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					Geographical Names
Last updated: 3 June 2010
Web sites: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/geoinfo/glossary.pdf;
http://unstats.un.org/unsd/geoinfo/ungegn.htm; http://un-interpreters.org/glossaries.html;
 acronym                   acronyme                 acrónimo                首字母组合词
 address1                  adresse                  dirección               地址
 allograph 2               allographe               alógrafo                字位变体
 allomorph 3               allomorphe               alomorfo                词素变体
 allonym4 = alternative    allonyme                 alónimo                 别名
 name; variant name
 allophone5                allophone                alófono                 音位变体
 alphabetic script         écriture alphabétique    escritura alfabética    字母文字
 alphanumeric              alphanumérique           alfanumérico            字母数字的
 anthroponym6              anthroponyme             antropónimo             人名
 articulation 7            articulation             articulación            发音
 basic letter              lettre simple            letra básica            基础字母
 batch processing 8        traitement par lots,     proceso en grupo        批处理
                           traitement en différé
 bilingualism              bilinguisme              bilingüismo             双语制
 biscriptual               biscriptural             bilingüe                两种文字的
 cardinal letters          lettres cardinales       letras cardinales       基本字母
 character                 caractère                carácter                字
 choronym 9                choronyme                corónimo                地域名称
 coded representation 10   représentation codée     representación          编码表示法
                                                    codificada
 colloquial language       langue courante          lengua familiar         俗语
 composite name =          expression               nombre propio           复合词地名
 composite name            toponymique              compuesto
 computer file             fichier informatique     fichero o archivo de    计算机文件
                                                    ordenador
 computer menu             menu informatique        menú de ordenador       计算机菜单
 computer program          programme                programa de             计算机程序
                           informatique             ordenador
 computer record           enregistrement           registro de ordenador   计算机记录
 consonant letter          lettre-consonne          letra consonante        辅音字母
 conversion 11= names      conversion               conversión              译写
 conversion
 conversion alphabet12     alphabet de conversion   alfabeto de             译写字母表
                                                    conversión
 conversion table13        tableau de conversion    tabla de conversión     译写表
 creole14                  créole                   criollo                 混合语
 cultural feature = man-   entité topographique     accidente artificial    人工地理实体
 made feature              artificielle
 data base management      système de gestion de    sistema de gestion de   数据库管理系统
 system                    base de données          la base de datos
                           (SGBD)
 data dictionary = data    répertoire de données    diccionario de datos    数据字典
 directory
 data element15            élément de données       elemento de dato        数据元
 data field                champ de données         campo de datos          数据字段
data item16                   élément d‟information    item                    数据项
data portability17            transférabilite des      compatibilidad de       数据可移植性
                              données                  datos
default value 18              valeur implicite         valor por defecto       系统设定值
defective alphabetic script   écriture alphabétique    escritura alfabética    不完全字母文字
                              défective                defectiva
descriptive term19 =          designation              término descriptivo     说明性注记
designation                   cartographique
diacritic20 = diacritical     signe diacritique        diacrítico              变音符号
mark, diacritical sign
dialect                       dialecte                 dialecto                方言
digital data base             base de données          base de datos digital   数字数据库
                              numériques
digital toponymic data        base de données          base de datos digital   地名数据库
base21                        toponymiques             de topónimos
                              numériques
diglossia22                   diglossie                diglosia                双言制
digraph 23                    digramme                 dígrafo                 单音双字母
diphthong                     diphtongue               diptongo                二合元音
endonym                       endonyme                 endónimo                当地语地名
eponym24                      eponyme                  epónimo                 人名地名
epotoponym25                  epotoponyme              epotopónimo             产生普通名词
                                                                               的地名
exonym26 = conventional       exonyme                  exónimo                 外来语地名
name
extraterrestrial feature 27   accident topographique   accidente topográfico   星球地理实体
                              extraterrestre           extraterrestre
extraterrestrial name         nom extraterrestre       nombre propio           星球地理实体
                                                       extraterrestre          名称
false generic element 28      faux générique           elemento generico       专名化的通名
                                                       falso
feature class 29 also         classe d‟entités         clase de accidente      地理实体分类
topographic category
file format                   format                   formato de archivo      文件格式
firmware30                    microprogramme           programa fijo de        固件
                                                       maquina
font                          fonte                    tipo de letra           字样
format                        format                   formato                 格式
gazeteer                      nomenclature             nomenclator             地名录
                              toponymique
generic element 31            élément générique        elemento generico       通名成分
generic term                  terme générique          término genérico        通名
geographic information        système d‟information    sistema de              地理信息系统
system (GIS)                  géographique (SIG)       informacion
                                                       geografica (SIG)
geographical coordinates      coordonnées              coordenadas             地理坐标
= graticule                   géographiques            geográficas
geographical feature =        accident géographique    accidente geográfico    地理实体
geographical entity
geographical name             nom géographique         nombre propio           地名
                                                       geografico
geographical names            normalisation des noms   normalización de        地名标准化
standardization            géographiques             nombres
                                                     geográficos
geographical names         normalisation             normalización            地名国际标准化
standardization,           internationale des noms   internacional
international,             géographiques             de nombres
                                                     geográficos
grapheme 32                graphème                  grafema                  字位
graphic form               forme graphique           grafía                   书写形式
graphic noise33            brouillage graphique      ruido grafico            图形噪音
hardware                   matériel                  hardware (parte fisica   硬件
                                                     de un ordenador)
historical name            nom historique            nombre propio            历史地名
                                                     histórico
homonym                    homonyme                  homónimo                 异地同名
hydrographic feature34     élément                   accidente                水文地理实体
                           hydrographique            hidrográfico
hydronym                   hydronyme                 hidrónimo                水名
hyphenization, also        trait d‟union, et tiret   unión con guiones        连字符连接
hyphenation
ideogram                   idéogramme                ideograma                意符
index gazetteer            index toponymique         indice toponimico        地名索引
indigenous language        langue vernaculaire       lengua nativa            土著语言

indigenous name            nom régional,             nombre propio nativo     土著地名
                           nom vernaculaire
interactive processing35   mode conversationnel,     proceso interactivo      交互处理
                           mode interactif
interface                  interface                 interfaz                 接口
IPA = International        Alphabet phonétique       alfabeto fonetico        国际音标
Phonetic Alphabet          international (API)       internacional API
letter                     lettre                    letra                    字母
lexicon                    dictionnaire              léxico                   词典, 词汇表
ligature36                 ligature                  ligado                   连字
lingua franca37 = pidgin   pidgin                    lengua franca            混合语
linguistic community;      communauté                comunidad                语言社区
speech community           linguistique              lingüística
linguistic region =        aire linguistique         región lingüística       语言区
linguistic area
literary language          langue littéraire         lengua literaria         文学语言
local name                 nom local                 nombre propio local      当地地名
logogram                   logogramme                ideograma                词符
logographic lexicon        dictionnaire              léxico ideográfico       字典
                           d‟idéogrammes ;
                           dictionnaire
                           logographique
logographic script =       écriture idéographique,   escritura ideográfica    词符文字
ideographic script         écriture logographique
long form = full title     forme longue              forma larga              (地名)全称
                                                     (de un nombre propio
                                                     de lugar)
lunar name                 nom lunaire               nombre propio lunar      月球地名
man-made feature           entité topographique      accidente topográfico    人工地理实体
                             artificielle              artificial
map lettering = map script   écritures                 rotulación de mapa      地图注记
                             cartographiques
maritime name                nom maritime              nombre propio           海域地名
                                                       maritimo
marker                       marqueur phonique         signo auxiliar          附加符号
minority language            langue minoritaire        lengua minoritaria      少数民族语
minority name                nom minoritaire           nombre propio           少数民族语地名
                                                       minoritario
modified character 38        caractère modifié         carácter modificado     变体字
morpheme                     morphème                  morfema                 词素
morphology                   morphologie               morfología              词法
multilingual gazetteer       répertoire toponymique    nomenclator             多语地名录
                             multilingue               multilingue
multilingual lettering39     écriture cartographique   rotulación              多语注记
                             multilingue               multilingüe
multilingual map             carte multilingue         mapa multilingüe        多语地图
multilingual map script      écritures                 rótulos de mapa         多语地图注记
                             cartographiques           multilingüe
                             multilingues
multiscriptual gazetteer     répertoire toponymique    nomenclator poliglota   多文字地名录
                             multiscriptural
multiscriptual lettering40   écriture cartographique   rotulación poliglota    多文字注记
                             multiscripturale
multiscriptual map           carte multiscripturale    mapa políglota          多文字地图
multiscriptural map script   écritures                 rótulos de mapa         多文字地图注记
                             cartographiques           políglota
                             multiscripturales
names authority              autorité toponymique      autoridad en nombres    地名机构
                                                       geograficos
names transformation41       transposition             transformación de       地名转译
                             toponymique               nombres
                                                       propios
national language            langue nationale          lengua nacional         国语
natural feature              entité topographique      accidente topográfico   自然地理实体
                             naturelle                 natural
non-official or unofficial   langue non officielle     lengua no oficial       非官方语言
language
non-vocalized                non vocalisé              no vocalizada           未加元音符号的
odonym = hodonym             odonyme                   odónimo                 交通路线名称
official language            langue officielle         lengua oficial          官方语言
official name                nom officiel              nombre propio oficial   官方地名
onomastics                   onomastique               onomastica              专名学
oronym                       oronyme                   orónimo                 山岳名
orthography                  orthographe               ortografía              正字法
phone42                      phone                     fonio                   音素
phoneme                      phonème                   fonema                  音位
phonogram                    phonogramme               fonograma               音符
phonology                    phonologie                Fonología               音系学
physical feature43           entité physique           accidente topográfico   有形地理实体
                                                       fisico
pictogram                    pictogramme               pictograma              形符,象形文字
pidgin                      pidgin                   pidgin                  混杂语
pixel                       pixel                    pixel                   像素
place name                  nom de lieu              nombre propio de        地名
                                                     lugar
place names gazetteer       répertoire toponymique   nomenclator de          地名录
                                                     poblaciones
primary name                nom descriptif           nombre propio           初期地名
                                                     primario
principal language          langue principale        lengua principal        主要语言
radical, radix              radical                  radical                 部首;词根
raster mode44               mode tramé; mode         modo barrido            光栅方式
                            matriciel
rectangular                 coordonnées              coordenadas             直角坐标
coordinates45 =             rectangulaires           rectangulares
topographic grid;
topographic coordinates
retranscription46           retranscription          retranscripción         逆音译
retransliteration47         retranslitteration       retransliteración       逆转写
reversibility 48            réversibilité            reversibilidad          可逆性
romanization                romanisation             romanización            罗马化
romanization key            table (ou tableau) de    clave de                罗马字母转写表
                            romanisation             romanizacion
root                        racine                   raíz                    词根
script                      écriture                 escritura               文字
segment                     segment                  segmento                切分成分
semantics                   sémantique               semántica               语义学
sequence rules              règles de classement     reglas de ordenación    顺序规则
short form or short title   forme courte             forma corta (de un      简称(地名)
                                                     nombre
                                                     propio de lugar)
simplex name                toponyme simple          nombre propio           单词地名
                                                     simple
software                    logiciel                 software (conjunto de   软件
                                                     programas)
source language = donor     langue de départ         lengua de origen        原语
language
source script = donor       écriture de départ       escritura de origen     原语文字
script
special letters             lettres spéciales        letras especiales       专用字母
specific element            élément spécifique       elemento específico     专名成分
speech                      parole                   habla                   言语
standard language           langue commune           lengua comun o          标准语
                                                     normal
standardization             normalisation            normalización           标准化
standardized allonym 49     allonyme normalisé       alónimo normalizado     标准别名
standardized endonym        endonyme normalisé       endónimo                标准当地语地名
                                                     normalizado
standardized name =         toponyme normalisé       nombre propio           标准地名
approved name                                        normalizado
syllabary                   syllabaire               silabario               音节表
syllabic script             écriture syllabique      escritura silábica      音节文字
syllabification             syllabation              silabación              音节划分
syllabogram                   caractère syllabique      silabograma              音节字符
syntax                        syntaxe                   sintaxis                 句法学
target language = receiver    langue d‟arrivée          lengua de término        目的语
language
target script                 écriture d‟arrivée        escritura de término     目的语文字
tetragraph 50                 tetragramme               tetragrafo               单音四字母
thematic map                  carte thématique          mapa temático            专题地图
topographic feature51 =       entité topographique      accidente topográfico    地形实体
topographic entity
topographic map               carte topographique       mapa topográfico         地形图
topography                    topographie               topografía               地形;地志
toponomastics; toponymy       toponymie                 toponominación           地名学
toponym = feature name;       toponyme                  topónimo                 地名
place name
toponymic guidelines          directives                directrices              地名准则
                              toponymiques              toponimicas
toponymic index
toponymic index = names       index toponymique         indice de topónimos      地名索引
index
toponymic survey =            activité toponymique      levantamiento            地名调查
names survey                                            toponímico
traditional name              nom traditionnel          nombre propio            惯用地名
                                                        tradicional
transcription52               transcription             transcripción            音译
transcription alphabet 53     alphabet de               alfabeto de              音译字母表
                              transcription             transcripción
transcription key             table (ou tableau) de     clave de transcripción   音译表
                              transcription
translingual data             échange de données        intercambio de datos     语言间的数据交换
interchange54                 translinguistiques        translingual
transliteration 55            translittération          transliteración          转写
transliteration alphabet 56   alphabet de               alfabeto de              转写字母表
                              translittération          transliteración
transliteration key           table (ou tableau) de     clave de                 转写表
                              translittération          transliteración
trigraph                      trigramme                 trígrafo                 单音三字母
typeface                      police de caractères      clase de letra           字样
undersea feature              accident géographique     accidente submarino      海底地理实体
                              sous-marin
UNGEGN                        GENUNG                    UNGEGN                   联合国地名
                                                                                 专家组
UTM grid57                    quadrillage               cuadrícula UTM           通用横轴墨卡
                                                                                 托投影格网
variant character 58          variante d‟un caractère   carácter optativo        异体字
vector mode                   mode vectoriel            modo vectorial           矢量方式
vehicular language59          langue véhiculaire        lengua vehicular         交际语
vernacular ; indigenous       langue vernaculaire       vernáculo                当地语
language
vocalization60                vocalisation              vocalización             附加元音符
vowel                         voyelle                   vocal                    元音
vowel character 61            caractère vocalique       carácter vocal           元音字符
    vowel letter               lettre-voyelle             letra vocal               元音字母
    vowel marker               marqueur vocalique         signo auxiliar vocal      元音标记
    vowel point                point-voyelle              signo auxiliar vocal      元音标记
    writing system             système d‟écriture         sistema de escritura      书写系统
Yaw-Tsong Lee
1
  Computer location where a particular item is stored.
2
  in English, ff, ph and gh are allographs of f, the grapheme for the /f/
3
  the es in boxes and the en in oxen are allomorphs of the plural morpheme.
4
  Each of two or more toponyms employed in reference to a single →topographic feature.
5
  allophones of the /t/ phoneme in English Tyne as distinct from American water;
6
  Personal name. Examples: Alfred; „Alī; Everest.
7
  Physiological movements involved in modifying an airflow to produce speech sounds, using the vocal
tract above the larynx.
8
  Method by which items are coded and collected into groups and then processed sequentially in a computer,
usually at a later time. Complementary term: →interactive processing.
9
  →Toponym applied to an areal feature.
10
   Examples: 0226—main road; ^ —mountain.
11
   In toponymy, the process of transferring the →phonological and/or →morphological elements of a
particular language to another,
12
   Comprehensive term for →transcription alphabet and →transliteration alphabet.
13
   Comprehensive term for →transcription key and →transliteration key.
14
   A stable form of speech, derived from a →pidgin, that has become the sole or →principal language of a
→speech community. Example: Haitian creole (derived from French).
15
   Description of a basic unit of identifiable and definable information to occupy a specific →data field in a
→computer record.
16
   Value or content of a particular →data element in a specific →computer record. Example: 01.01.97 in
the →data field for “date”.
17
   The possibility of running and/or using the same data on different computer systems.
18
   In computer processing, an option chosen by the computer automatically in the absence of explicit
instructions by the human operator.
19
   A word (usually a common noun, an adjective or a phrase), e.g. printed in a map, that designates a
→topographic feature by its properties, but that does not constitute a →toponym.
20
   A sign, usually small, placed above, below or across a →letter or group of letters
21
   A →digital data base containing (all) →toponyms in a specific region, with or without accompanying
data, in computer-readable form.
22
   A relatively stable linguistic situation in which two different varieties of a single →language co-occur in
a →linguistic community, one (the “high” variety) usually being the more formal and prestigious; the other
(the “low”) variety being used in more informal settings, chiefly in conversation.
23
   for /∫ /, sj in Dutch, ch in French, sh in English.
24
   Name of a person or group of persons after or for whom a place is named. Examples: Iago (James) in
Santiago;
25
   A →toponym that constitutes the basis or origin of a common noun. Examples: Jerez (for sherry);
Olympia (for Olympiad); al-Burtughāl, the Arabic name of Portugal (for Burtuqāl, also Burtuqān, i.e. an
orange in Arabic).
26
   The officially romanized endonym Moskva for Москва is not an exonym, nor is the Pinyin form Beijing,
while Peking is an exonym.
27
   A →topographic feature on any planet other than Earth, or on a satellite. Example: a crater on the moon.
28
   Examples: Mount Isa, „Ayn as-Sulţān, Redhill and Rio de Janeiro are all populated places, not a
mountain, spring, hill or river, respectively.
29
   Example: river, creek, brook, wadi etc., all classed under “stream”.
30
   Computer →programs and procedures programmed onto a card or board and inserted into or fixed in a
computer. It is not changeable by →software commands.
31
   Examples: Port-au-Prince; Sierra Nevada; Newport.
32
   Examples: j is the →grapheme for the // →phoneme in English and for // in French.
33
   cluttering of a map with too-dense graphic information; fuzzy map script.
34
   Topographic feature consisting of water, or associated mainly with water but not consisting of dry land.
Examples: lake; underground reservoir; but not an island.
35
   In a computer system, the process of interacting directly with a →program and/or →data for immediately
modifying, retrieving and/or displaying information.
36
   A graphic stylized combination of two →letters, or a connecting line or stroke, indicating that successive
sounds are to be pronounced as one. Examples: oe
37
   Auxiliary language used for communication between groups of people with different native languages.
38
   Comprehensive term for →simplified character and →variant character.
39
   →Map lettering in a →multilingual map.
40
   Map lettering in a →multiscriptual map.
41
   In toponymy, general term covering the →translation, →transcription and →transliteration of toponyms.
42
   In →phonetics, the smallest perceptible unit of sound in the stream of speech,
43
   Any →topographic feature that can be observed visually. Examples: mountain; river; road; building; but
not e.g. an unmarked political boundary.
44
   In a computer, storage and display of data on a dense grid of →pixels arranged in columns and rows.
Example: Satellite images are normally stored in raster mode. Complementary term: →vector mode.
45
   Grid of plane coordinates consisting of two sets of straight lines at right angles to each other and with
equal units of length on both axes, superimposed on a (chiefly) →topographic map.
46
   Reconversion of a result of →transcription into the →source language.
47
   Reconversion of a result of →transliteration into the →source script.
48
   A characteristic of →transliteration that permits a written item to be converted from one →script or
→writing system into another, and subsequently to be reconverted back into the →source script, the result
being identical with the original.
49
   Each of two or more →standardized toponyms given to a single topographic feature.
50
   As in tschang
51
   A portion of the surface of Earth or of any other planet or satellite that has recognizable identity.
52
   A method of phonetic names →conversion between different languages, in which the sounds of a
→source language are recorded in terms of a specific →target language and its particular →script,
53
   using only z, not c, to represent the dental /ts/ →phoneme in transcription into German;
54
   Data exchange (especially by computer) via standardized codes and/or terminology not bound to a
particular language.
55
   A method of →names conversion between different →alphabetic scripts and →syllabic scripts, in which
each →character or →di-, tri and tetragraph of the →source script is represented in the →target
script in principle by one character or di-, tri- or tetragraph, or a →diacritic, or a combination of these.
56
   Example: alphabets used in the romanization of non-Roman script,
57
   Universal Transverse Mercator grid, a plane grid of →rectangular coordinates overprinted on maps to
assist in defining location. It covers the entire globe in 60 meridional zones with a width of 6 degrees
longitude each, these zones being numbered 1-60 from the International Date Line eastward.
58
   Examples: Arabic ‫ ; _ = _ = ع‬Hebrew ‫.צ = ץ‬
59
   Language that serves communication between members of different →linguistic communities. Example:
English
60
   The inclusion or insertion of →vowel markers in an item or a text written in →defective alphabetic script
such as in Arabic or Hebrew.
61
   In →alphabetic or →syllabic script, a →character, not a →marker, representing a →vowel. Examples:
Roman a; Thai า (a); Korean ᅡ (a); Amharic (ā, first vowel character).

				
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