; "The bells, too, are fighting": The Fate of European Church Bells in the Second World War
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"The bells, too, are fighting": The Fate of European Church Bells in the Second World War

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During the Second World War, almost 150,000 church bells from towers all over Europe were melted down to support the Nazi war effort. These bells, taken from the Third Reich itself as well as from the occupied territories, were processed in the great refineries at Hamburg, labelled "the Belsen of Bells" by British observers in the postwar period. The bell confiscation campaign - though effective in providing valuable non-ferrous metals for German armaments production - proved challenging and controversial, not only during the war years, but also in the immediate postwar period. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

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