What are Cultural Landscapes?
• Heritage conservation
Carl O. Sauer & Cultural Landscapes
“The cultural landscape is fashioned from a
natural landscape by a culture group. Culture is
the agent, the natural area is the medium, the
cultural landscape is the result. Under the
influence of a given culture, itself changing
through time, the landscape undergoes
development, passing through phases, and
probably reaching ultimately the end of its cycle
of development.With the introduction of a
different—that is, alien—culture, a rejuvenation of
the cultural landscape sets in, or a new
landscape is superimposed on the remnants of
an older one.” (1925)
How are Cultural Landscapes
World Heritage Convention
“The combined works of nature and man.”
Recognizes 3 Categories:
1. Defined Landscape
2. Evolved Landscape
a. Relict or „fossil‟ landscape
b. Continuing Landscape
3. Associative Landscapes
For more information: http://whc.unesco.org/en/culturallandscape/#1
• UNESCO: Associative Cultural Landscapes
• CANADA: Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes
• USA: Ethnographic Landscapes
• Historic Sites and Monuments Board of
• Parks Canada Agency manages the
• Policy documents specifically for Aboriginal
cultural landscapes (which generally follow
the UNESCO model).
• Susan Buggey (1999) An Approach to
Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes.
Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes
An Aboriginal cultural landscape is a place valued by
an Aboriginal group (or groups) because of their
long and complex relationship with that land. It
expresses their unity with the natural and spiritual
environment. It embodies their traditional knowledge
of spirits, places, land uses, and ecology. Material
remains of the association may be prominent, but
will often be minimal or absent.
Buggey, S. (2004) An approach to Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes in Canada. In, I. Krupnik.
R.Mason, T. Horton (eds.) Northern Ethnographic Landscapes: Perspectives from Circumpolar
Nations, Washington: Smithsonian Institution, pp.17-44.
Cultural Landscapes as National Historic Sites
Territorial Historic Sites (Historical Resources Act):
Any geographic area that has been modified, influenced,
or given special meaning by people.
2007 Living with the Land: Documenting Cultural Landscapes
Territorial Parks Act:
Heritage Parks (Fort Smith Mission Territorial Park)
Natural Environment Parks (Twin Falls Park)
Recreation Parks (Gwich‟in Territorial Park)
Protected Areas Strategy:
A variety of tools to protect cultural landscapes requiring
partnerships with sponsoring agencies and departments.
• Every community in the NWT, through
settlement legislation, has the authority to
commemorate cultural landscapes and other
historic sites within their areas of authority.
• Only Yellowknife and Fort Simpson have
developed heritage bylaws though neither
has designated a cultural landscape.
• Numerous parts
• Nested and Overlapping
• Rarely come with legal protection
Critique of the CL Concept in
• Based on a Western world-view
• Fuzzy categories
• Finds its roots in the built heritage
• Preoccupation with tangible and intangible
• Difficult to change
Tåîchô Land Claim:
– The Refuge.
– Land Selection protects the Îdaà and other
Landscape in Anthropology
• Ethnogeography (various 1900 - 45)
• Moral Landscape (Basso 1984)
• Memoryscape (Nuttall 1991)
• “Dwelling Perspective” (Ingold 1993)
• Sentient Ecology (Anderson 2000)
Cultural Landscapes and