Author: Maria Eca Guimaraes de Abreu

Contact Details: Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração de Coimbra Quinta
Agrícola, Bencanta 3040-316 Coimbra, Portugal. Phone: +351 914032030 Fax: +351
239445445 E-mail: mabreu@iscac.pt

This paper aims to show the significance of marketing in a religious organisation in
Portugal, exploring the brand positioning and image of a particular and world famous
catholic shrine in Portugal - the Sanctuary of Fátima. Nowadays, due to increasing
religious freedom, people are confronted with different religious options. As such,
religious marketing emerges as an essential and vital tool to all the organisations that
focus on providing an excellent service to the public. This new insight for the religious
organisations arises from social and societal marketing concepts (Kotler & Roberto,
1989; Andreasen, 1996; Bruce, 1998; Cochoy, 1999) and is making its appearance in
Portugal as an academic theme to be handling.
The advantages are evident: marketing is a system that helps all kinds of organisational
needs, develops a useful and clear approach to its constituencies, helps evaluate the
organisation’s mission accomplishment and target audience satisfaction, and enables the
organisation to respond more efficiently to the proposed aims (Shawchuck et al, 1992;
McLeish, 1995; Mehta & Mehta, 1995; Kotler & Andreasen, 1996; Evans & Moutinho,
1999). The religious marketing managerial process implies well-formulated analysis,
strategic and marketing-mix plans and programs. Two main decisions are essential in a
globalised world: the position strategy decision and the brand position statement.
A religious organisation is perceived by its constituencies as a brand, a heterogeneous set
including the key message, the people who work for it, the place where the services take
place, its equipment, together with all the associations of its offer. A brand is
conceptualised in three ways: brand identity – the reality of the organisation (Kapferer &
Laurent, 1989), brand image – the constituent perceptions and representations of the
organisation (Aaker, 1991; Gregory & Wiechmann, 1991; McLeish, 1995; Batra et al.,
1996) and brand position - the result of the organisation’s strategic work.
As a research question, we try to compare the brand position of a Catholic shrine in
Portugal, the sanctuary of Fátima, and its pilgrim’s image. The qualitative and
quantitative researches were conducted in this shrine, regarded as a brand. Five hundred
and seven in-depth interviews were conducted at the shine so that the pilgrim’s image
could be ascertained. The questionnaires were subjected to content analysis and the
resulting data to correspondence analysis and HOMALS using SPSS software. The
perceptual mapping techniques were then used to compare the findings with the
organisation’s statements and the findings were analysed. It is proposed that the brand

image is not coincident with the implicit positioning of the Institutional Church.The
paper concludes by proposing a redefinition of the positioning strategy for certain groups,
identifies some managerial implications for the shrine and also recommends further


Author: Mandy Atkinson

Contact Details: Greenwich University Business School, Park Row, Greenwich, London
SE10 9LS. Phone: +44 (0)208 331 9707 Fax: 0208 331 9005 E-mail:

This paper explores the significance of marketing ethics in charities by presenting the
results of exploratory research survey involving 56 charities in the top 500 by income and
the content analysis of a series of interviews with charity marketing personnel. Drawing
on experience within organisations, it demonstrates the presence of ethical marketing
issues in charities and investigates the availability of formal and informal guidance for
charities on ethical marketing issues.

Key problems are evident which include the lack of support for marketing personnel on
handling ethical issues, and the absence of credos and codes of ethics to support
marketing practice. Comparisons were made between the existence of codes of marketing
ethics in profit making and nonprofit making sectors. As a result, 84 four per cent of
respondent charities did not have a code of marketing ethics in place. There were clearly
areas where practitioners felt ethical guidance was needed, including investment and
fundraising and marketing communications.

The literature reviewed consisted of business and marketing ethics theory over the last 30
years. It considered existing marketing ethics theory (for example Schlegelmilch, 1998;
Laczniak and Murphy, 1993), ethical marketing issues (such as Laczniak and Murphy,
1993; Chonko and Hunt, 1985) and ethics and decision making (Carroll, 1978; De
George, 1993; Schlegelmilch, 1998). Consideration was given to the marketing ethics
framework (Smith and Quelch 1993) and credos and codes of marketing ethics (Smith
and Quelch, 1993; Schlegelmilch, 1998). All literature related specifically to the profit-
making sector. There was limited evidence of any non profit research on marketing
ethics. Adaptability of existing ethics theory was considered in relation to charities.


Author: Anna Barkensjo

Contact Details: London Metropolitan University, Department of Business and Service
Sector Management, 84 Moorgate, London EC2M 6SQ. Phone: +44 (0)20 7320 1577
Fax: +44 (0)20 7320 1465 Email: a.barkensjo@londonmet.ac.uk.

This empirical study sought to establish the views of a sample 319 members of the
British public concerning the practice of child-specific advertising. It also examined the
sample members’ relative levels of interest in child-specific advertisements that featured
youngsters of specific ages, ethnicities, and possessing various forms of disability
(physical, psychological or behavioural). Interviews were conducted with individuals of
the type targeted by an inner-London local government social services department in
venues currently displaying the department’s child-specific advertisements. The
respondents were generally supportive of child-specific advertising, although older
people and individuals of African or Afro-Caribbean heritage tended to be less
enthusiastic about the practice than the rest of the sample. It emerged that behavioural
problems were regarded as a more unattractive impairment than either a physical
disability or a psychological difficulty. Single people, the less well-educated, females,
white and mixed race respondents, and persons with highly altruistic dispositions
exhibited significantly different preference structures vis-à-vis alternative combinations
of attributes (age, ethnicity and form of impairment) associated with children requiring
adoption. The findings should assist managers of local government adoption units to
draft child-specific advertisements in manners that maximise the probability of their
securing substantial numbers of serious enquiries from particular target audiences.


Author: Roger Bennett

Contact Details: Centre for Research in Marketing, London Metropolitan University,
Department of Business and Service Sector Management, 84 Moorgate, London EC2M
6SQ. Phone: +44 (0)207 320 1577 Fax: +44 (0)207 320 1465 E-mail:

Charitable organisations in the helping and caring area rely heavily on volunteer workers,
many of whom have regular face-to-face contacts with beneficiaries. Most
volunteer/beneficiary interactions will be pleasant and enjoyable to the volunteer
concerned, but some will not. This empirical study examined the effects of "negative"
contact experiences with beneficiaries on charity volunteers' job satisfaction and
organisational commitment in a helping and caring charitable organisation that for three
and a half years had operated an internal marketing programme. It was hypothesised that
negative experiences downwardly moderated (i) the impact of the charity's internal
market activities on satisfaction and commitment, and (ii) the influences of certain job
attributes (autonomy, team working and supervisory support) on these variables. Three
personal characteristics (affect intensity, vulnerability to stress, and a person's reasons for
having become a volunteer) were also assumed to moderate the effects of negative
experiences on job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Linkages between the
last two variables and a volunteer's desire to provide high-quality client services were


Author: Roger Bennett

Contact Details: Centre for Research in Marketing, London Metropolitan University,
Department of Business and Service Management, 84 Moorgate, London EC2M 6SQ.
Phone: +44 (0)20 7320 1577 Fax: +44 (0)20 7320 1465. E-mail:

Although relationship marketing has been adopted extensively and enthusiastically by
UK charitable fundraising organisations, the operational assessment of what actually
constitutes “good quality” relationship marketing by charities has been overlooked. This
paper presents the results of an investigation into the perceptions of the quality of
charities’ relationship marketing activities reported by a sample of 141 known regular
supporters of charities. Three forms of relationship marketing were considered:
relationship advertising, direct marketing, and “two-way marketing contacts” (public
relations events, open days, and other two-way marketing communications). The calibres
of each of these genres of relationship marketing were evaluated in terms of five criteria:
message relevance, interactive engagement, and the arousal of feelings of commitment,
benevolence, and trust. A donor’s overall perception of the quality of an organisation’s
relationship marketing was conceptualised as a latent variable formed (rather than
reflected) by the individual’s opinions of the attributes of the three abovementioned
methods of relationship marketing. Connections between the latent relationship
marketing quality variable and (i) the levels and frequencies of supporters’ donations, and
(ii) donors’ future intentions to continue giving to the charity, were then examined. The
model was estimated using the technique of partial least squares.


Authors: Douglas Brownlie and Susan Hamilton

Contact Details: Department of Marketing, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA
Scotland. Phone: +44 (0)1786 467385 E-mail: douglas.brownlie@stir.ac.uk

That the provision of social support generates an emotional cost in the recipient is
understood in the case of the provision of specialist medical care (Williams, 1995). The
paper discusses the findings of a pilot-study exploring this phenomenon in the context of
exchange relations between a cancer charity, the International Myeloma Foundation (IMF),
and its beneficiaries. The study identifies the unique role played by donor-beneficiaries in
the provision of social support services, exploring patterns of exchange in terms of the
responses and motivations of recipients. By means of the construct “reciprocity” it seeks to
characterise their involvement in the provision of the IMF’s various social support services.
The results reveal important differences between the motivations and responses of donor-
beneficiaries and non-benefiting donors and volunteers. They also illuminate the potential of
the construct “stepwise-reciprocity” as a basis for framing social networks between
volunteer support service providers and beneficiaries. Through generating insight into the
relational dynamics between providers and recipients of social support services, the paper
contributes to our understanding of processes of exchange in the charitable context.


Authors: Maury Collins, Carol Yamamoto, James Dauer, and Jeff Andreasen

Contact Details: Columbia College Chicago, Department of Arts, Entertainment & Media
Management, 600 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago IL 60605 USA. Phone: 312-943-
9387 Fax: 312-943-7332 E-mail: cyamamoto@colum.edu

This paper describes a more efficient, faster way to identify and locate prospective
audience members/ticket buyers of nonprofit performing arts. The two-tiered approach
uses statistical analysis of an arts organization’s existing database of subscription and
single ticket customers to determine key demographic characteristics. The subsequent
deployment of a contemporary mathematical model geographically identifies “pockets”
of residents most likely to generate future sales.

By merging a performing arts organization’s customer database from a three-year period
(2000-2002) with no demographics beyond name, address, ticket purchases, with a much
larger database containing over a thousand household and individual demographic
variables, this study identifies the eleven demographic characteristics that have the
highest relationship to ticket sales. Of the eleven, the strongest predictor is a four-year
college degree. Two variables have a negative influence or an inverse relationship; e.g.,
one shows the more households in a US Census tract with annual household income of
US$25,000-$35,000, the less likely ticket purchase occurs. (As defined by the United
States Census Bureau, “US Census tracts are small, relatively permanent statistical
subdivisions of a country that usually have between 2,500 and 8,000 persons and, when
first delineated, are designed to be homogenous with respect to population characteristics,
economic status and living conditions.”) A non-linear multiple regression model is
formulated to estimate new sales potential based on USA Census tract demographics and
the distance from two performing arts venues used by the organization.

The model calculates the current level of market penetration per census tract, identifies
areas of potential market saturation, and discovers new markets outside of the
organization’s traditional focus. The tracts are ranked in terms of their potential for
generating additional ticket sales. The model exhibits a significantly robust overall
accuracy of 76% in its predictive value. A database of tract identification numbers is
indexed to give the organization’s staff uncomplicated means in future marketing
campaigns to pursue tracts with the highest ticket sales potential. As a result, the
organization is able to target more effectively its most likely audience, achieve greater
market penetration and increase earned income.


Authors: Elinor Devlin, Martine Stead, Kirsty Hughes and Douglas Eadie

Contact Details: Centre for Social Marketing, University of Strathclyde, 173 Cathedral
Street, Glasgow G4 0RQ. Phone: +44 (0)141 548 3195 Fax: +44 (0) 141 553 4118 E-
mail: elinor.devlin@strath.ac.uk

This paper examines the use of a social marketing framework to inform the development
of a charity youth smoking prevention mass media campaign in the UK. It outlines the
three main techniques employed: a review of the current literature and evidence base;
utilisation of the key marketing communication principles; and consumer orientated
market research with target audience. The paper outlines the key findings from each
research task, highlighting the importance of each exercise and concluding that the results
from all techniques must be considered together in developing a campaign.

The paper will start by looking at the key learning from the current literature base,
highlighting that: youth targeted campaigns can influence young people’s smoking
knowledge, attitudes and behaviours; multi-component campaigns can have more
influence on young people than single component campaigns; interventions should be
underpinned by a sound theoretical framework and informed by formative research with
the target audience; and messages need to evoke an emotional response among the target

Primary research in the form of mini-focus group discussions and friendship pairs was
then conducted with the target audience: 11-14 year olds in England. The research
highlighted that young people attribute significant benefits to smoking and these tend to
work at a subconscious and covert level. These benefits are also more salient for those
young people who feel a strong need to belong or who belong to communities where
smoking is viewed as a normative behaviour. The research revealed four broad types of
smokers: resigned smokers, contented experimenters, experimenters and reluctant
experimenters based on differing smoking attitudes, behaviours and experiences. The
implications for how these groups respond to anti-smoking campaigns will be discussed.

Finally, key marketing communication principles, evidence and best practice in relation
to mass media youth smoking prevention campaigns will be examined outlining the
importance of, for example, strategy definition, communication issues, type of message,
execution, channels, intensity reach and duration and source. The paper concludes by
considering the results of all three research exercises together and the implications these
have for the development of a youth smoking campaign in England, while reflecting on
the utility and value of adopting a social marketing approach to the development of such


Authors: Deborah Forbes and Stella Evangelidou

Contact Details: Teesside Business School, University of Teesside, Borough Road,
Middlesbrough, TS1 3 BA. Phone: 01642 342918 Fax: 01642 342925 E-mail:

This paper reports on the findings of research into perceptions of volunteers and
volunteer managers on volunteer management practice in three voluntary organisations in
the north east of England, a mental health charity; a youth group and an HIV/ aids advice
center. The aim of the paper is to assist those involved in volunteer management through
identification of issues raised by volunteers and managers as being important in the
recruitment and retention of volunteers. A review of the literature and exploratory
research, together with the researchers’ experiences as active volunteers within the three
organisations resulted in an interview schedule being developed and piloted for volunteer
managers and volunteers. In depth interviews took place with 3 volunteers and the person
responsible for volunteer management in each of the three organisations.
The interviews were structured around four areas identified by previous research as
important in managing volunteers - recruitment and selection; training and orientation;
support and supervision and recognition and retention.

Initial findings indicated that the organisations all had some form of structured volunteer
management scheme irrespective of the size of organisations or number of volunteers.
However it is in the 4 areas of delivery and management of the scheme that practices
ranged from poor to excellent. The findings of the research supported the conclusions of
the literature, that contributory and controllable factors to volunteers leaving
organisations include lack of opportunities; poor management support; inadequate
training (Cunningham 1999) or acknowledgement of the volunteer’s contribution.

The paper concludes that volunteers are different to paid staff (Pearce, 2001); they may
be committed to the organisation’s objectives and mission but are not tied by monetary
considerations. Thus it is recommended that voluntary organisations need to actively
manage the volunteer relationship throughout the volunteer experience. Induction is
necessary to cement the initial need to volunteer; identifying training needs and offering
training & development opportunities is necessary as a motivator and retention tool.

                      CHARITABLE RELATIONSHIPS

Author: Helen Gabriel

Contact Details: London Metropolitan University, Centre for Research in Marketing, 84
Moorgate, London EC2M 6SQ, UK. Phone: +44 20 7320 1578 E-mail:

Inter–organisational collaborations between UK Charities have been increasing in recent
years. The main drivers of the increase in collaborative behaviour has been the increased
pressure on fund-raising, and growing media and public concerns about the duplication of
services provided by many voluntary sector organisations. Additionally there has been a
substantial increase in the number of charities operating in the UK.

Consequently, many charities are seeking to find new methods whereby valuable
resources and capabilities can be shared and exploited in order to reduce infrastructure
costs and serve beneficiaries in a more effective way. This paper sets out to examine
how the resource-based view of a firm can be applied to the co-operative relationships in
the charitable sector, in order for them to achieve their common goals. The theory of the
resource-based view of the firm presents the case for charities making resources and
capabilities the foundation of long-term strategy development. This rests on a number of
premises. Firstly, internal resources and capabilities within both the co-operating
charities provide the basic direction of the charities' strategies, and secondly resources
and capabilities are seen as the primary source of a charity's effectiveness. Individual
resources within the charitable sector include the skills of individual employees, the
brand name of the charity, finance, and capital equipment. Capabilities are the distinctive
competencies that one charity may have and tend to be based on functional capabilities
such as marketing, new service development to beneficiaries and operational

                          NONPROFIT TIMES 100

Authors: Fred Jacobs and Nick Marudas

Contact Details: School of Accountancy, Robinson College of Business, Georgia State
University P. O. Box 4050 Atlanta, GA. USA. 30302-4050. Phone: 404-651-4461 E-
mail: fjacobs@gsu.edu

Auburn University Montgomery, Alabama, PO Box 244 023, 36124-4023, USA. E-mail:

Using a six-factor model of donations, we estimate the effect on net donations; i.e.,
donations less fundraising expenditures, of a one percent marginal increase in lagged
fundraising, for each nonprofit organization (NPO) in the Nonprofit Times 100 from 1999
to 2001. These estimates provide evidence, for each NPO, whether the NPO’s level of
fundraising is “excessive,” “optimal,” or “insufficient,” relative to the level that would
maximize net donations.

The estimated effect of a one percent increase in fundraising on net donations varies
widely across NPOs in our sample - from an increase in net donations of 0.45% of gross
donations to a decrease of 1.71% of gross donations. Of the 76 Nonprofit Times 100
NPOs with usable data in 2001, we estimate that 28 engaged in “excessive” fundraising,
32 engaged in “insufficient” fundraising, and 16 did not engage in “excessive” or
“insufficient” fundraising; i.e., we could not reject the null hypothesis of “optimal” levels
of fundraising. We find generally similar results for 2000 and 1999.


Authors: Finola Kerrigan and Mustafa F. Özbilgin

Contact Details: King’s College London, Department of Management, 150 Stamford St
London SE1 9NN UK. Phone: +44 207 848 3882 Fax: +44 207 848 3882 E-mail:

University of Surrey School of Management, Guildford GU2 7XH UK. Phone: +44 148
368 3091 E-mail: m.ozbilgin@surrey.ac.uk

This paper will examine the impact which globalisation has had upon film production and
consumption. The film industry is a global industry with significant national and regional
influences and identities. This has resulted in its often being at the centre of cultural,
political and economic debate. Hollywood films, many of which are formulaic in nature,
dominate the worldwide cinema box office. Despite the growth in cinema screens which
has occurred since the 1980s, little room remains in the market for the many lower
budget, national films. Although much is said about the globalisation of the media, and
despite some success of national cinemas, for example Bollywood, this globalisation has
merely resulted in a greater audience for and understanding of mainstream American
films at the expense of other national films. Film, similarly to music and literature, is
acknowledged as a form of cultural expression and as such, has received protection from
full industrial liberalisation under the auspices of GATT. Despite this, the global film
market does not provide diversity in terms of the types of films which are successful in
gaining widespread distribution. On the contrary, films which represent non mainstream
populations or viewpoints often need to make concessions in order to gain access to or
appeal to global or mainstream audiences.

In order to explore this further, the authors have analysed box office figures as well as
analysing the content of a number of “cross over” films from minority groups which have
gained success in the UK, a market which is traditionally heavily dominated by American
films. The research identifies that the film industry rests uneasily between its commercial
identity and its artistic or cultural remit. The authors show how film makers have had to
make concessions in terms of the cultural identity and representation of their films in
order to secure a non-national audience for their film. Recognising the diverse purposes
of film consumption, ranging from film for entertainment, film as an educative tool or
source of cultural expression to film which is produced in order to achieve commercial
gain, this paper questions whether these diverse purposes may in fact be brought together
and accommodated within the film industry in order to serve the divergent needs of
moviegoers. Using the UK as an example, this paper seeks to illustrate the skewed
globalisation of the film industry from the perspective of cultural diversity.

This research will be situated in the ongoing debate from international marketing
regarding the adaptation or standardisation of products for a global market place. How
can this debate be applied to the film industry? In conclusion, recommendations will be

made at the level of education and cultural policy and well as at the level of the film
marker and marketers. As the era of digital distribution of film approaches, the
opportunity to distribute and consume a wider offering of film should increase. The
paper will propose how film makers and marketers as well as policymakers should
embrace the digital cinema revolution in order to contribute to a sustainable and diverse
film industry.


Authors: Theresa A. Kirchner, Edward P. Markowski, and John B. Ford

Contact Details: Old Dominion University College of Business and Public
Administration Business Administration Department – Marketing, 2118 Constant Hall
Norfolk, VA 23529-0223. Phone: (757) 683-6554 Fax: (757) 683-3258 E-mail:

This study researches and analyzes the effects of levels of government support and
marketing practices on the financial health of performing arts organizations. As potential
patrons are presented with increasing arrays of options for filling their leisure time, non-
profit performing arts organizations face increasing competition from those new leisure
time alternatives (Stone, 1995). They compete with relatively new alternatives such as
cable TV and the Internet as well as more traditional forms of entertainment, such as
sporting events, movies, and other performing arts events. Their marketing organizations
and activities traditionally have been rudimentary, with a focus on public relations and
advertising rather than on the full range of marketing activities (McDonald and Harrison,
2002). At a time of declining subscription ticket sales and increasing competition for
donations, government support at all levels is also decreasing. Arts organizations
increasingly are turning to current marketing strategies, tools, and techniques to improve
their financial situations and potential for survival (Arnold and Tapp, 2003). At the same
time, traditional influences of government support have the ability to affect the level of
marketing activities and the financial health of organizations, both positively and
negatively. This study presents a theoretical model, based on the existing literature,
which proposes relationships among levels of government support, marketing activities,
and financial health of non-profit performing arts organizations. It then develops
conceptual arguments and related hypotheses, based on that model. It proposes an
empirical test using a relatively homogeneous subset of the performing arts organizations,
professional symphony orchestras of the US, to assess the effects of level of marketing
activities and government support on the financial health of those organizations. Finally,
the study outlines contributions and limitations of the research, presents managerial and
public policy implications, and proposes opportunities for future research.


Author: Rita Kottasz

Contact Details: Centre for Research in Marketing, London Metropolitan University, 84
Moorgate, London EC2M 6SQ, UK. Phone: +44 20 7320 1577 E-mail:

Members of the general public in London (England) and Budapest (Hungary) who
reported that they visited art galleries were interviewed to ascertain (a) their levels of
ethnocentric tendency and (b) possible connections between ethnocentrism in relation to
domestic and foreign artwork and certain personal traits (patriotism, conservatism,
individualism and cultural openness) that the academic marketing literature has found to
exist among ethnocentric consumers of more conventional products. The respondents'
attitudes towards particular countries, their socio-demographic backgrounds and the
degree of their involvement with the arts (i.e. a proxy of "product necessity" in the arts
domain) were explored. Additionally, possible linkages between ethnocentric tendency,
perceptions of the artworks of various kinds of country (i.e., culturally similar or
dissimilar), and an individual 's intentions to visit art galleries featuring work by artists
from these types of country were examined.


Authors: Krzysztof Kubacki and Robin Croft

Contact Details: University of Glamorgan Business School, Pontypridd, CF37 1DL, UK.
Phone: 0044 1443 654247, 0044 1443483373 Fax: 0044 1443 840280 E-mail:
kkubacki@glam.ac.uk, rcroft@glam.ac.uk

The research described in this paper explores the perceptions of contemporary marketing
practice by musicians, focusing on a cross-cultural comparison of the attitudes of Polish
and UK musicians. The study has been continuing for over a year, and describes
previously unresearched aspects of the relationship between marketing and music. The
aim of the work is to gain an understanding of the phenomenon by studying two groups
of artists with marked disparities in their backgrounds - cultural, economic and social.

The initial research was designed to explore the attitudes of musicians to marketing, as
very little has been written about how musicians see themselves in the industry (Kubacki
and Croft, 2004). The interlocutors were recruited from British and Polish musicians.
Surprisingly, there was overwhelming homogeneity in the data collected across the
groups. Despite the significant differences in the backgrounds of the respondents, no
general differences in the attitudes of musicians from Poland and the UK were found.
Musicians were split across their beliefs, not in terms of their cultures.

This counterintuitive discovery led the authors to speculate that the language of art might
be an international medium and that borders between artists do not cross nations or
cultures. This may have very important implications for the whole international music
industry: gaining a mutual understanding between musicians and business should result
in more productive creative relationships in the music market. In order to explore further
the common language hypothesis, a second round of data gathering is taking place.

Underlying the study are criteria developed by Hofstede (2001) and Trompenaars (1993),
which show how Polish and British cultures are unequivocally different on most
commonly-accepted dimensions. Particularly substantial dissimilarities appear in the
criteria that are crucial for the implementation of a free market (which is a relatively new
phenomenon in Poland in comparison to the UK). Poles show very strong uncertainty
avoidance, which may cause a reluctance to accept the competitive character of a market

Furthermore, the comparatively individualistic British culture is the exact opposite of
Polish strong belief in collectivism and the protective role of central authorities (Kolman
et al, 2003; Nasierowski et al 1998; Todeva 1996). One question to be considered is the
extent to which in Poland these elements are the result of nearly fifty years of
protectionism, and whether people will adapt to new circumstances. Possibly, these are
typical characteristics of Polish culture and may have the capacity to affect the

implementation and modification of a free music market. Our initial research findings
suggest that, although during more than forty years of communism in Poland music was
under the protectorate and political supervision of the governmental bodies, Poles
articulate the same level of acceptance of market rules as British musicians. Moreover,
both groups share the opinion that non-commercial art music should be subsidised by

In terms of economics, the free music market in Poland, with its aggressive marketing
activities, was born in the last decade (Sasimowicz 2001). However, the majority of
Polish musicians were educated and grew up under communism, and they frequently
share the same attitudes towards the commercialisation of the arts with their British
counterparts. Further contrasts between the two countries can be seen in the economic
and cultural environments of the two countries. The music industry in the UK is a very
important part of the whole economy (Balfour, 2001), whereas in Poland it is still only a
relatively small part of the nation's cultural activities and most of the musicians there
have to wrestle with financial problems. In Poland, marketing in music (except pop
music) is still in the initial phase; moreover, marketing in the arts generally is emerging
only very slowly. The free music market seems to be commonly accepted by Polish
musicians. However, they express their doubts about its nature, doubts which are
identical to those articulated by their British counterparts. There is a common disquiet
concerning the presence of commerce in their work.

The social positions occupied by artists in both countries are similarly distinct. The UK
financial situation allows government and local authorities to support various forms of
arts (Casey et al, 1996). As a result many musicians feel they are able to focus
exclusively on their work and preserve their artistic integrity. In Poland, budget
constraints minimise any support for the arts from the authorities. With economic
liberalisation has come financial austerity for individuals and governments alike: one of
the first casualties in Poland and other emerging economies has been support for the arts.
Therefore artists increasingly have to struggle to increase any form of participation in the
arts that generates an income. As a result, there is evidence that artists are made to beg
for money and to compromise their ideals in the face of commerce. Nevertheless, the
initial research shows that, despite so many differences, musicians from both countries
share the same opinions and beliefs, and frequently use very similar examples to describe
their feelings. They have to face analogous problems in their artistic work, which seems
to be universal for the whole industry, regardless of its level of development in both

In the future the research may be extended to cover artists representing other spheres.
There might also be a need for comparative studies to analyse the attitudes of musicians
performing very distinct styles of music, e.g. pop musicians and classical musicians, as
the importance of marketing in their work may be more differentiated than it is amongst
two groups of musicians playing jazz and classical music. Future research should explore
in more depth the attitudes of artists to marketing in other countries as important
discrepancies may stem from more differentiated social, cultural and economical
backgrounds outside Europe.


Authors: Stephen Lee, Adrian Sargeant, and Alan Tapp

Contact Details: Henley Management College, Centre for Voluntary Sector Management,
Greenlands, Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, RG9 3AU. Phone: +44 (0)1491 571454
Fax: +44 (0)1491 571635 E-mail: Stephen.lee@henleymc.ac.uk.

Charitable institutions occupy a unique place in society. Unlike commercial
organisations, their very existence, their standing in law and their continued legitimacy to
operate effectively in their markets of choice rely directly on moral argument rather than
commercial dexterity (Sargeant and Lee, 2004). Charities exist and sustain their presence
within the markets that they seek to operate in, precisely because the world “ought” in
some particular sense, to be other than it currently is, with regard to the beneficiary
groups or causes they exist to serve.

Charity, when viewed as a moral construct, offers powerful sustenance to marketing
communications and fundraising campaigns. Utilising the resonant images that moral
rather than commercial argument conveys to the market place, charity advertising
regularly outperforms its commercial counterpart both in performance and in terms of
creative recognition via industry awards and approbation (Financial Times, 2003).
The moral authority associated with charity fundraising and marketing communications
also engenders a significant and often complex web of responsibilities, duties and risk to
the organisation that must be mitigated and negotiated across the needs of divergent
interests, if positive reputation is to be maintained and enhanced and the effective
pursuance of mission objectives secured. (ASA, 2004; Wymer and Samu, 2003).

For charitable institutions, the maintenance of a positive reputation and the avoidance of
reputational risk are of the upmost significance (Polonsky and Macdonald, 2000).
Nowhere is this risk placed in starker contrast than in the fundraising relationships that
charities enjoin with commercial organisations through cause related marketing
programmes (Charity Commission 2001, Mason 2004).

This paper explores the nature of the concept of charity reputation within the corporate
fundraising context (Bennett, 2002). Through primary qualitative research conducted
across key identified stakeholder groups observing a particular cause related marketing
relationship, this paper examines the significance (or otherwise) of the moral construct of
the charity to the preservation of positive reputation and future donor intent. The paper
concludes with initial research findings, recommendations for future research together
with the identification of management implications for fundraising practitioners.

                       17. STOPPING AT EXHIBITS:
                     IN MUSEUMS AND GALLERIES

Author: Dirk vom Lehn

Contact Details: King's College University of London, Work, Interaction & Technology
Research Group, The Management Centre, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford
Street, London SE1 9NN UK. Phone: +44 (0)20 7848 4314 Fax: +44 (0)20 7848 4479 E-
mail: dirk.vom_lehn@kcl.ac.uk

There is a growing concern in museums and galleries with how visitors examine and
make sense of exhibits. They increasingly initiate and conduct studies of visitor
behaviour and learning to determine the “effectiveness” of their exhibits and exhibitions.
These studies are undertaken by applying methods developed in the behavioural and
cognitive sciences. They employ different kinds of observation and interview techniques
that appear suitable to determine whether visitors respond to the exhibits as anticipated
and hoped for by the exhibition designers and managers. Researchers in the field of
Visitor Studies share the view that only those exhibits can be effective that people stop at
and examine for some time. Hence, “stopping power” and “holding power” have proved
to be very prominent indicators for the effectiveness of exhibits.

This paper proposes a different method to explore visitors’ conduct and experience in
museums, namely video-based field studies. The principal data that we use are audio-
video recordings of visitors acting and interacting with and around exhibits. The analysis
draws on recent development in sociology, namely ethnomethodology and conversation
analysis. It reveals the social and sequential organisation of visitors’ action and
interaction at exhibits. The presentation will illustrate the observations and findings that
arise from video-based field studies by discussing three very short video-fragments. The
analysis will explore how visitors who walk through an exhibition do not stop at and pass
by exhibits. This question appears of particular interest because conventional studies of
visitor behaviour (1) focus on stopping and viewing and (2) argue that people who do not
stop at exhibits cannot learn from them, and (3) because in recent years museums
increasingly deploy computer-based, “interactive” exhibits in their exhibitions that allow
only a small number of people direct, “hands-on” participation. The paper will conclude
with a brief discussion of the observations and methods used in the course of the


Author: Debra Leighton

Contact Details: University of Salford, Adelphi campus, Peru Street Salford M3 6PU
Phone: 0161-295-2231 Email: d.Leighton@salford.ac.uk

The marketing of the cultural heritage is a unique privilege but at the same time an
enormous responsibility. If successful we preserve our physical inheritance for future
generations. If unsuccessful we risk the alienation or even the destruction of irreplaceable
assets. Given that the stakes are high, it is essential that marketing in this sector is
relevant and responsible.

Whole sectors of the heritage and cultural industries previously funded by the public
sector find themselves competing in an open market alongside sophisticated visitor
attractions that operate along clearly defined commercial lines. The search for a
competitive edge becomes urgent and the identification of a long term survival strategy
crucial. The solution may lie in the adoption of an experiential approach to marketing the
heritage site or attraction, whereby heritage consumption is conceptualised as essentially
experience based and the heritage consumer as an active, discerning participant in the
process rather than a passive receptor. Recent indications are that those heritage
attractions that have moved away from a traditional, product focus toward an experiential
approach have succeeded in maintaining or even increasing visitor numbers in the face of
adverse market conditions (English Tourism Council, 2003). Nevertheless the adoption of
an experiential, consumption based approach to heritage is problematic for a sector
whose very appeal lies in the priceless museum collection, the magnificent monument or
imposing building. There are significant barriers to adopting an experiential approach in
the shape of powerful stakeholders such as funding bodies, boards of trustees,
conservation groups, civic trusts and local, national and international government. There
are also innate tensions between commercial objectives and curatorial goals, between
visitor access and preservation, between scholarship and entertainment.

The aim of this paper is to provide a context for experiential marketing as a potential
survival strategy for heritage sites and attractions competing in the wider tourism and
leisure marketplace. It explores the nature and scope of the heritage industry, heritage as
a consumption based experience and the evidence of adoption of the experiential
paradigm by a number of sites and attractions. A content analysis (Krippendorff 1980)) of
promotional leaflets and websites provides the analytical basis for this evaluation and the
paper concludes by proposing an indicative framework for experiential marketing in this


Authors: Jocelyn McConnachie and Jaafar El-Murad

Contact Details: University of Westminster, Department of Marketing and Business
Strategy, London 60 Adelaide Road, Andover, SP10 1HF. Phone: 07941 096 158 E-mail:

For not-for-profit museums and galleries which have limited funding, maximising
revenue from retail outlets within the museum is critical. Applying an understanding of
sector specific consumer buying behaviour can contribute towards increased sales
revenue. This paper considers the consumer buying behaviour of a museum visitor as a
customer of a museum retail outlet. Consumer behaviour models generally assume that
consumers plan the opportunity to shop. These models have limited applicability to
museum visitors who may/may not anticipate the opportunity to shop within the museum
or may/may not have a purchase in mind.

In a study carried out at a London museum, 55% of purchases were impulse, and 26% of
visitors polled on entry and 45% polled on exit had not anticipated the museum’s retail
outlet. As there is no consumer decision process model for customers who do not
anticipate a retail outlet, one is proposed. Further research is recommended, to test the
proposed consumer buying behaviour model, and to establish whether there is a “cause
and effect” relationship between anticipation of a retail offer and propensity to impulse


Authors: Jocelyn McConnachie and Jaafar El-Murad

Contact Details: University of Westminster, Department of Marketing and Business
Strategy, London, 60 Adelaide Road, Andover, SP10 1HF. Phone: 07941 096 158 E-
mail: j@justjocelyn.net

For not-for-profit museums and galleries with limited funding, maximising revenue from
onsite retailing is critical. An application of an understanding of the retail marketing mix
specific to retailing at museums and galleries can contribute to improved revenue takings.
This paper considers the retail marketing mix, specifically for retailing at museums.
The retail marketing mix provides a retail business with its critical formula - price,
promotion, product, merchandising, service and location of outlets. For general retailers,
it is defined by the retailer’s marketing and brand strategy. For museums, the retail
marketing mix is derived from the curatorial values of the museum. No retail marketing
mix model specific to museum retailing (as distinct from general retail) exists.
By applying general retail theory in analysing visitor responses to the retail offer at a
London museum, this paper proposes a retail marketing mix model specific to retailing at

Data were gathered by survey (10% of admissions surveyed in set time period pre and
post museum visit) and a focus group (six participants contributed pre and post visit).
A museum-specific retail marketing mix is identified and its characteristics, distinct from
general retailing and specific to museum retailing, are discussed. The paper recommends
further research to establish the application of the proposed museum retail marketing mix
at other museums.


Author: Sandra Mottner

Contact Details: Western Washington University, USA. Phone: 360-650-2403 (USA)
Fax: 360-650-4844 (USA) E-mail: Sandra.Mottner@wwu.edu

While nonprofit marketing has been discussed in the literature, and at least two journals
are devoted to the subject there are only modest efforts, at best, being made to offer an
independent stream of teaching about the subject. This article seeks to identify the
current state of affairs in the the US, explore existing pedagogical resources, and then
make recommendations for the teaching of nonprofit marketing in the future. In
exploring the current state of the teaching of nonprofit marketing a survey of business
colleges in the United States will also examine the types of schools and programs that are
most inclined to offer independent nonprofit marketing courses as well as attitudes and
restraints towards offering more in-depth study.

Examining the current pedagogical practices of nonprofit marketing is important as the
nonprofit sectors continue to play a significant and growing role in the US economy
(Kotler and Andreason, 2003). In order to be most effective the nonprofit communities
need knowledgeable, professionally qualified marketers and managers. Whether
employed by a nonprofit or a for-profit firm, marketers will increasingly come in contact
with nonprofit organizations (Kotler and Andreason, 2003). The subject of nonprofit
management has been increasingly addressed by university communities (Mirabella and
Wish, 2001). However, there is no assessment of nonprofit marketing efforts on the part
of US universities. This research aims to amend this deficiency. While universities
offer marketing courses that specialize in areas of study such as retailing, international,
Internet and sports marketing the specialized area of nonprofit marketing appears to be


Authors: Ioanna Papasolomou and Marlen Demetriou

Contact Details: Intercollege, 92 Ayias Phylaxeos Str., P.O. Box 51604, CY-3507,
Limassol, Cyprus. Phone: 00 357 25 381180 Fax: 00 357 25 386982 E-mail:

In today’s markets organisations have tended to focus on both tangible and intangible
factors in order to compete effectively and to differentiate their services/products in an
ever-changing environment in which they operate. The reputation of the corporation is
often the most important asset it possesses in gaining a competitive advantage as well as
building both financial and social successes. It is clear that the commercial world must
rise to the challenge of building the confidence and trust demanded by stakeholders
worldwide. Corporations require more than just the ability to present sustainable
corporate reputation stories to stakeholders; they also require proactive planning and the
ability to adapt to changing and increasing expectations regarding accountability.
Corporate reputation or image depends on how the company conducts or is perceived as
conducting its business. Today the ability to build a sustainable corporate reputation is
more important than ever before as stakeholders are more educated, more knowledgeable,
and more demanding.

The paper discusses the efforts of two of the largest financial services organisations in
Cyprus, the Cyprus Popular Bank and Ernst and Young, to build a sustainable corporate
reputation through an emphasis on Cause-Related Marketing (Corporate Social
Responsibility). The Cyprus Popular Bank, the second largest banking organisation in
Cyprus, has developed and launched “Radiomarathon” in support of children with special
needs, which has won a place in the Guinness World of Records as the most successful
charitable event in the world on the basis of per capita contribution. Ernst and Young, the
well-known global organization in Financial Services, has also been involved in activities
of charitable giving by financing fundraising events in Cyprus one of which is the Annual
Fiesta of Young Volunteers which is organized every May in aid of children suffering
from Leukemia. This annual event gains great publicity in all TV channels in Cyprus
positioning Ernst & Young (Cyprus) as a socially responsible Financial Organization.

                           BELGIAN CONSUMERS

Authors: Patrick De Pelsmacker, Wim Janssens, Ellen Sterckx, and Caroline

Contact Details: University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics, Prinsstraat 13 B-
2000 Antwerpen, Belgium. Phone: 32 3 2204749 Fax: 32 3 2204769 E-mail:

In a survey among 615 Belgians and 243 Belgian visitors of Oxfam World Shops, the
knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour of consumers with respect to the Fair Trade
issues are studied. The results show that knowledge and attitudes are in general relatively
positive, but there is an attitude-behaviour gap. To close this gap, non-profit Fair Trade
organisations should provide more and better information on Fair Trade, especially in
shops and on products, Fair Trade products should be more readily available in regular
supermarkets, and their price should be lowered. Socio-demographic consumer segments
and consumer types based on personal value systems are also studied. The most
interesting target group of non-profit Fair Trade organisations appears to be value-
conscious and idealistic older people, with a high education and income.


Authors: Ruth Rentschler, Anne-Marie Hede and Tabitha Ramsey

Contact Details: Deakin University, Centre for Leisure Management Research, 221
Burwood Highway, Burwood 3125 Australia. Phone: +613 9244 6228 Fax: +613 9251
7083 Email: rr@deakin.edu.au

In the last ten years, research on museums has increased and valuable information has
been gained on the changing role of museums in societies; the challenges that museums
now face; and the opportunities that museums have to contribute to learning
communities. One area of interest to marketing managers of contemporary museums is
pricing. Little is known of museum pricing methods and attitudes to them. Museum
marketers face unusual difficulties in knowing how to set prices for museum entry and
special exhibitions. Museums are non-profit organisations and adhere to a social mission.
Pricing therefore is not determined only with cost recovery or surplus in mind. Therefore,
this research determined current pricing methods and attitudes to them within Australian
museums. In this way, future research on pricing in museums can effectively advance this
nonprofit sector. In this paper, the concepts of pricing and museums are introduced and
discussed. Results of a comprehensive literature review on pricing are presented. Second,
a national museum pricing survey was undertaken, the results of which demonstrated that
there are four perspectives taken in the pricing debate: integrity, utilitarian, idealist and
access perspectives. Each perspective highlights that museum pricing is understood in
various ways in this under-researched area of museum marketing.


Author: Haseeb Shabbir

Contact Details: University of Leeds. Phone: 07779793563 Office number: 01274
436479 E-mail: haseeb_shabbir@yahoo.co.uk

This study sets out to examine some of the antecedents influencing donors’ propensities
to engage in positive word of mouth communications. In doing so, the study determines
the inter-relationships between donor perceived service quality, donor satisfaction,
commitment and positive word of mouth communications. Positive word of mouth
communication behaviour is modelled as a central relationship fundraising outcome with
perceived service quality, satisfaction and commitment as potential antecedents. A
sample of 184 direct mail donors revealed that perceived service quality, satisfaction and
commitment act as positive antecedents of word of mouth communications, with
commitment acting as a mediator for perceived service quality and donor satisfaction.
The direction of causality between service quality and satisfaction was found to be
positive with service quality positively predicting donor satisfaction. This study is
important in that it is the first of its kind to examine the propensity of direct mail donors
to engage in positive word of mouth communication behaviour, to map the kind of
communication channels most frequently used and preferred and finally to understand the
antecedents of donor positive word of mouth behaviour. It also explores the much
debated relationship between perceived service quality and satisfaction and discusses
implications for fundraisers. This study serves as a major contribution to the relationship
fundraising literature and hopes to act as a useful guide for building loyalty through
engendering a “pyramiding” approach using positive word of mouth communication
behaviour as a critical relationship fundraising outcome.


Author: Alix Slater

Contact Details: University of Greenwich Business School, 30 Park Row, Greenwich
SE10 9LS. Phone: 020 8331 9036 Fax: 020 8331 9005 E-mail: A.C.Slater@gre.ac.uk

Friends (also known as members, supporters, and patrons) are an important audience for
cultural organisations. They are a key stakeholder group as visitors, through their
donations, and as volunteers and advocates. However there is very little published
research about members even in the USA, where organisations are traditionally more
dependent on individual support. However, this is now being addressed. Recent articles
have presented an audit of heritage membership schemes in the UK, examined the
motivations and behaviour of members of a national museum, and presented a typology
of membership schemes. In both the UK and USA new publications looking at the
practical issues in setting up and managing membership schemes in a range of contexts
have also emerged.

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this research by mapping the organisational
performance of 21 diverse heritage organisations against this typology of membership
schemes. This will contribute to the theory in this area as the typology will have been
refined and extended on the performance of 124 membership schemes affiliated to
museums, galleries and heritage organisations of varying sizes, subject matter and
governance from across the UK.

                        AN ART GALLERY

Author: Alix Slater

Contact Details: University of Greenwich Business School, 30 Park Row, Greenwich
SE10 9LS. Phone: 020 8331 9036 Fax: 020 8331 9005 E-mail: A.C.Slater@gre.ac.uk

There is a paucity of research about motivations of tourists generally, and even less about
visitors to cultural attractions, or more specifically art galleries. Practitioners tend to
commission research for their own organisation, that becomes situationally-contingent.
Studies of visitors to specific sectors, such as museums and galleries also exist. However
motivations are often considered in a superficial way, using methodologies that are not
comparable with organisational data.

The author has drawn on three sources: the literature that exists; research from the field
of leisure studies where motivational scales have been developed and short-term and
longitudinal studies undertaken; as well as practical experience in the sector to develop a
motivational scale that can be used across cultural attractions to address these
shortcomings. The author will discuss how the motivational scale was originally
developed for a heritage site and how it has been adapted to explore the motivations of
visitors to two types of events at a London art gallery. The reliability of the scale,
findings of the research and the potential of the scale as a tool that cultural organisations
could use to benchmark themselves against each other will also be considered.


Author: Helen Stride

Contact Details: Henley Management College, Greenlands, Henley-on-Thames, Oxon
RG9 3AU. Phone: 01491 571 454 E-mail: helen.stride@henleymc.ac.uk

Whilst branding is being adopted by charities and written about in academic and
practitioner charity literature with increasing frequency (Tapp, 1996; Ritchie, Swami et
al., 1998; Hankinson, 2001), there is evidence to suggest that the conceptualisation of
values in corporate branding models may be not be compatible with the conceptualisation
of values in the charity context.

The paper proposes that brand values are conceptualised in three ways. Firstly, brand
managers imbue brands with values to which consumers aspire in order to affect
positively consumer behaviour (de Chernatony et al., 1998). In this respect it is argued
that brand is acting as a mirror. Secondly, brands are given their own unique values in an
attempt to influence both the way that consumers think and feel (Holt, 2002) and the
values of the organisation itself. In this case it is suggested that brand acts as a lamp.
Finally, the core of brand identity should reflect the values that emanate from the
organisation (Aaker, 1996). In this case the metaphor of brand as a lens is adopted.
In the case of brand as mirror and brand as lamp, there appears to be a degree of
negotiability in the development of brand values. Even in the case of brand as lens, it has
been argued that the values and behaviour of staff should in fact be aligned with those of
the desired values of the organisation’s brand (de Chernatony, 1999). This suggests that
in the corporate context it is not only brand values that are negotiable but also the values
of the organisation.

In the charity context, however, where values are a charity’s raison d’etre (Hudson,
1995), an organisation’s values cannot be open to negotiation. The paper proposes,
therefore, that the development of a charity’s brand or identity should focus solely on the
communication of those organisational values that underpin the charity’s mission and
emanate from the charity itself. To test this proposition quantitative research will be
conducted to investigate the relationship between the values of a charity’s staff members,
organisational values, donor values, and staff and donor commitment.


Author: Louisa Teo

Contact Details: University of Boston, 10/108 Myrtle Street, Boston MA 02114, USA.
Email: teo@bu.edu

Arts and cultural institutions compete for the consumer’s attention within the same
crowded leisure and entertainment market as popular culture vehicles such as blockbuster
films and reality television shows. With smaller budgets and fewer creative resources, it
will only be through communicating a unique, benefit-driven proposition, that arts and
cultural institutions will be able to attract the attention of their potential target market.

This paper is in two parts. The first part explores proposition development, the role of
audience research and campaign examples from outside the arts and cultural sector. The
second part concerns the change management process, strategies for involving all parts of
the organization in developing and advocating the proposition and a case study from
Sydney Symphony describing the process of organizational change in multicultural
audience initiatives.

A proposition is the single, unique, differentiated benefit to the consumer. It is the selling
message or idea. Marketers within arts and cultural institutions tend to focus their
advertising on the features of their products rather than what will be the benefit to the
consumer. Further, arts and cultural institution advertising is too often formulaic,
commonly made up of copy describing the features of the exhibition, performance,
festival, etc alongside an image of the work. In order for arts and cultural institutions to
attract new and wider audiences, they need to develop propositions which communicate
to the consumer what the benefit will be to them. Through the proposition, marketers can
commence a more meaningful and effective dialogue with potential consumers.

A proposition can only be effective when it is communicated consistently from all parts
of the organization, from board members to box office staff. Therefore, it is ideal when
all stakeholders, especially “front-line” employees, participate in the proposition
development process. While many arts and cultural institutions have in place the
infrastructure for external communications, such as a creative agency, media buying
agency and publicist, most neglect and do not formally engage in internal
communications. Internal communications are a key factor in organizational change.
Having open, flexible and transparent communication channels within the organization
itself is as important as having determined what the proposition will be.

The two parts of successful marketing strategies for arts and cultural institutions which
will allow them to be competitive are developing and communicating propositions which
are focused on the customer and the ability of the organization to manage change to
support this process.


Authors: Lucy Woodliffe and Adrian Sargeant,

Contact Details: Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Frenchay
Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, BS16 1QY UK. E-mail: Lucy.woodliffe@uwe.ac.uk

The marketing concept of commitment has recently been adopted by UK charities in the
form of committed giving programmes. However, little is known about the nature of
commitment in this context, and there is no evidence to suggest that a donor who gives in
this way is any more committed than other types of donor to a charity or to a cause. A
series of focus groups were conducted with current donors, in partnership with six large
UK charities, to address this issue. The research findings present a useful redefinition of
commitment in this context, and provide guidelines for charities to ensure they are
investing appropriately in their various categories of donor.

Commitment is a central concept in recent marketing theory which has received much
attention, particularly since the paradigm shift from transactional marketing to
relationship marketing. Commitment is considered to be an important element in the
establishment and maintenance of long term relationships and has recently been adopted
by UK charities, in the form of “committed giving”. Committed giving is “getting the
donor to support your cause financially on a regular basis, where possible through direct
debit” (Elischer, 1998). Recruitment of committed givers takes place using direct
marketing techniques, such as direct mail and face-to-face (street intercept). In the UK,
committed giving now accounts for 17 per cent of charities’ voluntary income (CIFC,
2003). The approach is particularly attractive to charities as the return on fundraising
costs through committed giving is higher than other non-legacy fundraising.

However, recent research amongst face-to-face recruits (Sargeant and Jay, 2004) revealed
that over 30 percent only expected to give for a year or less when they signed up to a
committed giving scheme. This finding prompts some interesting questions. Firstly,
should these donors be called committed at all, and are they any more committed than
those who donate on an irregular basis? Secondly, is it possible to assume commitment
to a cause or an organization through a type of giving? Little is known about the nature
of commitment in this context, or the ways in which it can be measured and predicted.
Other issues which merit investigation are the relationship between commitment and
giving behaviour and whether it is important to distinguish between commitment to a
specific charity and commitment to the cause which it represents.

In summary, the research questions to be addressed by the paper are summarised as
    a) What is the nature of commitment in the context of giving?
    b) What are the antecedents of commitment in this context?

   c) To what extent does the impact of commitment on giving behaviour vary
      depending on whether a donor is committed to a cause, or committed to an
   d) Does commitment develop or change throughout the duration of the donor-charity

The existing literature is well developed and extensive, much of it dedicated to defining
commitment and differentiating it from other related or overlapping notions, such as
loyalty and habit. More recently, authors have provided evidence to support treating
commitment as a multidimensional concept (Kim and Frazier, 1997; Gruen et al., 2000;
Gilliand and Bello, 2002). It is useful here to present the three key components of
commitment to demonstrate the concept’s diverse nature. These are affective
commitment, continuance commitment and calculative commitment. Affective
commitment describes the emotional attachment between exchange partners (Allen and
Meyer, 1990) and is rooted in a congruence of values, belongingness, dedication and
similarity (Achrol, 1997; Bendapudi and Berry, 1997; Prichard et al. 1999). Continuance
commitment (Fullerton, 2003) applies to relationships where the customer is aware of
high switching costs, where the benefits received from the partner are not easily obtained
from other potential partners, or where one party perceives dependence on the other.
Calculative commitment (Kumar et al., 1994; Anderson and Weitz, 1992) emerges from
the presence of self-interest in business relationships, concerned with the explicit
evaluation of the costs and benefits involved in developing and maintaining a
relationship, and the trade-off between them. It is also important to consider the notion
of time, as it is inherently connected to commitment. Moorman et al. (1992) consider
commitment to be meaningful only when it develops consistently over time.
Commitment may also form one of the stages in the life cycle of a relationship between a
customer and a supplier. Dwyer et al. (1987) suggest that commitment occurs at a
relatively late stage, implying a state of maturity in the relationship.

Various antecedents to commitment have been identified by the literature, ranging from
shared ethical values and norms in business relationships (Morgan and Hunt, 1994) to
trust between exchange partners (Moorman et al., 1983; Morgan and Hunt, 1994;
Gaborino and Johnson, 1999). Other antecedents include the degree of investment in the
relationship (Gronroos, 1982) and consistency of interaction over time in terms of the
inputs and attitudes brought to the relationship (Gundlach et al. 1995).

The research questions required an exploratory approach in the form of qualitative
research. Focus groups with current donors were conducted in a central London venue.
The research was developed in partnership with five large national UK charities with an
interest in commitment-related issues (RNLI, National Deaf Children Society, NSPCC,
Sightsavers, Cancer Research UK). These charities shared a sample of their supporter
base, and supplied a list of donors, stratified to reflect individuals recruited directly into
committed giving and those who switched from cash gifts to committed giving. Ten focus
groups were conducted in total, comprising two groups for each organization. The focus
groups were then transcribed and subjected to content analysis employing the software
package QSR NUD*IST.

This research contributes to the field in several ways. Firstly, it provides insight into a
familiar marketing concept - commitment between an individual and an organization -
but in an important new context. Secondly, the research identifies the dimensions of
commitment between a donor and charity and provides a bedrock on which future
research concerned with measuring and predicting commitment can be based. Finally,
the research findings can help charities to ensure that they are investing in the various
categories of donor appropriately.


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