; CONTAMINATED COMMUNITIES: THE METAPHOR OF "IMMIGRANT AS POLLUTANT" IN MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS OF IMMIGRATION
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CONTAMINATED COMMUNITIES: THE METAPHOR OF "IMMIGRANT AS POLLUTANT" IN MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS OF IMMIGRATION

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Popular rhetoric about immigration often operates by constructing metaphoric representations of immigrants that concretize the social "problem" and connote particular solutions. Scholars have identified discursive connections between the rhetoric of immigration and representations of other human problems such as crime or war. This essay identifies another metaphor present in popular media coverage of immigration, particularly visual images of immigrants. The metaphor of "immigrant as pollutant" present in news media discourse on immigration can have serious consequences for societal treatment of immigrants as well as the policies designed to respond to immigration. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

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									      Contaminated Communities: the metaphor
       of “immigrant as pollutant” in media
          representations of immigration
                                    J. DaviD Cisneros




Popular rhetoric about immigration often operates by constructing metaphoric
representations of immigrants that concretize the social “problem” and connote
particular solutions. Scholars have identified discursive connections between the
rhetoric of immigration and representations of other human problems such as
crime or war. This essay identifies another metaphor present in popular media
coverage of immigration, particularly visual images of immigrants. The metaphor
of “immigrant as pollutant” present in news media discourse on immigration can
have serious consequences for societal treatment of immigrants as well as the poli-
cies designed to respond to immigration.


A     “nation of immigrants,” the United States has never been able to quell the
      fascination and fear with which it approaches migration. Though the coun-
try collectively celebrates the brave souls who populated the nation, America’s
inhabitants remain suspicious of the hundreds of thousands of individuals that
cross into the country on a yearly basis. Both legal and illegal immigration have
been a concern to the government and the public since the birth of the nation.1
Though the degree of popular obsession with immigration rises and falls, there
is always an awareness that these strangers potentially bring with them monu-
mental and threatening changes.
    Concern over immigration is evidenced not only in public discourse but also
in the large body of scholarship on the phenomenon of immigration, includ-
ing an attempt to understand how immigration as “problem” is constructed
in mass media.2 To make sense of this complex phenomenon, scholars note,
individuals approach immigration through the perspective of metaphor to

J. David Cisneros is a doctoral candidate in Speech Communication at the University of Georgia,
Athens. The author wishes to thank Vanessa Beasley, Kevin DeLuca, Martin Medhurst, and the
anonymous reviewers for their suggestions, encouragement, and guidance.

© 2008 Michigan State University Board of Trustees. All rights reserved.
Rhetoric & Public Affairs Vol. 11, No. 4, 2008, pp. 569–602
ISSN 1094-8392
570	                                                      RhetoRic	&	Public	AffAiRs

clarify the topic and to connect it with their personal experiences.3 Much of
our knowledge about how immigration is represented in media and popular
discourse has centered on metaphors such as a crime wave or war as guiding
tropes through which the “problem” of immigration is represented. In this essay,
I identify another metaphor through which popular media represent immigra-
tion. Moreover, I contribute to our understanding of immigration rhetoric by
paying careful attention to how visual images construct metaphoric representa-
tions of migrants. By comparing the visual and metaphoric images of immigra-
tion in recen
								
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