence
• Sputnik! (it goes beep)
• Arms race ramps up (MAD)
  – US shocked at being beaten into space
  – What else might they have?
  – Soviets also put the first man in space –
  – Kennedy promises to be the first on the
    moon by end of 60‟s
       Coexistence Cont…
• Poland 1956
  – Breaks free from some Soviet domination
  – Khrushchev allows some independence to
    avoid armed confrontation
• Hungary 1956
  – Following Poland‟s example, breaks free
    from Warsaw Pact
  – Violently crushed (West distracted by Suez
         Coexistence Cont…
• Brinksmanship…
  – U2 plane downed over USSR…Khrushchev wants
  – Coexistence devolving into confrontation
• Cuban Revolution 1959
  – Fidel Castro‟s Revolution replaces pro-US dictator
  – Turns to USSR for support, declares path to
• Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961
  – JFK fails to unseat Castro, humiliated
• Cuban Missile Crisis
  – U2 spy plane spots missile sites in Cuba
• October 1962…13 days
  – US quarantines Soviet ships with suspected
  – JFK receives 2 letters from Khrushchev
  – Promises not to invade Cuba if missiles
    withdrawn, ignores letter #2
  – Khrushchev agrees, hails as triumph
• Crisis in Indochina
  –   French v. North Vietnamese
  –   Geneva accords split Vietnam in 1954
  –   Free elections planned for 1956
  –   US helps Diem win in South
  –   French leave
• Non-Aligned Nations
  – Opting out of Cold War, led by India and
        Détente: 1962-1979
• Leaders:
  – USSR: Brezhnev (Khrushchev out in ‟64)
    • Leave a plan if you go on vacation next time!
  – US: Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon,
    • Secretary of State Henry Kissinger foreign policy
        Détente: 1962-1979
• War in Vietnam
  – Proxy War, War of Independence
    depending on perspective
  – Escalated by LBJ in 1964 after Gulf of Tonkin
  – Viet Cong fighting against regime in South
    • Guerilla fighter supported by North
    • Ho Chi Minh Trail
       Détente: 1962 - 1979
• Prague Spring: 1968
  – Alexander Dubcek elected in
    • Institutes reforms opening up personal and
      economic freedoms
    • Brezhnev tries to negotiate to regain control
    • Fails, USSR and Warsaw Pact Allies invade to
      quell non-violent protests
    • Resulting disillusionment
  – Brezhnev Doctrine: Limited Sovereignty
         Détente: 1962-1979
• Sino-Soviet Split:
  – Mao and Khrushchev at odds
  – Trade insults in ‟60s
     • Cuban Missile Crisis humiliation
  – China goes nuclear in 1964
  – Soviet influences purged during Cultural
  – Chinese troops surround USSR embassy in
     • Both sides prepare for war
        Détente: 1962-1979
• Remember the arms race?
  – Too expensive
  – Vietnam distracts US while USSR catches up
• Parity, not superiority
• MAD! Nobody can win!
  – 1972: SALT I
    • Loopholes on both sides
        Détente: 1962-1979
• Helsinki: 1975
  – Cold War Over??
  – Ended border disputes
    • Germany, Poland
  – Opened some markets outside COMECON
  – Friendly relations to up standard of living for
    everyone, within limits
        Détente: 1962-1979
• SALT II: 1979
• Limits MIRVs and delivery systems
• Non US/USSR nukes a problem
  – NATO moving to modernize
  – Neutron bomb
    • No fire, no heat
    • Kills living things, no damage to structures
• START begins 1982, fails
         Détente: 1962-1979
• Ostpolitik
  – Reconciliation between West and East
  – Willy Brandt – West Germany Foreign
     • Better relations with East (ost) Europe
  – Both recognize each other, greater
    freedoms to travel, trade
     • US, France, UK, and USSR still take turns
       guarding Rudolf Hess, last Nazi criminal
  Confrontation: 1979 - 1985
• Not over yet!
• Arms Race Resumes
  – Lots of loopholes in SALT II
• Leaders:
  – US: Carter, Regan, Thatcher for UK
  – USSR: Brezhnev, Gorbachev (1985)
   Confrontation: 1979-1985
• Revolution in Iran
  – Fundamentalist leaders depose Shah
  – Ends US influence and access to oil

• Revolution in Nicaragua
  – Sandinistas lead revolution with help from
    Fidel Castro
  – CIA supports Contras, civil war breaks out
   Confrontation: 1979-1985
• Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan 1979
  – Invasion to protect pro-Soviet Government
     • Becomes USSR‟s Vietnam
• Iran-Contra Affair
  – Israel arms moderates in Iran, US
    reimburses Israel
  – Arms sold to Iran to get hostages home from
  – Profits diverted to Contras in Nicaragua
    Confrontation 1979-1985
• Star Wars
  – Laser guided missile shield in space
  – Big dream (and expense), little reality
  – Weaponizing space
• Korean flight 007 - 1983
  – Passenger jet shot down by Soviet missiles
  – Perceived threat in Soviet airspace
  – Accidental, but no survivors
    Confrontation 1979-1985
• Martial Law in Poland 1983
  – 1,000s protest against communist
    government (Solidarity)
  – Massive crackdown, martial law, 1,000s of
    arrests without charge to quell protests
• Grenada 1984
  – US intervenes to depose a military
  – Installs pre-revolutionary government and
      Revolution 1986-1991
• Leaders:

  – US: Regan, George Bush Sr.
    • “Mr. Gorbachev! Tear down this wall!”
  – USSR: Gorbachev, Yeltsin
      Revolution 1986-1991
• Gorbachev‟s reforms:
  – Improve standard of living
  – Cut costs, resume arms talks
• Glasnost
  – open-ness at home and abroad
• Perestroika
  – Restructure, decentralize, market economy
  – Elected leaders
       Revolution 1986-1991
• Soviet relations with satellites
  – Expensive liability drawing cheap energy
    and goods for too long
  – Unrest distracting and difficult to manage
  – Glasnost means open markets for goods and
    relations with west
  – Many begin to break free
  – Gorbachev reacts, tries to pull back on
         Revolution 1986-1991
• Gorbachev‟s reforms not raising
  standard of living
• Berlin Wall Falls
  – 1989
• Coup in USSR
  –   1991
  –   Boris Yeltsin comes to power
  –   15 independent countries
  –   dissolution of Soviet Union

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