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O'Brien holds that self-reference (1) is context-dependent, (2) doesn't require that the subject be able to distinguish herself from others, (3) has cognitive significance, and (4) is guaranteed. Attempts to account for (l)-(4) tend to fall into one of two categories: perceptual, on which the referent of T is determined by information gathered from some perceptual faculty, and rule-based, such that if one uses T according to "the self-reference rule" (SSR), then one refers to oneself first-personally. O'Brien rejects perceptual theories because they all allow that one could lack the requisite reference-determining information, meaning that one might fail to refer at all, or that one might refer successfully, but without knowing that one has done so.
Self-Knowing Agents R W Fischer The Review of Metaphysics; Dec 2008; 62, 2; Docstoc pg. 418 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. F
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