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 Insights from industry
                                                                      The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools
Standardizing the MIS                                                 of Business (AACSB) established a basic core
course: benefits and                                                   requirement for management information systems
                                                                      (MIS) in 1969. Since 30 years, no specific
pitfalls                                                              guidelines have been set as to what topics this
                                                                      course will cover, and the course topics vary
                                                                      greatly among various institutions (Stephens and
C. Bryan Foltz                                                        O’Hara, 2001). Some institutions split the
Margaret T. O’Hara and                                                required MIS core course into two separate
                                                                      courses. The first course typically covers the more
Harold Wise                                                           common application software packages (i.e. Word,
                                                                      Excel, and PowerPoint). In recent years, some
                                                                      schools have greatly reduced or even eliminated
                                                                      teaching word processing in the class since so
The authors                                                           many high school students are now trained to use
C. Bryan Foltz, Margaret T. O’Hara and Harold Wise are all            some word processing application. The course
based at the College of Business, East Carolina University,           may also cover some basic computer concepts
Greenville, North Carolina, USA.                                      (hardware, software and telecommunications)
                                                                      and usually fulfills the university technology
Keywords                                                              requirements. This skills-based course is typically
Information systems, Databases, Curricula, Universities               offered to first or second year students.
                                                                          The second course is directed toward business
Abstract                                                              students and fulfills the technology and
Although many universities require courses in management              information systems requirements that are specific
information systems for their business majors, little information     to the business school or college. As such, the
exists as to what objectives should be included in the course, and    course focuses more on using information
the course topics vary greatly across institutions. Differences in    technology to solve business problems and the
course objectives even exist within schools if multiple sections of   strategic use of information systems. Instead of
the course are taught by different faculty. Typically, a significant
                                                                      covering the basic software applications, a
portion of the class is devoted to database concepts. In many
                                                                      database management system (DBMS) and
cases, the course requirements include developing a database
for a small business. This database project can consume faculty       limited DB project may be at the center of the
time and resources, especially if student teams choose their own      course.
projects and no guidelines exist for faculty reference. In this           Establishing guidelines for a database project
paper, guidelines for developing a standardized database project      is challenging to the instructor for numerous
that challenges students while freeing up faculty resources are       reasons, including: varying educational levels of
presented. Experiences in dealing with these projects in both         the students, varying business knowledge of the
face-to-face and online classes at one university are detailed.       students, and different business majors and
                                                                      interests among the students. Another challenge
Electronic access
                                                                      for the instructor is developing a comprehensive
The Emerald Research Register for this journal is                     project suitable for the class without investing time
available at                                                          that should be spent on other activities, such as                               research. Moreover, since universities frequently
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is            offer multiple sections of this class taught by
available at                                                          multiple faculty members, maintaining                                  consistency of course objectives across all sections
                                                                      is very important.
                                                                          In this paper, guidelines for developing a
                                                                      database project appropriate to all levels of
                                                                      business students are presented. First, the MIS
                                                                      undergraduate core courses in the literature are
                                                                      briefly examined, followed by specifics about the
                                                                      course at one university, including the problems
                                                                      encountered while teaching it. Next, a semester-
Campus-Wide Information Systems
Volume 21 · Number 4 · 2004 · pp. 163–169                             long database project is introduced as a solution to
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited · ISSN 1065-0741                   these problems. Detailed notes on creating such a
DOI 10.1108/10650740410555043                                         project, including that for an online class, are also
        Standardizing the MIS course: benefits and pitfalls                     Campus-Wide Information Systems
       C. Bryan Foltz, Margaret T. O’Hara and Harold Wise                   Volume 21 · Number 4 · 2004 · 163–169

provided. Finally, the benefits realized by the                 the fore in recent years. The chair of the top
university, faculty and students in using this                 technologies task force, Roman Kepczyk stated:
project for the last three years are discussed.                    Technology is now so inextricably tied to our
                                                                   business and personal lives that the ability to use it
                                                                   effectively and efficiently is a true source of concern
The introductory course in the literature                          ( staff, 2002, p. 1)
                                                               Clearly, the MIS course takes on new meaning and
Considering that the second MIS class is often the
                                                               importance to all business students.
only opportunity non-MIS business majors have to
learn about IS/IT within an organization, it is
surprising that very little attention has been paid to         The MIS core course(s) at one university
it at most universities. In the last six years, the MIS
curriculum has undergone two major revisions                   All AACSB-accredited universities and colleges
(the IS 2002 and 1997 model curricula), but this               are required to offer one MIS course to business
course has received little attention in formal study.          students. Many business schools, including this
What attention the course has received has been                university, split the requirement into two separate
with respect to revisions and updates as a part of             courses – one taken in the first year and the other
the broader MIS major, rather than as a stand-                 in the third year. The lower level course focuses
alone course within a business school. In the                  primarily on basic computer concepts and
IS 2002 model curriculum for the undergraduate                 computer literacy skills. Since the course does
IS degree, the authors state:                                  “double duty” and fulfills the university
  The use of information is pervasive in society. . ..         technology requirement, more than 60 sections of
  While many organizations provide some user                   the class are offered each year. Two other colleges
  training in information technology, graduates                on campus offer a similar course for more than
  who are capable users may have a comparative
  advantage in their employment (Gorgone et al.,               21,000 students in the university.
  2003, p. 3).                                                    Thus, many of the students in a particular class
                                                               section (up to 95 percent in this experience) are
It has long been recognized that employers prefer              not business majors. In this class, enhanced word
MIS graduates whose knowledge is not limited to                processing concepts, spreadsheet concepts
technology (Ehie, 2002; Maier and Gambill,                     including decision-making and scenario analysis,
1996). Some studies of IS education suggested                  presentation graphics, and basic computer
that the course work was not reflecting the real                concepts are covered. In the last year, database
world needs of business (Gill and Hu, 1999).                   concepts and software have been introduced and
Given the ubiquitous nature of IT in today’s firm,              the coverage of word processing reduced, since
it is reasonable to assume that employers would                most students arrive at university with word
also prefer non-MIS graduates whose knowledge                  processing experience from high school. While the
includes technology. As early as 1993, recognizing             database coverage is minimal, students are at least
the “pervasiveness of systems concepts and                     exposed to the basic relational DB concepts, along
technology in business”, an MIS course that                    with table and query construction.
focused on spreadsheet and database software was                  The second MIS course (MIS-2) is intended
implemented in the accounting major at one                     primarily for business majors, although computer
school (Hardy et al., 1993). The Boston chapter of             science majors often take the course as well.
the society for information management (SIM)                   Students taking this course (officially a third year
found that requisite IS skills were shifting to those          course at this university) are actually at various
related to integrating technology with the firm and             points in their college career. Database coverage is
moving away from programming skills. A 1993                    extensive, and students are expected to work in a
NSF study confirmed this finding (Zack, 1998).                   team to develop a small working business-related
    During the last ten years, business organizations          database. The database project and related work
have become increasingly dependent upon                        comprise about 50 percent of the course. Since the
information, with technology now an integral part              class is not a Systems Analysis course, a full-scale
of every functional area, and technology                       project is not expected. Instead, students need to
management has become a critical skill for the                 use the project to learn and appreciate the
general business manager (Stephens and O’Hara,                 capabilities of a database.
1998). In some schools, the accounting
curriculum has been revised to put more of an
emphasis on information systems. The CPA exam                  The problems
will contain a greater focus on technology
beginning in 2003 (Brenner et al., 2002). Finance              In each semester, six or seven sections of the
is another area in which technology has come to                MIS-2 class are offered, and three or four faculty
       Standardizing the MIS course: benefits and pitfalls                   Campus-Wide Information Systems
       C. Bryan Foltz, Margaret T. O’Hara and Harold Wise                Volume 21 · Number 4 · 2004 · 163–169

members are involved. In an entire school year,               presented a burden for the instructor with two
including summer, as many as ten faculty                      class sections, each with eight teams. Among the
members will take class. The sections are filled               problems that arose were: explaining and applying
rapidly with a variety of students. Those students            Porter’s model to 16 separate projects, developing
planning an MIS concentration must take the                   ER diagrams for a variety of businesses, and
course as soon as possible, as it is a prerequisite           monitoring and grading the projects at various
to all other MIS courses. Any graduating senior               levels of development. Although extensive DB
who has not had the course is guaranteed a spot               design and systems analysis are not expected in this
in the class, and the course is opened to all other           class, students still need to begin with a solid and
seniors first. Scattered among the rest of the                 correct data model.
students are those who managed to register when                   Developing a project for students to work on
the seats were open.                                          was not a perfect solution, either, especially for
                                                              newly-hired faculty members and for those who
                                                              had not taught the course recently. These faculties
Student issues
                                                              either invested significant advance time and effort
Students taking an MIS concentration need a
                                                              in preparing for the course by developing (and
more extensive introduction to databases to
                                                              testing) the entire group project before it was
prepare them for their DB and Systems Analysis
                                                              distributed to the students, or they spent extra
courses. Yet, as they represent less than 10 percent
                                                              time and effort during the semester trying to stay a
of the total class population, it is difficult to
                                                              step or two ahead of their students. Although the
concentrate too much on their needs. Seniors in
                                                              university is primarily a teaching school, faculty are
the class have taken or are enrolled in the Strategy
                                                              still expected to conduct high-quality research,
(Policy) course and have a broader business
                                                              and this adds another constraint to the time
perspective than the first semester juniors in the
                                                              allotted for class preparation. Moreover, a new
class. Moreover, most of the students have little or
                                                              project had to be created every semester so that
no real-world business experience with computers,
                                                              cheating opportunities were minimized.
and many of them struggle to see the relevance of
an MIS course to “their” major. While none of
these issues is unusual or impossible to overcome,            University issues
they do add to the complexity of the course.                  Like most schools, this university has had its share
    Although many students believe that they know             of budget woes. Cutbacks abound, and faculty are
a great deal about computers and information                  always asked to curb expenses as much as possible.
technology, their experience is often limited to              While computer-supported instructional tools
playing computer games, typing a term paper                   (such as Blackboard) seemingly help cut copy
using word processing software, or more recently,             costs, students still printed most of their notes
surfing the Internet. They do not adequately                   without fee in the school computer labs. Costs
understand business basics outside a textbook, and            were simply transferred from one area of the
they have difficulty in understanding the concept              university to another. What was needed was a
of a multi-user system. They are bound by what                solution that:
is sometimes referred to as the “Ctrl-Alt-Delete”             (1) reduced faculty time invested in the course;
syndrome – where every problem can be solved by               (2) minimized student differences while
simply rebooting the system.                                      maximizing their learning potential; and
                                                              (3) maintained or reduced costs for the university.
Faculty issues
Although MIS-2 is a core course, with clearly                 The solution
stated objectives, the instructors often have
different expectations regarding student                      In the past, some faculty members shared semester
achievement and course content. MIS faculty                   project material among themselves; however, there
bring varied backgrounds to the university – some             was no formal method for doing so. Different
have extensive programming experience, some                   sections of the MIS-2 course would thus complete
have extensive DB experience, and still others have           different semester projects at different levels of
managerial experience. Thus, their approach to                difficulty. Further, most faculty created their own
the major DB project varied greatly.                          supplemental materials, and used university
   There were two basic approaches to the student             resources (i.e. the copiers) to develop learning
project. Either the student teams selected and                packets. Mid-semester of fall 2000, two faculty
developed their own project, or the faculty                   members decided to share their supplemental
member assigned all teams the same project. When              materials for the course. Initially, these materials
student teams selected their own projects their               were visualized as enhancing or replacing the
interest in the class was often enhanced, but it              access textbook being used in the course.
       Standardizing the MIS course: benefits and pitfalls                   Campus-Wide Information Systems
       C. Bryan Foltz, Margaret T. O’Hara and Harold Wise                 Volume 21 · Number 4 · 2004 · 163–169

   Later in the semester, the faculty members                 occasional server and network failures, also cause
decided to further standardize the project guide for          challenges for an online course. One of the more
the next semester. Before an appropriate project              critical issues is system availability during a quiz or
guide could be written, however, the faculty                  exam, or while submitting homework. The
members had to formalize the entire process. They             students become quite frustrated if they are unable
need to agree on the general nature of the semester           to access the system to complete or submit an
project, the number and type of assignments it                assignment. Flexibility on the instructor’s part
contained, and the overall degree of difficulty.               goes a long way to resolving this type of issue.
These decisions were based on the existing
material and past experience. The project guide
and supplemental material were then packaged                  Pedagogical issues
together and reproduced by the university
bookstore. The final project packet included the               Another major challenge encountered while
guide itself, a three-ring binder, and a zip disk,            converting the MIS-2 class to an online format
and cost less than $20.                                       involved pedagogical issues. Two different sets
   During the first semester in which the project              of pedagogical challenges were encountered.
guide was used, the guide was revised and                     The first issue involved teaching the theoretical
enhanced, and a new project was developed. One                concepts covered in the MIS-2 course. Many
enhancement was the addition of standardized                  textbook publishers attempt to overcome this by
grading sheets to help faculty to coordinate the              providing online support and supplements, some
different sections and let students know exactly              of which can be incorporated directly into the
what is expected from them on each assignment.                online teaching software. Although this approach
Another enhancement was more detailed                         may provide the student with additional
descriptions of requirements and expectations.                information about specific topics, it does not help
The project packet has been revised and enhanced              to highlight topics or materials. In a face-to-face
each subsequent semester. After three years, there            class, the instructor can easily tell students to pay
are now six “standard” projects that are rotated              particular attention to certain sections of the text.
each semester. These projects include databases               In an online class, it is not that easy. Instructors
for a bookstore, a video rental store, and a party            can overcome this challenge by simply providing
rental shop.                                                  a written set of learning objectives for each topic.
                                                              In this manner, student learning efforts can be
                                                              focused on the most relevant portions of the text
Online courses                                                and supplemental materials.
                                                                 The second pedagogical issue encountered
Recently, one section of the MIS-2 course moved               during the conversion process proved more
to an online status. This presented a new set of              difficult to solve. Teaching access to MIS-2
technological, pedagogical, and administrative                students is difficult enough in a face-to-face
challenges. The process of converting MIS-2 into              setting. Providing comparable quality of
an online class was greatly simplified by the                  instruction in an online course is much more
existence of the project guide. Since the course had          difficult as the instructor cannot easily
already been standardized, converting to an online            demonstrate software use. Two possible solutions
format only required solutions to issues such as              were considered: a synchronous chat session using
those presented here.                                         an electronic whiteboard for demonstration
                                                              purposes or an asynchronous demonstration
                                                              utilizing recordings made from the instructor’s
Technological challenges                                      monitor. While most face-to-face courses rely on
                                                              synchronous communications, one of the major
As one might expect, many of the challenges                   benefits of an online course is the freedom from
encountered in converting the MIS-2 course to an              such scheduled sessions. Therefore, the second
online format involve technology. One of the most             solution was selected. Unfortunately, Blackboard
frustrating challenges involves student’s lack of             does not include a facility for recording monitor
basic technical skills. Although students are                 activity.
required to take an introductory computer course                 The project guide proved invaluable in solving
before taking the MIS-2 course, many have                     this issue. Although a large number of commercial
difficulty with basic tasks such as copying files from          reference guides are available for access, the
disk to disk or dealing with e-mail attachments.              project guide incorporates a section custom-
While this type of difficulty is frustrating in any            written to support students in the MIS-2 course.
section of MIS-2, it becomes crucial in the online            This section provides a good overview of
setting. General technological issues, such as                techniques normally discussed in the classroom.
        Standardizing the MIS course: benefits and pitfalls                  Campus-Wide Information Systems
       C. Bryan Foltz, Margaret T. O’Hara and Harold Wise                 Volume 21 · Number 4 · 2004 · 163–169

   For the online section, the project guide                   Standardization benefits and results
material was supplemented by monitor recordings
created using Camtasia Studio. Using this (or                  The results of standardizing this course were
similar) software, instructors are able to create              very interesting and included a course contest,
annotated movies demonstrating the use of access               simplified preparation for faculty, and course
or any other software. Since the project guide                 standardization for students with little variance
already included a discussion about using access,              between sections.
the monitor recordings were created as a visual
online appendix. Although file size must be                     Simplified faculty preparation
carefully managed, this approach offers a number               By far the greatest benefit to faculty has been
of benefits. First, the online demonstrations are               the reduced amount of time spent on class
consistent with the project guide, thus providing a            preparation. Availability of the project guide, with
visual explanation of written steps. Second, the               a pre-selected project, resulted in an easier overall
students are able to work at their own convenience,            course preparation (i.e. syllabus and assignment
rather than logging on at some set time. Finally,              scheduling), lessened preparation time for each
the students can easily watch the videos as many               class meeting and generally less stress for all
times as necessary.                                            instructors. It also enabled instructors to easily
                                                               substitute for each other when the need arose.
                                                                  Each new project is developed before the
General administrative issues                                  semester with input from every MIS-2 instructor
                                                               who wants to participate. The project guide
Establishing effective communications between
                                                               necessitates that the project must be completed
the instructor and students is vital to the success
                                                               well in advance so that the printed guide can be
of any online course. Many methods exist and can
                                                               prepared for student purchase. This requirement
be used quite successfully, either alone or in
                                                               forces completion on a timely basis. It then gives
combination. For example, telephone, e-mail,
                                                               each instructor adequate time to fine tune the
discussion boards, and instant messaging provide
                                                               teaching method for the project and to develop
a solid set of tools. However, the MIS-2 course
                                                               teaching examples.
adds another dimension to the need for effective
communications. Students must also exchange
current copies of their access database files.                  Course contest
This exchange can be done by e-mail, by passing                Most semesters, a course contest is conducted to
diskettes, or by using Blackboard. Many students               showcase the best group from each course section.
in the face-to-face sections have difficulty in                 Prior to the project guide, judging the contest was
ensuring that only the most current file is                     a challenge because of variation of project
exchanged. This problem becomes even worse in                  difficulty level across groups. Some groups had a
the online format. In a face-to-face section,                  complex database with a simplified interface, while
instructor discussion can help to overcome                     others had simple database with an exceptional
this issue. In the online section, instructions                interface. Each student group now has an equal
within the project guide helped to address the                 chance to compete, because all groups in all
problem.                                                       sections begin their efforts from the same basic
    Scheduling is the second major administrative              project. Thus, the judges are able to compare the
issue encountered while converting the MIS-2                   groups objectively, based on the enhancements
course to an online format. Although Blackboard                that each group adds to the database.
offers an online testing facility, the exams for this             A real benefit of this contest was that it was used
course are offered in a face-to-face setting (online           as a “motivator” within each section. Many
exams are also provided when needed). However,                 sections encouraged the groups to compete for the
students are highly encouraged to attend the                   top group position by offering an exemption to the
face-to-face exams so that the instructor can                  final exam. The final project grade for that group
answer questions as needed. This is particularly               would also be the final exam grade. This motivated
important for the second exam, which, at this                  many groups to do their best resulting in a good
university, is a hands-on access exam administered             project and ultimately learning the material.
in the computer lab. Since no specific time slots are
allocated for the course, the exam is planned                  Course standardization for students
around student schedules. Realistically, instructors           It is not unusual for students, when pre-registering
may need to offer two exam periods, one during                 for the next semester, to choose instructors they
the day and the other in the evening. The lack of a            feel, who would offer the best chance for the best
specific time slot also complicates scheduling the              grade with the least amount of work. Since all
final exam.                                                     sections teach the same project, cover the same
       Standardizing the MIS course: benefits and pitfalls                      Campus-Wide Information Systems
       C. Bryan Foltz, Margaret T. O’Hara and Harold Wise                    Volume 21 · Number 4 · 2004 · 163–169

material, and administer the same technical                   which each instructor can track the author and
hands-on database exam, all students receive the              manager of the database. Computer-savvy
same opportunity for success without one having               students, however, can easily change this
an advantage over another. This results in sections           information, and once one team learns the
being equally filled with students selecting sections          information is there, the news spreads quickly
based on day and time only.                                   to other teams. A more subtle approach is to
    Many students, when access to their instructor            change data in a single field for one record in
is impractical, will approach another instructor              one table of the database. It is best if this field
teaching the same course for help when needed.                is never scheduled to be used in any reports
Resources are much more available for all students            or queries the students are required to develop.
taking the MIS-2 course because variance between              For example, the number in the field for a
sections is very small. Students also know, in                secondary phone might be listed as 328.2245
advance, when their assignments are due. Thus,                in one instructor’s DB, 328.2345 in the next,
they are able to schedule their workload better.              328.2445 in the next.

Other results and benefits                                     Summary
Another benefit of standardizing the course is
reduced copy costs for the department because                 The MIS-2 course previously presented significant
handouts are no longer being prepared by                      challenges for faculty trying to balance their
instructors. Instead, packets are prepared and sold           research and teaching efforts. Required to teach
at the bookstore. The success of standardizing this           database concepts by using a semester long
course has led some faculty to begin looking at               project, faculty were often stretched thin trying to
areas where other courses can be impacted in                  prepare for this class and meet other professional
much the same way.                                            obligations. By developing a standard project
                                                              guide and creating a set of database projects to be
On-going issues                                               rotated through six semesters, course preparation
                                                              time and cost were greatly reduced.
Several areas still present a challenge for those             Standardization across multiple sections taught by
teaching the course. One challenge results from               different faculty was also achieved. Further details
the varying levels of student experience, interests           on the project guide and the projects are available
and background within a single class section. As              from the authors.
noted above, a second semester sophomore and a
graduating senior have vastly different experiences
– both academically and in the real world.
Although the instructor gains some classroom                  Brenner, V., Surynt, T., Augustine, F. and Stryker, J. (2002),
instructional time by using the project manual,                       “The joint accounting/e-business technology major: an
explaining, for example, the intricacies involved in                  inter-disciplinary approach to curriculum development”,
“selling” a system – the politics, the cost-benefit                    Proceedings of The Informing Science and IT Education
analyses, and the balancing of all stakeholder                        Conference, Cork, Ireland, pp. 137-44.
interests, are still a daunting task. Since limiting Staff (2002), “Top ten tech needs of finance”, available
the time frame within which students can take the
                                                                      7C67,00.html (accessed 4 October 2003).
course is not an acceptable solution, there is no             Ehie, I.C. (2002), “Developing a management information
viable solution to this issue.                                        systems (MIS) curriculum: perspectives from MIS
    Another issue that many faculty must deal with                    practitioners”, Journal of Education for Business, Vol. 77
is dishonesty. While rotating the projects through a                  No. 3, pp. 151-7.
three-year cycle reduces the chance of reusing                Gill, T.G. and Hu, Q. (1999), “The evolving undergraduate
older DBs (especially since the technology changes                    information systems education: a survey of US
                                                                      institutions”, Journal of Education for Business, Vol. 74
so rapidly), opportunities for cheating still arise
                                                                      No. 5, pp. 289-94.
during a single semester. When seven class sections           Gorgone, J.T., Valacich, J.S., Feinstein, D.L. and Davis, G.B. et al.
all use the same project, weeding out and                             (2003), “Foreword”, Database for Advances in
eliminating cheating is always a challenge. While                     Information Systems, Vol. 34 No. 1, p. vi.
most students will not share projects within the              Hardy, J., Deppe, L. and Smith, J. (1993), “A curriculum for the
same instructor’s classes, it is often very tempting                  1990s and beyond”, Management Accounting, Vol. 15
for groups to “share” their projects with teams in                    No. 3, p. 66.
                                                              Maier, J.L. and Gambill, S. (1996), “CIS/MIS curriculums in
other instructor’s classes. Several ways of checking                  AACSB-accredited colleges of business”, Journal of
for “borrowed” work exist.                                            Education for Business, Vol. 71 No. 6, pp. 329-33.
    Each Microsoft Access database has a                      Stephens, C. and O’Hara, M. (2001), “The core information
properties sheet (see file, database properties) on                    technology course at AACSB schools: consistency or
         Standardizing the MIS course: benefits and pitfalls                        Campus-Wide Information Systems
        C. Bryan Foltz, Margaret T. O’Hara and Harold Wise                      Volume 21 · Number 4 · 2004 · 163–169

      chaos?”, Journal of Education for Business, Vol. 76 No. 4,   Further reading
      pp. 181-4.
Stephens, C. and O’Hara, M. (1998), “Information technology for    Goff, J. (2002), “What CFOs really think about
      rising executives: MBA curriculums at AACSB accredited              technology”, available at:
      schools”, Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference of              1,5309,6617,00.html?f ¼ related (accessed 4 October
      the Academy for Information Management, Helsinki,                   2003)
      Finland, pp. 63-75.                                          Havelca, D. (2003), “Predicting software self efficacy
Zack, M.H. (1998), “An MIS course integrating information                 among business students: a preliminary assessment”,
      technology and organizational issues”, The DATA BASE for            Journal of Information Systems Education, Vol. 14 No. 2,
      Advances in Information Systems, Vol. 29 No. 2, pp. 73-87.          pp. 145-52.


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